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EX LIBRIS

DANIEL C
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TENT LIFE WITH
ENGLISH GIPSIES IN NORWAY.




CARL XV.

KING OF NORWAY AND SWEDEN.
OBIIT 18 SEI'T. 1S72.



TENT LIFE

WITH

ENGLISH GIPSIES IN NOBWAY.



HUBERT SMITH,

MEMBER OF THE ENGLISH ALPINE CLUB ; NOKSKE TURIST FORENING ;
AND FELLOW OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN.



FIVE FULL-PAGE ENGRAVINGS, THIRTY-ONE SMALLER ILLUSTRA-
TIONS, AND MAP OF THE COUNTRY, SHOWING ROUTES.



Henry S. King & Co.,

(35, CoRNHiLL, (S: 12, Paternoster Row, Lo>-do:s.
1873.



^



[T/te Riyht of Translation is reserved hy the Authur.']



DEDICATED

AS A SINCERE TRIBUTE

TO

HIS LATE MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

GAEL XV.

BY

THE KIND AND SPECIAL PERMISSION OF HIS
PRESENT MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

OSCAR II.

KING OP NORWAY AND SWEDEN.



or>. Q '^ ■'^ '""^/T*



PREFACE.

We awoke one morning ; oiir gipsies were gone ;
our camp was gone ; no light shining through as we
lay in our tent. No freshness of the morning air ;
no wafted perfume of fragrant wild flowers ; no music
of the waterfall in the glen below. We were left to
pursue the pathway of our journey alone.

Yet our notes de voyage remained to us. Impres-
sions caught on the wayside of travel — written by
the light of actual circumstance — we give them to
our readers. They are a true episode in a life.

THE AUTHOR.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Introduction xxi

CHAPTER I.

Norway — Our gipsy tent — Tent fittings — Cooking apparatus — Com-
missariat — Gipsies' tent — Bagage de luxe — Weight of baggage —
Transit — Donkeys — Our party — Esmeralda .... 1

CHAPTER II.

Gipsy equipment — Norwegian gipsies — Proesten Eilert Sundt — The

Hull .steamer — The tourist's friend — Our gipsy song . . . 11

CHAPTER III.

A friend's misgiving — Dark forebodings— A sleepless night — The
railway station — The Albion — A philosopher — The street boy
— Distinguished travellers . . 19

CHAPTER IV.

England's farewell — Summer tourists — The chevalier — Seafaring — A
gipsy reception — Cliange of plans — Norwegian pilot — The Bir-
mingham bagman — Inducement to authorship — Strange wills —
A sailor's philosophy — Icelandic language — Prognostications . 26

CHAPTER V.

A seaman's adventures — The unfortunate tourist — An apt quotation-
Freemasonry — Christiansand — Past recollections — The Runic
stone — Overpayment — Two salmon fishermen — A traveller's
curiosity — Norwegian snakes — Scenery — We are one — Golden
opinions ........... 36



CONTENT.^.



CHAPTER VI.



PAGE



Mariner's life — The evasive ans%vcr— A tnie pvesentiment — The King
of Norway and Sweden — The beautiful Ijord — Gipsy music — A
custom-house difficulty — Another Freemason — Appropriate verses
Christiania — Hor^e money— 17, Store Strandgade . . 46

CHAPTER VII.

The Victoria Hotel — Tlie Gipsies' friend — The passe-partout — Prcesten
Eilert Sundt — The Christiania railway — Our donkeys appreciated
— Gipsy spirit — The " tolk " — Norwegian money — Linguistic dif-
ficulties — Gipsy authors — Gipsy numerals — DejDarture from
Cliristiania . . . . . . . . . . . 54

CHAPTER VIII.

A Norwegian officer — Norwegian emigration — Eidsvold — The Skyd-
skiftet — Quiet retreat — Happy hours — Baiersk ol — Esmeralda's
toilette — The transformation — Curious address — New acquaint-
ance — Noah's engagement — Noah's conquest — An ungrateful
visitor — A reluctant parting ....... 61

CHAPTER IX.

]\Ioderate bill — Provisions lost — We meet again — Gipsies in advance —
Left alone — A welcome telegram — Norwegian bath room —
Singular paintings — Once more farewell — The telegraph clerk —
The Mjosen Lake — The Dronningen — Ruined cathedral — Utili-
tarianism — Lillehammer- — Once more in camp . . . . 75

CHAPTER X.

Our first camp— Camp visitors — Gipsy music — Foreign tableau —
Curious observations — Preparations for departure — Early start —
Laing's suggestions — The Gudliransdalen — The Hunnefos — The
Australian meat — Camp rules — The pair of gloves — Sudden
Shadows — Our talisman — New friends ..... 80

CHAPTER XI.

Night alarm — The Puru Rawnee — Donkeys admired — Norwegian
ponies — Our gipsy life — Norwegian flowers — Wild forest — The
pipe of tobacco — Pictures of imagination — The crippled man —
Camp near Holmen — Noah's self-denial — Wet night — Peasant
girls' serenade — Zachariali's gaiety — Lovely nature — Norwegian
newspaper — The mystery explained — Frokost spoilt . . . 102



CONTENTS. xi

CHAPTER XIT.

PACE

Unsuccessful fishing — A military officer — Tlie dernier ressort— Our
gipsy reception — Interrupted toilette— Fete cliampetre— Dancing
on the greensward — Tincture of cedar — The disappointment —
The Losna Vand— The kettle prop lost— Peasant children-
Interesting discussions— "Writing under difficulties — The kindly
heart . ' 118

CHAPTER XIII.

Wet travelling — Vodvang — Our Eussian lamp — Swedish visitors — All
well — Our hobhinengree — The child of nature — Guitar songs —
Tlie village beau — Merles gone — The musketos' victory — More
rain — Scotch traveller — Timber floaters — Gipsies — Enraged
Englishman — The frightened skydskarl — Gipsies' endurance —
The Listari commotion — Listad scenery 129

CHAPTER XIV.

A gorgio — Comfortable bondegaards — More speile — The lost key —
Den Asen toujours — Vegetable substitute — The goodlo discussion
— Wives' utility — Friendly peasants — Norwegian waltz — Gipsy
chafl^ — The dark woman — Anxious querists — Early visitors —
Timid woman — Gipsies appreciated — The charming post-mistress
— The mansion near Harpe Bro 145

CHAPTER XV.

The velocipede — Eoadside halt — Lovely scenery — Disappointed
audience — The little gipsy — The lost pocket — The search —
Gipsy lamentation — Amused peasant girls— Norwegian honesty
The pocket found — A noble heart — Pleasant voyageurs — Patrins
— Storklevstad — Tambourine lost — Norwegian honesty — Ec-
centric visits — Interrogatory — The captain — The interview— The
village magnate— Meget godt— Esmeralda in camp — The last
visit — The moorland maiden ........ 158

CHAPTER XVI.

Colonel Sinclair — Qvam church — Death of Sinclair — Monsieur le
Capitaine — The Highflyer — The Hedals — Romantic legend —
Antique mansion — The Kringelen — Kind reception — Warm wel-
come — The broken tent-pole — The reindeer hunter — The
Rudane Fjelde — Gipsy -looking woman — More fish — Chiromancy
Esmeralda's fortune — The handsome captain — His sporting ad-
venture — Esmeralda's gift — Our soiree dansante — Gipsies' glee . 174



xii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XVIL

PAQG

Gipsies' aflfcction — Laurgaard adieu — Beautiful gorges— Onward ever
— Esmeralda's Irish song — Dovre — Friendly travellers — The
Landhandelri — The Herr Tofte— King's visit — Our night camp
— Night disturbance — Kindness to animals — Our beautiful
bouquet — Snehajtten Fjeld — Dombaas — Comfortable situation —
Wild scenery — Opportune visit — Illusory hope . . . . lOfi

CHAPTER XVIII.

The new tent pole — What is indigestion ? — Peasants at camp — A -new
friend — Holaker station — Norwegian honesty — Loesje Vand —
The tetteramengry — An unsolved mystery — The gipsy collapse
— Good advice — Interest in donkeys — A mountain district — No
church bells — The boy's questions — The Kjolen Fjeldene . . 202

CHAPTER XIX.

Esmeralda at the lake— Our cadeau — The visitors — Disappointment
— An Adonis — The silent visit — The old mill — A Norwegian fox
The Puru RawTiee's fall — The forest scene — Zachariah's torment
— Under discipline — Music in the forest — Distant admirers —
The English hunter's gift — Our gipsies fishing — The militia
camp — Silent visitor — Ornamental iladbrod— A forest concert . 213

CHAPTER XX.

Noah unwell — The tine — New scenes — The leper — Hasty departure
— Lesjevcerks Vand — Well met — Agreeable wanderers — Specialty
of travel — Delicious trout — Lake scenery — Norwegian postman
— Night visitor — More tourists — Molmen church . . . 227

CHAPTER XXI.

The Rauma — A loftj^ climb— More rain — The forest walk— Tent life
— Peasant fete — Norwegian dancing — Zachariah's ride — The
wood carvings— A psalmodion — Stueflaaten — The Romsdal —
Magnificent scenery — English spoken. ..... 2^7

CHAPTER XXII.

The Dontind — Ormein — Mountain road — Our bivouac — Delighted
visitor — The water ell" — Excited gipsies — Tage en Stol — Nor-
wegian girls — Sunday on the Rauma — Carriole travelling —
Coming to grief — " Spille " a little —Esmeralda's birthday — The



CONTENTS.



PACK



Norwegian climate — The Sjiriaglns — Uncomfortable bed — The
large ant 248

CHAPTER XXIII.

Musical peasant — Cascades — The leaning-stone— The serious peasant
— Zachariah ill — No ventilation — The Magician's Peaks — The
Mangehoe — " Ramulous " — Romantic valley — Agreeable visitors
— The serenade — Future route — Horgheim — Rip van Winkle , 261

CHAPTER XXIV.

The invalid — Restive donkeys — Fiva — Aak — Veblungsnojs — The
Norwegian farmer — The grassy knoll — A Norwegian toAvn— The
fjord's shore — The Veblungsnces' baths — Herr Solberg — Homme
galant— Musical conversazione — Gipsy music .... 273

CHAPTER XXV.

Purchases — Zachariah's trouble — Esmeralda's photograph — The kiod
— Price of meat — The yachtsmen — The three peaks — The sjiirit-
world — Frost-bites — Ultima Thule — Esmeralda galvanised —
Tlie fjord — Heen Kirke — Parelius — Eider ducks — Beautiful
bouf^uets 285

CHAPTER XXVI.

Our guide — To the mountains — Mystic light — The photographs — The
"Claymore" yacht — Norwegian gipsies — Singular race — Occu-
pations — Gij)sy burials — Romantic love — Predestination — The
bondegaard — The high demand — Esmeralda's souvenir . ,297

CHAPTER XXVII.

Adieu, Aak — Romsdalshorn — Troldtindeme — Fladmark — Young
Norwegian ladies — Our fair visitors — A night scene — Morning
meal — Exhausted peasants — Esmeralda's compliment — A gipsy
cuisine — How gipsies sleep — Our guide arrives — The invisible
bather — The race — The river Groua 307

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Botanising— Esmeralda lost — Found again — The Eagle — Mountain
difhculties — Mountain bivouac — Esmeralda ill — Ole's bed —
Hotel bills — Rough route — Donkeys in snow — The Puru Rawnee
down — The Ny soeter — Gijisy discussion — The Englishman's
house— Hospitality — Norj^egian names — Fillingsho — Large lake 319



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER XXIX.



PAGE



The peasants' wood — Skeaker — Our fair visitor -Esmeralda's indig-
nation — The gipsy hornjjipe — The fate of Ezekiel — FeeLle
advocacy — The Rankny rackly — The Otta Vand . . . 332

CHAPTER XXX.

The wasps' nest — Lorn — Kind friends — Songs of Bjornsen — The
Proesten's ministration — The repulsed student — Beautiful valley
— The two artists — The BoeverElven— Rodsheim— The ravine — •
The lost stardy— Ascent of Galdhopiggen — The highest moun-
tain in Norway — The night ascent — The dome of snow — The
!>unrise 340

CHAPTER XXXI.

The reindeer's fate — Desolate scene — Several ascents — The frightened
peasants — A coat lost— Esmeralda's views — Absent treasures —
Ole re-engaged — A new kettle prop— The handsome artist — Com-
fortable station — Adieu, Rodsheim — Our excellent guide — Cross-
ing tlie bridge —Zachariah's escape ...... 352

CHAPTER XXXII.

Tlie Elv Soeter — A mountaineer — The Ytterdal Soeter — To make grod
— The grod stick — Evening concert — A wild night — The water-
fall — Moimtain glaciers — The Lera Elv — Camp by a glacier-
Nomadic happiness — A gipsy maelstrom — Insect life . . . 363

CHAPTER XXXIII.

The Virgin Peak — Esmeralda in the Lera — A dripping Nereid —
Heavy clouds — The Church Mountain — Wild reindeer — Where's
the tea? — Singular glacier — Valley of red sandstone — The
Hunter's Cave— The Utladal Stol— The Mumpley VaUey— Flods-
grod — A mountain stbl — A rough path — The Puru Rawnee's
escape — The narrow bridge . . 374

CHAPTER XXXIV.

A difficult crossing — Agaiu en route — Skogadal Soeter — Soeter accom-
modation — Splendid scenery — The Skogadals Elv — The mys-
terious bone — Mountain exploration — The pack horses — A
slippery floor — Music in the Soeter — Flceskedal Stol— The Mork
Fos— Magnificent fall — The cliff's edge — The iris — All pay and
no comfort — A reindeer shot — The deserted farm — A mountain
shadow 389



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XXXV.

PAGE

I'lif Meisgrie — We cross a river — The slipj^ery rock — An active guide
— The carrier's aid — The lame horse — Melkedalstinderne — The
stony way — The Nedrevand — Ole's night quarters — The lake by
moonlight — Early rising— Eisbod on the Bygdin Lake — The
poet's house — Vinje, the poet — The poetical mortgage — Pleasant
acquaintance — Old Norwegian poetry — The reindeer hunter —
Esmeralda condoned ... 404

CHAPTER XXXVI.

Lake Tyen — The Tourist Club chalet — Lortwick Soeter— Lake drift-
wood — A cold morning — A cheap meul — Thunder in the air —
Sunshine again — The separation — The gallant Ole farewell — To
Christiania — Energy always — Push on — The Bergen road — The
violinist — One dollar more — Picturesque scene .... 420

CHAPTER XXXVII.

Camp on Lille Mjosen — The Skjyri Fjeld — An accjuaintance from
Eisbod — Camp rules confirmed — Our gipsy Noah — Englisli
spoken — Singular stone — Oiloe station — Our friend from Eisbod
— Artist souvenir's — Zachariah's sport — Fast travelling — Harvest
time — Secluded camp — Able pleading — The Stee Station —
Obliging hostess — Tether rope lost — The kindly welcome —
An Englishman's wish — An o]jen-air concert — Esmeralda's
flowers — Adieu, but remembered — A mid-day rest . . . 433

CHAPTER XXXVIIL

An English fisherman— The haunted mill — The tourist's jmrchase —
Noah's good fortune — The Strand Fjord—A woman's curiosity —
The heroine of our book — A Norwegian seaman — The mistaken
mansion — The Aurdal church — Frydenlund Station — A roadside
halt — The appreciated gift — The severe young lady — The kind-
hearted peasant — Krocmmermoen — Impulse and reason . . 449

CHAPTER XXXIX.

The gipsy signal — Our Australian meat — The fair poetess — Our
friend from Eisbod ill — The Rye's iinwell — The Lehnsmoend of
Bang — The ferryman and son — We cross to Beina— Tatersprog
— A kind family — Storsveen Station — Secluded valley — A
tourist lels us — Esmeralda's adventrire — The peasant women's
song — Sorum Station — Tents pitched by a lagoon — Noes — No
horseboat — Impromptu horseboat — How we got across — A river
scene . 460



xvi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XL.

PAGE

We leave the Beina — The Lille pige — Any port in a storm — The
fairies' visit — The Spiiileu — Ytre Aadalen Val — Large Londe-
gaard — Heen woodland camp — Evening visitors — The Honefos
— Intelligent postmaster — Norderhoug church — Halt near Vik
— The gipsies' political philosophy — Noah and the philanthropist
Steens Fjord — The Krogldeven— Beautiful gorge — Camp near
the King's View 477

CHAPTER XLT.

Summer waning — Norwegian scenery — Splendid views — The cross
fire — Sorte Dod — Romantic camp — Mandy's a Rye — The tourist's
dog — The HoLbenengree's surprise — The Baron at Bcerums Verk
— Snake killed near our tent — Our last night in camp — Adieu,
camp life ........... 490

CHAPTER XLII.

Christiania — Generous offer — Advice we do not take — The paper-
viken fishermen — Christophersen's — Norway, farewell — Donkeys'
accommodation — AVant of feeling — Our steward — The gipsies'
friends — The Spanish courier — The literary American — The
gipsies' mal de mer — The donkeys in a smoke room — The lust
necklace — England's shore — To our readers .... 500

CHAPTER XLIII.

Alluring promises — Compliment to Englishmen — True sketches of
gipsy life — The gipsies' origin — Yet a mystery — Esmeralda —
Noah and Zachariah — Before the curtain — The end . . .511



Appendix 1 517

„ II 527

III 529

IV 532

„ V 538



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS.



*:^* The engravings are by Edward Whymper, author of " Scrambles amongst
the Alps," and have been taken from sketches made by the author during
his wanderings in Norway, or from photographs obtained by him specially
for this work.

PAGE

1. His late Most Gracious Majesty Carl XV., King of Norway and

Sweden ...... {Full jictge, facing Title)

2. Breaking up Camp ; Gipsy pocket, and loaded donkey . . 14

3. The gipsies' Norwegian song — ornamental bordure . .17 and 18

4. The Chevalier 28

5. We are one 44

6. Proesteu Eilert Sundt 56

7. Norwegian fence 78

8. Norwegian bath-room ... . . . . . . .80

9. Jeg maa gaae til bmiden, I must go to the bottom . . . . 81

10. Der gaae er dampen, There goes the steamer .... 82

11. Peasant girls' serenade . . , 112

12. Ornamental fladbrod 225

13. Primitive weighing machine . 244

14. Camp at Leaning Stone, Siriaglns ...... 262

15. Troldtinderne, Magicians' or Witches' Peaks {Full page, facing) 271

16. The English gipsies' camp at Veblungsnoes . {Ditto) 287

17. Veblungsnoes and church .... {Ditto) 299

18. The Romsdalshorn {Ditto) 307

19. "Now look at these chokas! ! !" 35G

20. Grod stick, spoon, and bowl, Leirdalen 367

21. Norwegian birchwood crupper 372

22. Kirken (Church Mountain), from Gravdal 377

b



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE

23. The ice clifF, Storbeatind Glacier 381

24. Utladal Stol, Mumply Valley 385

25. Lusehaug Bro, Utladal : restive donkeys 390

26. View of Melkedalstiiid from the Valley of Skogadal, Skogadals Elv 406

27. Melkedals Nedre Vand, with gipsy camp on the lake shore . . 411

28. Norwegian Tourist Club Chalet, Tvindehougen, Lake Tyen . 421

29. The Norwegian violin, Skogstad 431

30. Norwegian maiden's l)elt, Oiloe 439

31. Esmeralda 499

32. The last camp of the English gipsies in Norway, Christiania Fjord 504

33. Ole Halvorsen of Rodsheim, our guide 514

34. Last group. Farewell 515

35. The author's final vignette 516



INTKODUCTION.



"Nullus dolor est quern non longinquitas temporis minuat, ac molliat."
There is no grief time does not lessen and soften.

Since the succeeding pages were written, Norway
and Sweden have mourned the death of their King,
Carl XV., at Malmoe, on the 18th September, 1872.

The dedication of this work is, therefore, with the
kind and special permission of his present Majesty,
King Oscar IL, inscribed " In Memoriam." Thus the
work opens to the reader with a shadow of melancholy ;
for, in our experience, few kings have had the love
and affection of their subjects in a greater degree.

One memorable event marked the close of his late
Majesty's reign, as if to illumine the last sands of the
hour-glass of his life — the millennial period of the
unity of Norway as one kingdom was accomplished on
the 19th July, 1872.

A thousand years had elapsed since Harald Haar-
fager (the Fair Hair) gained the battle of Hafsfjord,
and united Norway under one crown.*

* During this reign, after the battle of Hafsfjord, the great viking
" Rolf Ganger," son of Earl Rognvalcl, having offended King Harald, was
banished from Norway, and, in company with many other Northmen,
sailed with a fleet of vessels to the Hebrides, and from thence to Nor-
mandy, where the Northmen, about the year 896, obtained possession of
Rouen, and Rolf Ganger, afterwards embracing Christianity, became Duke
of Normandy. — Histoire de la Gonquefe de V Awjleterre par les Norma^is,
par Augustin Thierry, vol. i. p. 114.



XX INTRODUCTION.

At Hafsfjord, by a strange coincidence, King Harald
Haarfager, having reigned, it is said, from about 861
to 931, was buried, according to the ancient sagas, near
the town of Haugesund, not far from the scene of his
memorable victory, the last of a series of conquests
which gave to Norway one king.

The battle of Hafsfjord also accomplished King
Harald's vow, and gave to him the hand of Gyda,
the handsome daughter of Eric, King of Hordaland,
who, in answer to his proposals, had said, she would
never throw herself away, even to take a king for a
husband, who had only a few districts to rule over.*

The obelisk of granite, erected near Haugesund, on
the grave of Harald Haarfager, to commemorate the
event, is seventy feet high. Surrounding its base,
twenty-one pillars, eight feet high, are inscribed with
the names of the twenty-one petty kingdoms, into
Avhich ancient Norway was formerly divided. Bronzed
reliefs on the pedestal record that Harald Haarfager
is buried beneath, and that the monument was erected
one thousand years after he had consolidated Norway
into one kingdom.

At a grand National Jubilee Festival, at Haugesund,
on the 19th July, 1872, his present Majesty the King
of Norway and Sweden, f then Prince Oscar, with a
large assemblage of the people of Norway, inaugurated
the monument.

* From the Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Kings of Norway, trans-
lated from the Icelandic of " Suorro Sturleson," by Samuel Laing.

f The king ascends the throne as King of " Sweden, the Goths and
Vandals, and Norway ;" but in all Acts specially relating to Norway, that
country is entitled to be named first, and this work being entirely one
of Norwegian travel, we have for that reason given Norway precedence in
our Dedication.



INTRODUCTION. xxi

The day was fine, and the associations of a thousand
years carried the mind back through the far distance
of time to the battle of Hafsfjord, when, to apply the
words of " Sigvat the Scald," —

Loud was the battle-storm there,
When the King's banner flamed in air,
The King beneath his banner stands.
And the battle he commands.

His late Majesty was also a poet and an artist.
Two interesting volumes of the late King's poems,
entitled " En Samling Dikter " (a collection of poems),
and " Smarre Dikter " (short poems) are the scintilla-
tions of a bright and imaginative mind — " Till Sverige "
(To Sweden), "■ Borgruinen " (the Castle Kuins), " Fjer-
ran" (Afar), "Ensamheten" (solitude), " Trosbek-
iinnelse" (Confession of Faith), "I drommen" (I Dream),
"Hvarbor Friden" (Where dwelleth Peace), "Kalian"
(The Fountain), " Ziguenerskan " (The Gipsy Girl), with
other poems form the Innehal, or contents of the
" Smarre Dikter." The larger volume — " En Samling
Dikter "—includes "Heidi Gylfes Dotter" (Heidi Gylfe's
Daughter), "En Viking Gasaga " j(A Viking Saga)*
"Hafsfrun" (The Mermaid), "Tre Natter" (Three
Nights), and several other poems.

The full-paged portrait of his late Majesty Carl XV.
is an excellent likeness. He was cast in Nature's most

* Laing defines a A'iking and a Sea-king thus : — a sea-king, one connected
with a royal race — either of the small kings of the country or of the
Haarfager family, and who by right received the title of king as soon as
he took command of men, although only a ship's crew, without having any
land or kingdom. The Viking is a term not connected with the word
kongr, or king : the \dkings were merely pirates — alternately peasants and
pirates — deriving the name viking from viks, wicks or inlets on the coast,
where they harboured their long ships or rowing-galleys. Laing says every
sea-king was a viking, but every viking was not a sea-king.



xxii INTRODUCTION.

perfect mould ; whilst his mind had true greatness and
noble-hearted chivalry.

It is beautifully engraved by the author of " Scrambles
Amongst the Alps;" indeed, this and the engravings
illustrating this work, which have all been taken from
original sketches of the author, or photographs obtained
specially for the work, are by Mr. Edward Whymper,*



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