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of Israel did, and they divided the land.

6 ^ Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua
in Gilgal : and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Ken-
ezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the
Lord said unto Moses the man of God concerning me
and thee in Kadesh-barnea.

Ver. 3. Among them, i.e., among all the tribes,
not only the two and a half.

But unto the Levites. " But " should be " and."

Yer. 4. For the children of Joseph. The " for "
is used as showing how, with Levi left out, there
could be so many tribes. (Comp. Gen. xlviii. 5.)

Therefore is not in the Hebrew, and should be
changed to " and."

Ver. 6. Then the children of Judah, &c. Caleb's
portion is first given, as having probably been as-
signed him before the formal division, and as soon as
" the land had rest from war." Hence that phrase is
found in ver. 15. This portion was allotted to
Caleb on the endorsement of the tribe of Judah.

Gilgal. The Gilgal in the centre of the land.
(See on chap. ix. 6. Contrasted with Shiloh in chap,
xviii. 1.)

Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite. Lord
Hervey thinks that Caleb was a foreigner, a prose-
lyte, incorporated into the tribe of Judah, one of
perhaps many who by proselytism swelled the



140 COIMIMEITTAP.Y ON

numbers of Israel. He mentions Jetliro, Rahab,
Ruth, and Naaman as samples. His reason for this
supposition is, first, from the obscure genealogy of
Caleb in the Chronicles ; secondly, from the four-
teenth verse of this chapter and the thirteenth
verse of the next ; to wit, " Hebron became the
inheritance of Caleb the son of Jephunneh the
Kenczite unto this day, because that he wholly
followed Jehovah God of Israel.'''' " Unto Caleb
the son of Jephunneh he gave a part among the
children of Judah.'^'' The Avords in italics would
scarcely have been nsed of a Hebrew. His third
argument is from the Edomitish names mentioned in
connection with Caleb here and in the Chronicles;
namely, Kenaz (Gen. xxxvi. 11, 15), Shobal, liana-
hath (Gen. xxxvi. 20-23), Korah, Ithran^ Elah, and
Jephunneh^ as compared with Pinon (Gen. xxxvi.
16, 26, 41). This view of Lord Hervey has great
probability. Caleb may have married into the
family of Hezron, and his wife may have been a
daughter of Hur (1 Chron. ii. 50). In this case,
Jephunneh would be his Edomite father, and " the
Kenezite " would be the Edomitish tribal appella-
tion. Caleb's noble conduct in urging the people
to go up and conquer the land on the return of the
spies (Num. xiii. 80), for which he (and Joshua,
who was heart and soul with him at the time) was
nearly stoned by the enraged people (Num. xiv.
10), made him the object of special praise and
reward from God (Num. xiv. 24; Deut. i. 36).
Caleb, in this chapter, is represented as preferring
his claim to this promised reward.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XIV. 141

7 Forty years old was I when INIoses the servant of
the Lord sent me from Kadesh-barnea to espy out the
land; and I brought him word agam as it was in mine
heart.

8 Nevertheless, my brethren that went up with me
made the heart of the people melt : but I wholly fol-
lowed the Lord my God.

Kadesh-barnea, where Israel abode so long in
the desert, has been placed by Robinson at el-
Weibeh, on the west heights of the Arabah, south
of Wady Fikrah, but it is more likely to be at the
south of the mountain region of the Azazimeh,
perhaps ' at the wells of Mayein, although the
south-east corner of Mukhrah would suit the de-
mands of the narrative better. El-Weibeh seems
to me from personal inspection a very unlikely
site. It is an exposed position, and not at the
extreme south of what afterward constituted the
borders of Israel.

Ver. 7. Forty years old. (See Num. chap, xiii.,
xiv.) The spying of the land was thirt3^-eight
years before the eisodus, or entrance into Canaan.
Caleb was therefore seventy-eight on entering Ca-
naan, and when he preferred his claim, at eighty-
five (ver. 10), the Israelites had been seven years
in the land. These seven years mark the dura-
tion of the war of conquest.

Ver. 8. My brethren, i.e., the other spies. Of
course Joshua is excepted, as Caleb shows by what
he says in ver. 6, ''concerning me and thee^

I wholly followed the Lord. It is not immodest
for a man to assert his integrity on occasions of
moment. (Comp. Acts xxiii. 1.) Caleb here only



142 COMMENTARY ON

9 And Moses sware on that day, saying, Surely the
land whereon thy feet have trodden shall be thine in-
heritance, and thy children's for ever ; because thou
hast wholly followed the Lord my God.

10 And now% behold the Lord hath kept me alive,
as he said, these forty and five j^ears, even since the
Lord spake this word unto Moses, while the. children of
Israel wandered in the wilderness: and now, lo, I am
this day fourscore and five years old.

11 As yet I am as strong this day, as / loas in the
day that Moses sent me: as my strength was then, even
so is my strength now, for war, both to go out, and to
come in.

12 Now therefore give me this mountain, whereof

quoted the Lord's words concerning him (Num.
xxxii. 12).

Yer. 9. The land whereon thy feet have trodden.
(See Deut. i. 36.) Hebron is not specified. That
was done by Joshua.

Ver. 10. Wandered. Lit., "walked." The
false idea that Israel was wandering about for forty
years might be corrected by the literal translation
of such verbs as this. In Num. xiv. 33, the Heb.
should be translated, " your children shall be shep-
herds in the wilderness." The word " wander "
occurs legitimately only in Num. xxxii. 13, as far
as Israel is concerned. The whole forty years,
viewed as a whole, may be regarded as a wander-
ing, but we should remember that the people may
for many years have remained in one centre, as at
Kadesh.

Ver. 11. To go out and to come in. A proverbial
phrase for full activity. (Comp. Deut. xxxi. 2 ;
1 Kings iii. 7.)

Ver. 12. This mountain. That part of the



JOSHUA, CHAP. XIV. 143

the Lord spake in that day ; for thou heardest in that
day how the Anakims were there, and that the cities
icere great and fenced: if so be the Lord icill he with
me, then I shall be able to drive them out, as the Lord
said.

13 And Joshua blessed him, and gave unto Caleb
the son of Jephunneh, Hebron for an inheritance.

14 Hebron therefore became the inheritance of Caleb
the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite unto this day; be-
cause that he wholly followed the Lord God of Israel.

15 And the name of Hebron before icas Kirjath-arba;
which Arba was a great man among the Anakims. And
the land had rest from war.



mountain region where the Anakim were. The
" this " points to the following description. > Caleb
thus specifies Hebron and vicinity as the part of the
region trodden by his foot as a si)y which he would
prefer. He was willing to be an example to the
rest of Israel in driving out the enemy who still
here and there clung to their fastnesses. He would
take the most formidable of these foes to contend
against.

The passage should read, for thou heardest (the
Lord) in that day^ for the Anakim are there^ &c.
Two reasons are given why he should have Hebron :
first, the Lord's promise to give him ground which
lie had trodden on as a spy ; and, secondly, the
presence of the gigantic enemy.

Ver. 13. Blessed him. With a public, official
blessing before the representatives of Judah. (See
ver. 6.)

Ver. 14. Unto this day. The book of Joshua
was, therefore, written while Caleb still lived.

Ver. 15. Read, the name of Hebron before was



144 COMMENTABY ON j

city of Arha, tlie great man among the Anahim, '

The old name of " cit}^ of Arba," or Kirjath- ;

arba, clung to the place along with the name of j

Hebron. After the captivity, a thousand years j

after the conquest of the Anakim, Nehemiah calls I

the place Kirjath -arba (Neh. xi. 25). i



JOSHUA, CHAP. XV. 145



CHAPTER XV.

1 Tms then was the lot of the tribe of the children
of Judah by their families; even to the border of Edom,
the wilderness of Ziu southward was the uttermost part
of the south coast.

JuDAH and Joseph, as the two great tribes, divid-
ing the birthright between them (1 Chron. v. 1, 2),
had the Land first divided between them, their
general outhnes being given. Afterwards the
other tribes are arranged, modifying the first divi-
sion. The lot probably gave only general indica-
tions, while the commissioners (chap. xiv. 1)
made the special allotments, according to circum-
stances.

Judali's Lot.

Yer. 1. The south boundary is made to begin at
the south end of the Dead Sea. Thus the south-
ern part of the east boundary is included in this
south boundary. It is a natural and reasonable
license. This verse should read. And the lot to the
tribe of the sons of Judah^ to their families^ was
to the boundary of Edom^ the desert of Zin south-
wards from the extremity of Teman, Teman means
"south," it is true, but as the writer has just used
" Negeb " for " south," and uses it immediately
7 J



146 COMMENTAKY ON



2 And their south border was from the shore of the
salt sea, from the bay that looketh southward:

3 And it went out to the south side to Maaleh-acrab-
bim, and passed along to Zin, and ascended up on the
south side unto Kadesh-barnea, and passed along to
Hezron, and went up to Adar, and fetched a compass
to Karkaa:



again in ver. 2, it is almost certain that here he
means " Teman " for the country of Teman, which
seems to have been the southern portion of Eclom,
perhaps from Mount Hor to the Reel Sea. The
boundary of Juclah was, according to this passage,
the boundary of Edom, along the Arabah to the
point where, in the Arabah, jo\i reach the north
extremity of Teman, near Mount Hor. This point
is exactly opposite Mukhrah, near which we believe
Kadesh is to be sited.

Veil 2. Ba^. Lit., " tongue." Reference is
had to the shallow basin at the south of the Dead
Sea, which is shut in like a bay by the remarkable
projection of land from Moab.

Ver. 3. Maaleh-Acrahhim (" Height of Scorpi-
ons " ) is supposed by Robinson to be the range of
chalky cliffs which abruptly terminate the Arabah,
eight miles south of the Dead Sea. Over this cliff
the border passed into the Zin desert (^.e., the Ara-
bah) ; and when it had reached its southernmost
point (see on ver. 1), it turned westward, and
climbed out of the Arabah up to Kadesh (chap. xiv.
6). From Kadesh the hor^QT passed to Hezron, then
went up to Adar, then turned itself to Karkaa, then
passed to Azmon, and went out to the river of Egypt,



JOSHUA, CHAP. XV. 147

4 From thence it passed toward Azmon, and went out
unto the river of Egypt; and the goings out of that
coast were at the sea: this shall be your south coast.

and so went out to the sea. These different verbs
may help fix the sites of these places. We may
suppose a west line to Hezron, then on a line still
going west an ascent to Adar, then a bend north-
westwards to Karkaa, then a continuation of this
line to Azmon, and then, by another turn (Num.
xxxiv. 5), to the river of Egypt. Now the "river
of Egypt," or rather '' torrent of Egypt," is believed
to be the Wady el-Arish. If this be so (and the
presumption is very strong), then we may put Az-
mon a little east of Jebel Helal, and Karkaa by
Wady el-Jerur. Adar Avould be on the heights by
Jebel Ikhrurim, and Hezron at the south of the
Mukhrah.

Of course all this is conjecture, but founded on
the verbs used in the description. None of these
places is identified. If our conjecture be correct,
then the tribe of Judah extended forty miles
further south than the Dead Sea, and its southern
curved boundary was one hundred miles long
from the Arabah to the mouth of Wady el-Ar-
ish. (Others would have the south boundary
run through Wady Fikrah, Wady Maderah, and
Wady Muzzeh).

Ver. 4. This shall he your south coast. This is
an insertion of the sacred writer, asserting to all
Israel that Judah's south boundary thus given
should be the south boundary of all Israel.



148 COINCMENTAEY ON

5 And ■fhe east border icasihe salt sea, even unto the
end of Jordan: and (heir border in the north quarter
was from the bay of the sea, at the uttermost part of
Jordan :

6 And the border went up to Beth-hogla, and passed
along by the north of Beth-arabah; and the border went
up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben:



Ver. 5. The east border of Jiidah (excluding
the east border already given in the south border,
see on ver. 1) was the Dead Sea in its entire
length, the north border finding its eastern corner
at the northern extremity of that sea, where the
Jordan empties into it. The north border is de-
scribed from this verse to ver. 11, inclusive, and
although this border is not much more than half
the length of the south border, j^et far more details
are given, on account of the greater importance of
this inter-tribal border, and also on account of the
well-marked localities which made an exact de-
scription easy.

Ver. 6. Beth-hogla (now Ain-hajla) is about
four miles north-west of the exit of the Jordan.
The border went up out of the Jordan hollow to
this point.

Beth-arahah must have been in the northern
Arabah or Ghor, as was Beth-hogla. In ver. 61,
it is said to be in " the wilderness," which name
includes evidently so much of the depressed plain of
Jordan as belonged to Judah. Since in chap, xviii.,
where this border is again given, a " shoulder " or
ridge is mentioned (translated " side "), as by Beth-
arabah and Beth-hogla, we may put Beth-arabah



JOSHUA, CHAP. XY. 149

7 And the border went np toward Debir from the
valley of Achor, and so northward looking toward
Gilgal, that is before the going up to Adummim, which
is on the south side of the river: and the border passed
toward the waters of En-shemesh, and the goings out
thereof were at En-rogel:

west of Beth-hogla, about a mile near the ridge
of Katar Hhadije, a low ridge running through the
Arabah to the Dead Sea. (See Keil.)

The stone of Bolian the son of Reuben was some
monument erected probably by Israel while en-
camping at Gilgal, after taking Jericho, perhaps
commemorating a prominent Reubenite. It must
have been on the spur of the heights west of the
Ghor.

Ver. 7. The valley of Achor must be the Wady
Kelte (See on chap. vii. 24.) Up that wady the
line ran toward Dehir (somewhere near the Khan
Hudi'ur, near which is Wady Dabor). Then it
turned northward to Gilgal (" Geliloth " in chap,
xviii. 17), which is opposite the going up to Adum-
mim. This latter place is identified with Kalaat
ed-Dem on the north of the Jerusalem and Jericho
road, where the soil is red. Adummim signifies
"red." This Gilgal (or Geliloth), therefore, is a
place near this spot, and not the Gilgal where
Israel encamped down in the Arabah or Ghor.

The river mentioned here is Wady Kelt. The
word means " torrent," or '' torrent-valley."

En-shemesh is now Ain el-Hodh, below Bethany.

En-rogel is the well-known fountain of Job or
Nehemiah in the deep defile south-east of Jerusa-
lem.



150 CO:NrMENTARY ON

8 And the border went up by the valley of the son
of Hinnom, unto the south side of the Jebusite; the
same is Jerusalem: and the border went up to the top
of the mountain that lleth before the valley of Hinnom
westward, which is at the end of the valley of the giants
northward:

9 And the border was drawn from the top of the hill
unto the fountain of the water of Nephtoah, and went
out to the cities of mount Ephron; and the border was
drawn to Baalah, which is Kirjath-jearim:

10 And the border compassed from Baalah west-
ward unto mount Seir, and passed along unto the side
of mount Jearim (which is Chesalon) on the north
side, and went down to Beth-shemesh, and passed on
to Timnah:

Ver. 8. The valley of the son of Hinnom is the
deep ravine skirting the south of Jerusalem. It is
called here also " the valley of Hinnom " (^ge-hin-
noni)^ from which form comes the use of Ge-henna
for the place of eternal punishment.

The Jebusite. So ''the Archite " and "the
Japhletite " in the Hebrew (chap. xvi. 2, 3). The
Gentile noun is used for the noun of locality.

The valley of the giants (Rephaim) is a broad
and shallow depression running southward from
the brow of the valley of Hinnom.

The mountain mentioned in this verse is the
ridge by the Convent of the Cross.

Ver. 9. Nephtoah is now Lifta, on the edge of
"Wady Beit Hanina.

Mount Ephron must be the high range from
Neby Samwil to Soba.

Baalah^ or Kirjath-jearirn, is identified with Kiu -
yet el-Enab.

Ver. 10. Mount Seir is the high ridge on which
is Saris.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XV. 151

11 And the border went out unto the side of Ekron
northward: and the border was drawn to Shicron, and
passed along to mount Baalah, and went out unto Jab-
neel; and the goings out of the border were at the sea.

12 And the west border teas to the great sea, and the
coast thereof: this is the coast of the children of Judah
round about, according to their families.

18 Tf And unto Caleb the son of Jephunneh he gave
a part among the children of Judah, according to the
commandment of the Lord to Joshua, even the city of
Arba to the father of Anak, which city is Hebron.

14 And Caleb drove thence the three sons of Anak,
Sheshai, and Ahiman, and Talmai, the children of
Anak.

15 And he went up thence to the inhabitants of
Debir : and the name of Debir before teas Kirjath-
sepher.

Mount Jeartm, or Ohesalon (on Mount Jearim),
is now Kesla, on the lofty summit between VVacly
Ghurah and Wacly Israain.

Beth-shemesh is now Ain Shems.

Timnath, conspicuous in Samson's history, is
Tibneh, where one looks out on the Philistine
plain.

Ver. 11. Ekron. (See chap. xiii. 3.)

Shicron cannot be identified.

3Iount Baalah uiiist be the ridge west of Ekron.

Jahneel is Yebna, south and west of the Nahr
Rubin.

Ver. 12. The west border of Judah was the
Mediterranean Sea.

Ver. 13. See on chap. xiv. 6-15.

Ver. 14-19. This reconquest of Hebron and
A/icinity occurred after Joshua's death. (See
Judg. i. 1, 9-15.) It is here inserted as a^Dper-
taining to the history of Judah's allotment. The



152 CO:\LMENTAIlY ON

16 ^ And Caleb said, He that smiteth Kirjath-sepher,
and taketli it, to him will I give Achsah my daughter
to wife.

17 And Othniel the son of Kenaz, the brother of
Caleb, took it: and he gave him Achsah his daughter
to wife.

18 And it came to pass, as she came unto him, that
she moved him to ask of her father a field: and she

reason why Caleb waited more than twent}^ years
before reconquering his inheritance may have been
his desire to see all others settled before himself,
for he was a man of a large and noble nature.

The three sons of Anak is probably the three
families of the Anakim.

Debir. (See on chap. x. 38.)

Ver. 16. Caleb was now (^.e., after Joshua's
death) about one hundred and eight years old, and
hence sought others to fight his battles.

Ver. 17. Othniel the son of Kenaz ^ the brother of
Caleb. The Masorites, by their pointing (both
here and in Judg. i. 13, and iii. 9), make Othniel
the brother of Caleb. This would make Achsah
marry her uncle, which Keil asserts was not for-
bidden in the law. It seems, however, to be
against the spirit of Lev. xviii. 14. Moreover, it is
unlikely that Caleb should have a brother so young
as to be a judge of Israel for forty years after
Joshua's death (Judg. iii. 11). I prefer, therefore,
to take the word '-'- brother " to refer to Kenaz, the
younger brother of Caleb, whose son was Othniel.
Kenaz would be a family name, repeated in 0th-
niel's father.

Vee. 18. Achsah induced her new husband to



JOSHUA, CHAP. XV. 158

lighted off her ass; and Caleb said imto her, "What
wouldest thou?

19 Who answered, Give me a blessing; for thou
hast given me a south land, giv^e me also springs of
water: and he gave her the upper springs, and the
nether springs.

20 This is the inheritance of the tribe of the children
of Judah according to their families.

ask a piece of land from her father. This being
given, Achsah herself, on alighting from her ass at
her husband's dwellmg, to which Caleb had accom-
panied her, looks a request at her father, and, on
his inquiry, speaks it.

Caleb had given her, as a marriage portion, at
Othniel's request, a south land (or, lit., '' the south
land "), probably a well-known region near Hebron,
wdiich was exposed to extreme heats. Achsah
asks for the possession of springs, to which her
cattle may have access. The father, full of affec-
tion, gives her more than she asks for. He gives
her two sources of water, known in the neigh-
borhood as Gulloth Illiyyoth and Gulloth Tach-
tiyyoth (" the upper springs " and " the lower
springs ").

Vek. 20. This is the preface to the list of prin-
cipal towns of Judah, which follow in four sec-
tions, those in ih.Q Negeh (the technical "south"
of Judah, including all south of a line from the
Dead Sea opposite el-Lisan to the Mediterranean
near Gaza), those in the Sheplielah (the fertile
plain on the coast), those in the mountain country,
and those in the wilderness (the Jordan valley
and west skirts of the Dead Sea). In this list the
7*



154 CO:\rMENTARY ON

21 And the uttermost cities of the tribe of the chil-
dren of Judah toward thi' coast of Edom southward
were Kabzeel, and Eder, and JagLir,

22 And lunah, and Dimonah, and Adadah,

23 And Kedesh. and Hazor, and Ithmau,
21 Ziph, and Telem, and Bealoth,

25 And Hazor, Hadattah, and Kerioth, and Hezron,
•which is Hazor,

26 Amani, and Shema, and Moladah,

absence of the conjunction shows in each case the
beginning of a new group. ^

Ver. 21. First Division. The towns of the
Negeb. This region was intermediate between
the fertile country and the desert. It was princi-
pally a grazing country, though here and there
susceptible of cultivation.

First group. Kahzeel^ Ede7\ and Jagur are not
identified.

Ver. 22. Kinah, Dimonah, Adadali. All un-
known.

Ver. 23. Kedesh is Kadesh-barnea (chap. xiv.
6.) Hazor is probably the Hezron of chap. xv. 3.
Ithman is unknown.

Ver. 24. Second group. Ziph, Telem, Bealoth.
All unknown.

Ver. 25. Should read, " And Sazor-hadattah
(new Hazor), and Kerioth-hezron, which is Hazor.'*''
These places are unknown. Hazor and Hezron
each mean " walled town." Hence the name is
common.

Ver. 26. Third group. Aviam and Shema are
unknown. Moladah is el-Milh, east of Beer-
sheba.



JOSHUA, CHAP. XV. 155

27 And Hazar-gaddah, and Heshmon, and Beth-
palet,

28 And Hazar-shual, and Beer-sheba, and Biz-
jothjah,

2D Baalah, and lim, and Azein,

30 And Eltolad, and Chesil, and Ilormah,

31 And Ziklag, and jNIadmannah, and ISansannah,

32 And Lebaoth, and Shilhim, and Ain, and Rim-
mon: all the cities are twenty and nine, with their vil-
lages:

Ver. 27. Hazar-gaddah, Heshmon, Beth-palet^
are unknown.

Ver. 28. Hazai^-shiial and Blzjothjah are un-
known. Beer-sheba is Bir es-Seba.

Ver. 29. Fourth group. Baalah, lim, Azem,
are unknown.

Ver. 30. Eltolad and Chesil are unknown, al-
though Knobel ingeniously connects the latter with
Khulasa (Elusa). It seems to be the same as
Bethul of chap. xix. 4, Bethuel of 1 Chron. iv. 30,
and Bethel of 1 Sam. xxx. 27. Hormah. (See on
chap. xii. 14.)

Ver. 31. Ziklag is probably Aslaj on the road
from el-Milh to Abdeh. Madmannah and Saiisan-
nah, called Beth-marcabeth and Hazar-susah in
chap. xix. 5, are not known.

Ver. 32. Lebaoth is Beth-lebaoth in chap. xix. 6,
and Beth-birei in 1 Chron. iv. 31. Shilhim is
Sharuhen in chap. xix. 6, and Shaaraim in 1
Chron. iv. 31. Neither of these are known, nor
are Ain and Bimnwn.

Tiveyity and nine. There are thirty-six in the
list. As numbers were always liable to incorrect
transcription, this is doubtless an instance.



156 CO^niENTARY ON

33 And in the valley, Eshtaol, and Zoreah, and
Ashnah,

3A And Zanoah, and En-gannim, Tappuah, and
En am,

35 Jarmuth, and AduUam, Socoh, and Azekah,

36 And Sharaim, and Adithaim, and Gederah, and
Gederothaim; fourteen cities \vith their villages:

37 Zenan, and Hadashah, and Migdal-gad,"

38 And Dilean, and Mizpeh, and Joktheel,

Ver. 33. Second Division. In the valley^ z.e.,
the Shephelah. The " Ashedoth," or " outpour-
ings of the wadies," are included here in the Sheph-
elah. These Ashedoth are the western spurs of
the mountains. The word is translated '' springs '*
in chap. xii. 8.

First group. Eshtaol is probably Yeshu'a, four-
teen miles west of Jerusalem. Zoreah is Zurah,
very near to Eshtaol. Ashnah is unknown.

Ver. 34. Zanoah is Zanua. En-gannim is un-
known.

Second group. Tappuah and Enam are un-
known.


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