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THE WORKS



OF



HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.



/



THE WORKS



OF



HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT.



VOLUME XII.



HISTORY OF MEXICO.

VOL. IV. 1804^1824.



SAN FRANCISCO :
A. L. BANCROFT & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS.

1885.



PRESERVATION
COPY ADDED
ORIGINAL TO BE
RETAINED

T l ;9 3
JUN 1 1992



Entered according to Act of Congress in the Year 1885, by
HUBERT H. BANCROFT,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
^f/f

All Rights Reserved.



CONTENTS OF THIS VOLUME.



CHAPTER I.

EUROPE IN THE EARLY PART OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

PAGE

The Little Man from Corsica He Makes All the World Tremble Gen
eral View of Politics and Society Attitude of England, Prussia, and
Austria A Glance at Spain s History Rulers for Three Centuries
Retrogressions and Reactions Prime Ministers Peace and War
England and France will not let Spaniards be Free Position of the
United States Chronic Braggadocio There are Soldiers and Heroes
in Mexico as Well 1

CHAPTER II.

ADMINISTRATION OF VICEROY ITURRIGARAY.
1803-1808.

Causes of the Revolution of Independence Arrival of the Viceroy His
Antecedents and Comportment The Viceregal Family Sordidness
of Iturrigaray His Visit to. the Mines Public Improvements In
troduction of Vaccination Sequestration cf Property Effect on
the Land Owners Humboldt s Visit International Complications
Demands for Treasure Difficulties with the United States War
with England Military Preparations European Affairs Abdica
tion of Carlos IV. Iturrigaray s Indifference Effects in Mexico of
Events in Spain Power of the Inquisition Attitude of the Press
Sparks of Revolution 12

CHAPTER III.

ITURRIGARAY S DEPOSAL.
1808.

The Ayuntamiento Claims Sovereignty of the People A National Con
gress Proposed Opposition of the Audiencia Glad Tidings from the
Peninsula Four Memorable Juntas Rival Spanish Juntas Angry
Debates Conspiracy to Depose the Viceroy Yermo Takes the
Lead Iturrigaray s Apathy A Midnight Coup d Etat The Vice-



vi CONTEXTS.

P&GH

roy in Dnrance Garibay Appointed his Successor Fate of Iturri-
garay s Supporters He is Sent to Spain His Rich Sweetmeats
Indictment for Treason Acquittal Residencia Heavy Fines
Change of Opinions The Sentence Annulled Iturrigaray s Inten
tions Analyzed Bibliography 40

CHAPTER IV.

VICEROYS GARIBAY AND LIZANA.
1808-1810.

Garibay s Character A Badge of Loyalty Reorganization of the Army
Bonapartist Intrigues Lampoons and Seditious Sheets Effect of
Reverses in Spain Establishment of a Junta Consultiva Preten
sions to the Throne of Mexico Archbishop Lizana Appointed Vice
roy^ Remittances to Spain Lizana s Character The Junta de Segu-
ridad Revolution at Valladolid Spanish American Representation
in the Cortes Lizana Removed from Office Weak Administration
of the Audiencia French Emissaries Arrival of Viceroy Venegas
His Antecedents, Character, and Personal Appearance Titles and
Honors from Spain 67

CHAPTER Y.

OPENING OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE.

1810.

Development of Quen taro Affairs in Guanajuato The Town of Do-
lores-^ats Cura, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Secret Meetings of Rev
olutionists Ignacio Allende Plotting at San Miguel General Plan \
of Uprising Hidalgo s Biography Arrests The Corregidor Im
prisonedHis Acquittal His Biography El Grito de Dolores
Hidalgo Marches to San Miguel A Tumultuous Array The Sacred
Banner Success of the Insurgents at San Miguel Pillaging Hi
dalgo Proclaimed Captain-general He Enters Celaya He Ap
points a New Ayuntamiento 9G

CHAPTER VI.

THE ALHONDIGA OF GUANAJUATO TAKEN BY STORM.
1810.

Local History of Ganajuato Alarm in the City Defensive Measures of
Inteudente Riano The Alhondiga de Granaditas An Interesting
Manuscript Riano Retires to the Alhondiga Hidalgo Summons
Riano to Surrender The Attack A Murderous Contest Riauo s
Death His Biography Confusion in the Alhondiga The Barri
cades Won by the Insurgents They Gain Entrance Berzabal s
Fall His Biography Number of the killed Acts of Heroism
Pillage and Devastation 130



CONTENTS. vU

v

CHAPTER VII.

HIDALGO S MARCH TOWARD THE CAPITAL.
1810.

PAGE

Military Preparation of Venegas Action of the Church and Inquisi
tion Hidalgo s Reply He Abolishes Slavery His Administrative
Measures at Guanajuato A Refractory Ayuntamiento Hidalgo
Establishes a Mint Marches against Valladolid Additional Reen-
forcements Hidalgo s Treasury -Af-The Insurgents Move toward
Mexico Trujillo Despatched to Oppose their Advance Trnjillo s
Character Iturbide s Biography Trujillo s Movements The Battle
of Las Cruces The Royalists Force their Way Out Their Defeat
Regarded as a Triumph Alarm in the Capital Another Sacred
Banner Hidalgo Perplexed 158



CHAPTER VIII.

PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION.
1810.

Calleja s Preparations His Biography Engagement at Quere"taro Ca-
lleja Joins Forces with Flon Chavez Repulsed at Qucre"taro Calle
ja s Movements The Dispersion of the Insurgents at Aculco Calleja
Returns to Quere taro Character of Torres Defensive Measures of
Abarca in Jalisco Insurgent Operations in Jalisco Engagement at
La Barca The Royalists Defeated at Zacoalco Guadalajara Surren
ders to Torres Mercado Gains Possession of San Bias Revolution
in Zacatecas Flight of the Europeans An Unfortunate Intendente
Iriarte enters Zacatecas The Commission of Doctor Cos A
Daring Scheme San Luis Potosi Won by an Insurgent Friar A
Treacherous Visitor San Luis Sacked 102



,, CHAPTER IX.

THE ROYALISTS RECAPTURE GUANAJUATO.
1810.

Allende Returns to Guanajuato Preparations for Defence The First
Attack Calleja s Plan He Takes Allende s Batteries Calleja, the
Avenger His Proclamation An Execution Scene in the Alhondiga
A General Pardon Extended The Government Rcoganized
Calleja Marches for Guadalajara Hidalgo at Valladolid And at
the Ccrro del Molcajetc Hidalgo s Reception at Guadalajara
Establishes a Government Rayon s Biography Letona s Mission
and Death The Diapertador Americano and Printing-press Prep
arations for War . . 213



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER X.

SPREAD OF THE REVOLUTION AND BATTLE OF CALDERON.

1810-1811.

PAGE

Hermosillo s Operations in Sinaloa Successes at Rosario His Defeat at
San Ignacio Spread of the Revolution in Nuevo Santander Coa-
huila and Nuevo Leon Revolt Villagraii s Doings Biography of
Cruz Plan of Calleja Tumult in Valladolid Cruz Enters Vallado-
lid He Reorganizes the Government Engagement at Urepetiro
Allende Joins Hidalgo at Guadalajara A Council of War Hidalgo
Takes tip a Position at the Bridge of Calderon Plan of Battle-field
Calleja s Dispositions Flon s Impetuosity The Revolutionists
Nearly Triumphant Their Final Defeat Death of Flon His Char
acter... . 237



CHAPTER XI.

HIDALGO S CAPTURE AND DEATS.
1811.

Cruz Joins Calleja at Guadalajara Humility of the Audiencia, Church,
and University Calleja Establishes a Junta de Seguridad Cruz Re
gains San Bias Death of Mercado Hidalgo Compelled to Surren
der his Command The Insurgent Leaders Retire tc Saltillo They
Decide to Go to the United States Operations in San Luis Potosi
Death of Herrera Counter-revolution in Texas Capture and Exe
cution of Ignacio Aldama Elizondo s Treacherous Plot Capture of
Hidalgo and Revolutionary Chiefs Iriarte s Death The Captives
are Sent to Chihuahua Their Trial Abasolo s Deposition Execu
tions Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Hidalgo s Execution His Char
acter.. . 259



CHAPTER XII.

MORELOS AND RAYON.

1811.

State of the Revolution after Hidalgo s Capture Biography of Morelos
His Character His Meeting with Hidalgo and Commission
Morelos in Michoacan The Royalist Paris Defeated Morelos
Marches to Chilpancingo The Family of the Bravos Capture of
Tixtla Defeat of the Royalist Fuentes A Conspiracy Suppressed
Rayon Retreats from Saltillo He Defeats Ochoa A Terrible
March The Platform of the Insurgent Leader Rayon Evacuates
Zacatecas Trujillo s Doings in Valladolid Retreat of the Insur
gents 200



CONTEXTS. ix

CHAPTER XIII.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE JUNTA DE ZITACUAEO.

1811.

PACE

Calleja s New System of Military Organization Suppression of the In
surrection in Nuevo Santander Pacification of San Luis Potosi
Defeat of Insurgents in Guanajuato Poiiier s Operations in Nueva
Galicia Torre s Activity and Severity His Defeat at Zitdcuaro,
and Death Rayon Fortifies Zitdcuaro Empdran Returns to Spain
Conspiracy to Seize the Viceroy Proclamation of Calleja Events
in Michoacan Condition of Guanajuato Spread of the Revolution. 317

CHAPTER XIV.

SIEGE OF CUAUTLA.

1811-1812.

Doctor Cos Joins Rayon The Revolutionary Press Perplexity of Vene-
gas Bishop Campillo s Failure as a Mediator Second Campaign
of Morelos Calleja Takes Zitdcuaro Destruction of the City
Reverses of Porlier Arrival of Spanish Troops Triumphal Entry
of Calleja into Mexico Jealousy of Venegas Calleja Marches
against Cuautla Description of the City Llano at Izucar Calleja
Repulsed Cuautla, Invested Sufferings of the Besieged Morelos.
Evacuates the City Calleja Returns to the Capital 343

CHAPTER XV.

WAR MEASURES AND MOVEMENTS.
1812.

Financial Distress and Arbitrary Measures Insurgents Sack Huamantla
and Capture Trains The Suprema Junta s Movements and Acts
Doctor Cos Plans of Peace and War Viceregal Course Inde
pendent Press Bad Guerrillas Rosains and his Troubles Cam
paigns in Puebla, Michoacan, and Baji o de Guanajuato Operations
of Garcia Conde, Kegrete, and Iturbicle against Albino Garcia Cap
ture and End of This Leader Torres Execution 111 Success of
Liceaga and Cos in Guanajuato Raids in San Luis Potosi 376

CHAPTER XVI.

PROGRESS OF THE WAR.
1812.

Capture of Tehnacan Massacre of Prisoners Curates of Maltrata and
Zongolica Join the Revolution Orizaba Captured and Retaken
Revolutionary Plans at Vera Cruz and Perote Communication Re
opened by Royalists Insurgent Operations Capture of Pachuca
with Immense Booty Cruel Shooting of Prisoners Towns Recap-



x CONTENTS.

PA3E

tured by Royalists Arrest of Leonardo Bravo and Companions
Their Execution Noble Deed of Nicolas Bravo Venegas Offers
Pardon to Penitent Rebels, and a Reward for Morelos Capture
Venegas and Callcja at Enmity Rayon s Unsuccessful Attack on
Toluca Defeat at Teiiango Dispersion of the Supreme Junta 397

CHAPTER XVII.

BATON PRESIDENT; MORELOS IN THE SOUTH.
1812.

President Rayon at Tlalpnjahua His Relations with the Villagranes
Royalist Successes on the North of Mexico Affairs in Michoacan
Father Salto and his Execution Venegas Sanguinary Decree In
surgent Priests Deprived of their Immunity Episcopal Indifference
Excitement in Mexico Second Anniversary of Independence Cele
brated Ramon Rayon s Profitable Movements Attack against Ix-
miquilpan a Failure Rayon s Arrangements with Royalist Traders
Proposed Negotiations for Peace Assault of Yanhuitlan Siege
of Huahuapan Trujano s Brilliant Defence Morelos Comes to the
Rescue and Wins a Victory Gates of Oajaca Opened to Him 420,

. S- CHAPTER XVIII.

AMERICAN AFFAIRS IN SPAIN.
1811-1812.

Government of Spain The Cortes and National Sovereignty Character
of the Members The Diputacion Americana and its Policy Its De
mands and Character of Concessions Deputy Perez from Puebla
Deputy Cisneros Asks for Mexican Autonomy and Eventual Inde
pendence Arizpe Mier Forced Loan Representation of the Con-
sulado of Mexico British Offers of Mediation National Constitu
tion as Adopted Its Publication in Mexico The Press Election of
Ayuntamientos Animosity of the Natives toward the Spaniards
Constitution Practically Suspended 441

.._x_

CHAPTER XIX.

SUCCESS OF MORELOS.

1812-1813.

Morelos Third Campaign Chilapa Retaken Reoccupation of the Coun
try to Acapulco Matamoros at Work in Izucar Nicolas Bravo s
Victories Viceregal Tribulations Publication of Decrees of the
Spanish Cortes Death of Trujano Morelos Visit to Ozumba He
Attacks a Royalist Convoy Takes Orizaba Defeat on the Heights
of Aculcingo Captures Oajaca Enormous Booty Establishment of
Government Victor and Miguel Bravo s Campaign to Jamil tepee
Morelos Plans Venegas Superseded Review of his Rule 468



CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER XX.

"VICEROY CALLEJA AND HIS PLANS.

1813.

PAGE

Calleja s Character and Appearance How the Appointment was Received
Condition of Affairs Fresh Taxes and Loans Reforms Insur-
gent Heroine Constitution of 1812 Enforced Inquisition Disap
pears Increase of Crime Protests and Counter-appeals Extent of
Insurrection Calleja s Campaign Plan Royalist Positions Verdus-
co s Fiasco Rayon s Tour of Inspection Quarrel between the Lead
ers Iturbide s Victory at Salvatierra 405

CHAPTER XXI.

OPERATIONS AGAINST RAYON, VILLAGRAN, AND OSORNO.

1813.

Siege of Cerro del Gallo Tho Poisoned Well Insurgent Forces and
their Tactics Movements in Guanajuato Sway of the Villagranes
Their Sudden Fall Huasteca Campaign Osbrno and his Terri
tory Terrene s Military Promenade Osorno Irrepressible Admin
istration of Cruz in New Galicia Frontier Operations Chapala Lake
a<nd its Rovers Division of Provincias Internas Lara s -Exploits in
Texas A Flicker in the Orient 513

CHAPTER XXII.

CONGRESS OF CHILPANCINGO.
1813.

Morelos March to Acapulco He Besieges and Captures It Royalist
Reaction Piaxtla Guerrillas and their Doings Bravo s Opera
tions His Repulse at Alvarado Siege of Coscomatcpec Orizaba
Surprised Second Royalist Defeat at San Agustin del Palmar Its
Consequences Discord in the Suprema Junta Congress of Chil-
pancingo Rayon s Action Morelos the Generalissimo and Siervo
do la Nacion Declaration of National Independence Constitution
Jesuits 545

CHAPTER XXIII.

FALL OF MORELOS.

1813-1814.

Morelos Marches against Valladolid Calleja s Counter-movement Re
pulse at the Gate of Zapote Brilliant Charge by Iturbidc Defeat
and Death of Matamoros The Congress Asserts Itself Armijo
Overruns Tecpan Province Galeana Falls Maladministration in
Oajaca Alvarez s Triumphant Entry The Enchanted Mountain



xii CONTENTS.

PAGE

Speculations with Convoys Quarrel and Misconduct of Rayon and
Rosains Expedition against Zacatlan and Flight of Rayon Man-
hunting in the Central Provinces 569

CHAPTEE XXIV.

CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES.

1814.

Changed Aspect of the Revolution Depression on Both Sides Pro
posed Restriction of Passports and Export of Treasure Causes of
the Exodus of the Spaniards Fresh Taxes Restoration of Fer
nando VII. ^Constitution of 1812 is Annulled and Autocracy Rees
tablished Feeling in New Spain Insurgent Constitution Its Pro
visions and Analysis How it was Received Election of Officers ^
under the New Constitution Liceaga President Commemorative
Medal Constitution Ordered Read by the Curas Relations with
the United States 592

CHAPTEK XXV.

DEATH OF MORELOS.
1815.

The Revolutionists on C6poro Hill Positions of the Insurgent Forces
Determination of Calleja Siege of C6poro Repulse of Iturbide
Attempted Surprise of Jilotepec Ramon Rayon is Shorn of his
Triumph Claverino s Movement Southward Iturbide Chases the
Congress Insubordination of Doctor Cos He is Arrested and Con
demned to Death, but is Discharged Death of Doctor Cos His
Character The Revolutionary Government Migrates It is Over
taken at Tezmalaca Capture of Morelos His Trial Degradation
and Penance The Last Auto-de-fe Execution of the Great Leader
Reflections on his Character Two Mexican Writers on This
Period 608

CHAPTER XXVI.

LAST CAMPAIGNS UNDER CALLEJA.

1815-1816.

Effect of Morelos Fall Respective Strength of Insurgents and Royalists
Intrigues and Overthrow of Rosains He Joins the Enemy Teran
Rises in Fame and Influence Arrival of the Congress at Tehuacan
It is Forcibly Dissolved The Goazacoalco Expedition First Naval
Victory for the Mexican Flag The Mounted Raiders of Apam
Plains Osorno s Last Campaign The Convoy Service in Vera Cruz
Miyares Measures for its Protection Operations under Victoria
and his Associates Bravo and Guerrero on the South Coast 623



CONTEXTS. xiii

CHAPTER XXVII.

VICEROY APODACA AND HIS VIGOROUS MEASURES.

181G-1817.

PAGE

Causes Which Sustained the Revolution Review of Calleja s Rule
Character of the New Viceroy Apodaca Measures to Gain Adhe
sion Combined Movement against Tehuacan Its Siege and Surren
der Deplorable Weakness of Teran Vera Cruz is Swept by the
Royalists Their Successes in Mizteca The Council of Jaujilla
Strife in Michoacan Tarnished Reputation of Ramon Rayon The
Five Years Siege of Mescala is Ended Treachery of Vargas
Movements in the North The Declining Insurrection Centres in
Guanajuato Apodaca s Success 645

CHAPTER XXVHI.

MINA S EXPEDITION.

1817.

A Famous Navarrese Guerrilla Preparing for the Enterprise The Land
ing at Soto la Marina Alarm of the Royalists The Victory at
Peotillos Penetrating the Interior Traits of Mina Overthrow of
Ordonez and Castanon Liberation of Prisoners Jealousy of Torres
Character of Mexican Guerrillas Fall of Soto la Marina Siege of
Fort Sombrero Ravages of Thirst and Sword The Bulwark of
Independence Mina s Field Operations Repulse at Guanajuato
Capture and Execution of Mina Reflections on his Undertaking
Siege and Fall of Los Remedies Bibliography 659

CHAPTER XXIX.

PLAN OF IGUALA.

1817-1821.

Capture of Insurgent Chiefs Fort of Jaujilla Dispersion of the Junta
Pardon Accepted by Numerous Leaders A Flickering Light
Affairs in Spain The Spanish Constitution Proclaimed in Mexico^-
Election of Deputies Thoughts of Independence Iturbide Re
appears Diversity of Political Opinions Plots to Overthrow the
Constitution Iturbide in Command Well-disguised Designs
Overtures to Guerrero Independence Proclaimed The Plan of
Iguala Measures of the Viceroy 688

CHAPTER XXX.

TRIUMPH OF THE REVOLUTION.

1821.

Discouraging Prospects Independence Proclaimed at Guanajuato
Valladolid Capitulates The Provincias Intcrnas Revolutionized
Iturbide at Qucretaro Apodaca s Deposal His Conduct Discussed



xiv CONTENTS.

PAGE

His Successor Bravo Joins the Revolutionists Operations in
Puebla and Vera Cruz Santa Anna Repulsed at Vera Cruz Vic
toria s Reappearance Iturbide Enters Puebla Arrival of O Donojti
His Antecedents Treaty of Cordoba Novella Hesitates to Recog
nize O Donoju Iturbide Enters the Capital End of the Revolution. 712

CHAPTER XXXI.

THE SOVEREIGN PROVISIONAL JUNTA.

1821-1822.

Installation of the Junta Appointment of a Regency Its Cabinet
O Donoju s Death Iturbide s Rewards Army Promotions Sur
render of Perote, Acapulco, and Vera Cruz Murder of Colonel
Concha Flight of Europeans The Press Political Factions
Measures for Convoking Congress Iturbide s Interference Con
spiracy Its Failure Condition of the Country The Revenue The
Mining Industry A Forced Loan and Arbitrary Measures Reor
ganization of the Army Union of Central America with the Em
pire Measures for its Representation Reflections on the Adminis
tration of the Junta 734

CHAPTER XXXII.

THE FIRST CONGRESS AND FIRST EMPEROR.

1822.

The Installation Taking the Oath under Pressure The First Misunder
standing Political Parties Measures for Relief of the Treasury
Disagreements on the Army Question A Counter-revolution Gen
eral Davila s Action Iturbide and Congress at Open War Progress
of Republicanism Iturbide Proclaimed Emperor by a Popular
Emeute A Stormy Congressional Session Agustin I. Recognized
Joy in the Provinces The Imperial Family and Household Diffi
culties of the Treasury The Council of State The Coronation 757

CHAPTER XXXHI.

DETHRONEMENT AND DEATH OF ITURBIDE.

1822-1824.

Inauguration of the Order of Guadalupe Padre Mier Short-lived Har
mony Arrest of Deputies Iturbide Attempts to Reorganize Con
gress His Preposterous Claims He Dissolves the Assembly A
Junta Instituyente Established Appropriation of Spaniards Money
Affairs at Vera Cruz Santa Anna ir>_ Disgrace Iturbide Visits
Jalapa Santa Anna Revolts Republicanism Proclaimed Progress
of the Insurrection Reverses Influence of the Masonic Order
Change of Tactics Plan of Casa Mata Iturbide s Conciliatory Ac
tion Congress Reinstalled The Emperor Abdicates His Depart
ure from Mexico His Return and Death. . . 779



HISTORY OF MEXICO.



CHAPTEK I.

EUROPE IN THE EARLY PART OF THE JsINETEEXTH CENTURY.

THE LITTLE MAN FROM CORSICA HE MAKES ALL THE WORLD TREMBLE
GENERAL VIEW or POLITICS AND SOCIETY ATTITUDE or ENGLAND,
PRCTSSIA, AND AUSTRIA A GLANCE AT SPAIN S HISTORY RULERS FOR
THREE CENTURIES RETROGRESSIONS AND REACTIONS PRIME MINIS
TERS PEACE AND WAR ENGLAND AND FRANCE WILL NOT LET SPAN
IARDS BE FREE POSITION OF THE UNITED STATES CHRONIC BRAG
GADOCIOTHERE ARE SOLDIERS AND HEROES IN MEXICO AS WELL.

AT the opening of the nineteenth century Europe
was in a state of unusual commotion. There had
come from Corsica to Paris a bow-legged, olive-
cheeked little man who had set the rulers of the earth
and their wise men by the ears. They were exceed
ingly frightened, and knew not what to do. For this
personage had set at work several hundred thousands
of their subjects killing each other; to what purpose,
it puzzled them to say, unless it was to show how to
make dupes and donkeys of them all only donkeys
are too sensible beasts to cut and mangle and murder
each other in such a wholesale manner at the instiga
tion of any one.

Louis XVI. was guillotined in 1793. His prede
cessor, after a life of debauchery with his Pompadours
and Dubarrys, and under the intellectual libertinism
of Voltaire and Rousseau, had died leaving a debt of
four thousand millions of livres. After that was the
tiers etat, followed by the storming of the Bastile

VOL. IV. 1



2 EUROPE AT THE OPEXING OF THE CENTURY.

midst mobs and bloody revolution. Paper money was
made. Hereditary titles were discontinued. Church
property was seized. Christianity was abolished
though reestablished before 1801 and reason was
enthroned. The constitution was changed, and a
species of bastard republicanism propagated. As the
head of Louis Capet rolled upon the scaffold, insulted
royalty rose throughout Europe. But France was
still mad, and it was not until Robespierre was brought
beneath the guillotine that the reign of terror was
ended. And thus was opened the way for Napoleon
Bonaparte.

Taking the popular side in the revolution, and with
the aid of his matchless military genius, Napoleon was
general of the army at the age of twenty-five. In
1796 he drove back the Austrians and conquered
Italy. Venice fell the following year, and the cisal
pine republic was formed out of the Milanese and
Mantuan states. Egypt was attempted in 1798, but
Nelson was in the Mediterranean and prevented the
loss of India to Great Britain. The following year
the First Consul s proposals of peace to England were
decidedly rejected by George III. Austria s turn
came again in 1800, and in 1801 the northern king
doms were united in a league against England. In
1802 France regained her islands in the West Indies
lost by Louis XV. to the English. The Code Na
poleon was formed. Notwithstanding the peace of
Amiens, in 1803, Great Britain was pricked into fresh
outbreaks. Made emperor of France and king of
Italy in 1804, Napoleon, who was so sadly disturbing
the time-honored balances of power, now found united
against him, England, Russia, Austria, and Sweden.
The game of 1805 was played off Trafalgar and at
Austerlitz, and at its close all Europe lay at the feet
of the little man from Corsica. Prussia claimed his
attention in 1806, Russia in 1807, Spain in 1808, and
Austria in 1809-10. Here marks the highest point
attained. In 1812 came the Russian campaign; in



FRANCE AND ENGLAND. 3

1813 the French armies were driven from Spain; and
in 1814 Napoleon was at Elba, Another flash of
glory; then in 1815 Waterloo and St Helena, and in
1821 death.

Meanwhile England, having lost the fairest portion
of her American provinces, and being deeply in debt
from her many European complications and much
fighting, was reduced to an unhappy condition. The
toilers had great burdens to bear, which were placed
upon them mercilessly by all the rest, manufacturers,
land owners, and rulers. Everything was excessively
taxed, while wages were reduced, sometimes one half.
The slave-trade obtained. Forty thousand negroes
were annually taken on board by English ships for
their West India colonies, half of them perishing by
the passage. In a word, manners were coarse and
usages cruel. Prussia was badly broken by the war,
losing large parts of her domains. There was some
disaffection among the German people, but it was
checked without difficulty by the strong arm of roy
alty. Francis and Prince Metternich ruled Austria
with an iron despotism, preventing freedom of thought
or speech, and holding over the press strict censor
ship.

With the centuries Spain has continued to decline,



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