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THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

SIXTH

SEVENTH

EIGHTH

NINTH

TENTH

ELEVENTH



edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771.

ten 17771784.

eighteen 1788 1797.

twenty 1801 1810.

twenty 1815 1817.

twenty 1823 1824.

twenty-one 1830 1842.

twenty-two 1853 1860.

twenty-five 18751889.
ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.



COPYRIGHT

in ajl countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



All rights reserved



THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XVI

L to LORD ADVOCATE




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West jand Street
1911



E3



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XVI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS,^ WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. B. Ch. A. B. CHATWOOD, B.Sc., A.M.lNST.C.E., M.INST.ELEC.E. j j^,,,^

A. B. R. ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. f

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classifi- -I Leaf.
cation of Flowering Plants, &fc. \_

A. C. F. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL FRASER, LL.D.

See the biographical article: FRASER, A. C.

A. C. S. ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. J _ .

See the biographical article: SWINBURNE, A. C. \ lanaor.

A. D. HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D.

See the biographical article: DOBSON, HENRY AUSTIN.

A. Fi. PIERRE MARIE AUGUSTE FILON.

See the biographical article : FILON, P. M. A. I L80I( ne *

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A. , F.R.Hisx.Soc.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' Lambert Francis*
College, Oxford. Assistant editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-^ ' M . . , '

1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of LamM", Nicholson.
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. [

A. Gl. ARNOLD GLOVER, M.A., LL.B. (d. 1905) r

Trinity College, Cambridge ; Joint-editor of Beaumont and Fletcher for the Cam- -{ Layard.
bridge University Press.

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. f Laurentius, Paul;

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. \ Libertines.

A. G. D. ARTHUR GEORGE DOUGHTY, C.M.G., M.A.,LiTT.D., F.R. HiST.S., F.R.S.(Canada). (

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. J
Author of The Cradle of New France; &c. Joint editor of Documents relating to the 1
Constitutional History of Canada. I

A. H. S. REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, Lrrr.D., LL.D. f

See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H. \

A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. f

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent ] , / A/ ,.,\
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of 1 lu)gos Uw r an >-
Mysore Educational Service. L

A. J. L. ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX. . r

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News -i Lima (Peru).
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.

A. L. ANDREW LANG. J _

See the biographical article : LANG, ANDREW. |_ ^ a Cloche.

A. M. An. ADELAIDE MARY ANDERSON, M.A. r

H.M. Principal Lady Inspector of Factories, Home Office. Clerk to the Royal

Commission on Labour, 1892-1894. Gamble Gold Medallist, Girton College, Cam- i Labour Legislation.
bridge, 1893. Author of various articles on Industrial Life and Legislation, &c. [

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. / Lagrange; Laplace;

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. ^ Leverrier.

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. / Lammergeyer; Lapwing;

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. I Lark; Linnet; Loom.

A. P. C. ARTHUR PHILEMON COLEMAN, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S. f

Professor of Geology in the University of Toronto. Geologist, Bureau of Mines, -\ Labrador (in part).
Toronto, 1893-1910. Author of Reports of the Bureau of Mines of Ontario.

*A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

V

1935



vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

A. P. Lo. ALBERT PETER Low. [

Deputy Minister of Department of Mines, Canada. Member of Geological Survey 4 Labrador (in part).
of Canada. Author of Report on the Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula ; &c. I

A. Se.* ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A., F.R.S. f

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. J , ,,
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology 1 L>arval *orms.
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909. I

A. SI. ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P. f

Member of Council of Epidemiplogical Society. Author of The London Water- -I Liquor Laws.
Supply; Industrial Efficiency, Drink, Temperance and Legislation.

A. So. ALBRECHT SOCIN, PH.D. (1844-1899). f

Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tubingen, -j Lebanon (in part).
Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c. I

A. S. C. ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B. f

Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Author of Ancient] Lace.
Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks; \
&c.

A. St H. G. ALFRED ST HILL GIBBONS. [

Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of "j Lewanika.
Africa from South to North through Marotseland. I

A. S. M. ALEXANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D. f T

See the biographical article: MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART. j Lam P-

A. S. W. AUGUSTUS SAMUEL WILKINS, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D. (1843-1905). r

Professor of Latin, Owens College, Manchester, 1869-1905. Author of Roman} Latin Language (in part).
Literature; &c.

A. T. T. A. T. THORSON. f rife-boat- /7;W <T//i

Official in Life Saving Service, U.S.A. \ UB

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. f Leopold I. (Roman Emperor);

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. (^ Levellers.

A. W. Hu. REV. ARTHUR WOLLASTON HUTTON, M.A. C

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside. Librarian National Liberal Club, 1889-1899. -< Leo XIII.
Author of Life of Cardinal Newman ; Life of Cardinal Manning ; &c.

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B. f Landlord and Tenant;

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws -j Letters Patent;

of England. [ Lodger and Lodgings.

A. W. W. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D. JinHiro Thm

See the biographical article : WARD, ADOLPHUS WILLIAM. \ *

B. D. J. BENJAMIN DAYDON JACKSON, PH.D. r

General Secretary of the Linnean Society. Secretary to Departmental Committee J .

of H.M. Treasury on Botanical Work, 1900-1901. Author of Glossary of Botanic] Linnaeus.

Terms; &c.

C. THE RT. HON. THE EARL or CREWE. f T anra .i

See the biographical article: CREWE, IST EARL OF. "^ P

C. C. W. CHARLES CRAWFORD WHINERY, A.M. J La Salle;

Cornell University. Assistant editor nth Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britanmca. ~[ Lincoln, Abraham (in part).

C. Di. CHARLES DIBDIN, F.R.G.S. ("

Secretary of the Royal National Life-boat Institution. Hon. Secretary of the Civil \ Life-boat: British.
Service Life-boat Fund, 1870-1906.

C. D. W. HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT. f Labour Legislation: United

See the biographical article: WRIGHT, HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON. \ States.

C. E.* CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S. f Light: Introduction aud

Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. \ History.

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. r

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal J. Long Island (Battle).
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

C. F.-Br. CHARLES FORTESCUE-BRICKDALE. -r

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Registrar of the Office of the Land Registry, j Land RppUtratinn
Lincoln's Inn Fields. Author of Registration of Title to Land; The Practice of the]
Land Registry; Land Transfer in Various Countries; &c.

C. H.* SIR CHARLES HOLROYD. J"

See the biographical article: HOLROYD, SIR CHARLES. "j Legros.

C. H. Ha. CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. r

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member J Leo I.-X. (Popes)
of the American Historical Association.

C. J. B.* REV. CHARLES JAMES BALL, M.A. f

University Lecturer in Assyriology, Oxford. Author of Light from the East. \ Lamentations.

C. L. K. CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HisT.S., F.S.A. r Ta , , r .

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of J ^ ""J J0 ' * uaunt >
Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. duke of.

C. M. CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Tn. r

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik \ Lateran Councils.
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums ; &c.



C. Mo.
C R. B.

DeB.

D. F. T.

D. G. H.

D. H.
D. LI. T.

D. Mn.

D. M. W.

E. B.*

E. C. B.
E. Da.

E. D. J. W.
E.G.

E. Ga.
E.He.
E. J. D.
E.G.*

E. Pr.
E. R. L.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

WILLIAM COSMO MONKHOUSE. J Leighton, Lord.

See the biographical article : MONKHOUSE, W. C.

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.G S., F.R.Hisx.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow I Lei{ Ericsson;
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography.^ L Johannes.
Lothian Prizemln, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer Boston, 1908. Author of
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

HENRI G. S. A. DE BLOWITZ.

See the biographical article: BLOWITZ, H. DE.



vii



-J Lesseps, Ferdinand de.



DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. . _ J Lasso, Orlando.

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The^
Goldberg Variations, and analysis of many other classical works.

DAV Kee G p erof 3 the^Sofean^Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford Latakia;

Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis iSggand S Lebanon (in part).

1903- Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at

Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. L ^^ ^^ o{ .

DA 7orl A eTBVitish Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal j Launa o R f ' ** .

Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. t Lepanto, Battle Of, Lissa.



Rhondda.



Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Llantwit Major.



Author of Constructive 4 Leighton, Robert (in



REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A.

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate.
Congregational Ideals; &c.

SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.

Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director ot the Foreign

Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of the Institut de Droit Inter- J Lobanov-Rostovskl

national and Officier de 1'Instruction Publique (France). Joint-editor of New

Volumes (loth ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt

and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.

ERNEST CHARLES FRANCOIS BABELON.

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and
Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Academic des Inscrip-
tions et de Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author ot
Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la Republique Romaine; Traites des
MonnaiesGrecquesetRomaines; Catalogue des Camees de la Bibliotheque Nationale.

EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.LITT. (Dublin)

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of The Lausiac History ot Falladius,
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.

EDWARD GEORGE DANNREUTHER (1844-1905).

Member of Board of Professors, Royal College of Music, 1895-1905. Conducted I LIszt>
the first Wagner Concerts in London, 1873-1874. Author of The Music of the
Future; &c. Editor of a critical edition of Liszt's Etudes.

EDWARD D. J. WILSON.

Formerly Leader-writer on The Times.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article : GOSSE, EDMUND.



part).



Leo, Brother.



-[ Londonderry, 2nd Marquess of.
-' Lampoon; Lie, Jonas L. E.



I



T



Author of A. Scarlatti: his Life\ Leo, Leonardo.



Liver: Surgery of Liver and
Gall Bladder.



EMILE GARCKE, M.lNST.E.E. J Lighting: Electric (Commercial

Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of 4 As p ects ).
Electrical Undertakings ; &c. {_

5W Gonville A and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical -j Livingstone Mountains.
Society, London.

EDWARD JOSEPH DENT, M.A., Mus.Bac.

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
and Works.

EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children s Hospital,
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner -<
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author ot
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

EDGAR PRESTAGE. ..

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester.
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- <
mendador, Portuguese. Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Author of Letters
of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea ;&c.

SIR EDWIN RAY LANKESTER, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc.

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Director of the Natural History Depart-
ments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. President of the British Association,
1006. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College,
London, 1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford,
1891-1898. Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at
Oxford, 1905. Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The King-
dom of Man ; &c.



Lobo, F. R.;
Lopes, Fernao.



Lamellibranchia (in part).



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

E. V. L. EDWARD VERRALL LUCAS. f

Editor of Works of Charles Lamb. Author of Life of Charles Lamb. \ Lamb, Charles.

F. E. B. FRANK EVERS BEDDARD, M.A., F.R.S. f

Prosector of Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at Guy's w
Hospital, London. Naturalist to " Challenger " Expedition Commission, 1882-
1884. Author of Monograph of the Oligochaeta; Animal Colouration; &c. I

F. E. W. REV. FREDERICK EDWARD WARREN, M.A., B.D., F.S.A. f Lection, Lectionary;

Rector of Bardwell, Bury St Edmunds. Fellow of St John's College, Oxford, Lector*
1865-1882. Author of The Old Catholic Ritual done into English and compared with 1 i *. '.
the Corresponding Offices in the Roman and Old German Manuals; The Liturgy and *"' an y>
Ritual of the Celtic Church; &c. [ Liturgy.

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. f. . , ,. ,

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. \ LomDarOS (in part).

F. G. P. FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST. I"

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I Liver: Anatomy
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. |
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I

F. J. H. FRANCIS JOHN HA VERFIELD, M.A. , LL.D., F.S.A. f . .. ,

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of J Legion (in part) ;
Brasenose College. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. | Limes Germanicus.
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c.

F. L.* SIR FRANKLIN LUSHINGTON, M.A. f t^

Formerly Chief Police Magistrate for London. Author of Wagers of Battle. \ '

F. V. B. F. VINCENT BROOKS. j Lithography.

F. v. H. BARON FRIEDRICH VON HUGEL.



Member of Cambridge Philological Society ; Member of Hellenic Society. Author -\ Loisy .
of The Mystical Element of Religion.

F. Wa. FRANCIS WATT, M.A. f

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room; Scotland o/-j Law, John.
to-day; &c.

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Labradorite*

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. ~\ , , ,'.
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. ( **P 1S ^ zuu -

F. W. Ra. FRANCIS WILLIAM RAIKES, K.C., LL.D. (1842-1906). f

Judge of County Courts, Hull, 1898-1906. Joint-author of The New Practice; &c. \ tllen>

G. A. Gr. GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., D.LITT. (Dubl.).

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of

India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of -i Lahnda.

the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of

The Languages of India ; &c.

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON. M.A., F.R.HiST.S. r .

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909- J i j m hunr
1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the ]
British Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations. [

G. F. B. GEORGE FREDERICK BARWICK. (

Assistant- Keeper of Printed Books and Superintendent of Reading-room, British \ Lavigerie.
Museum.

G. F. K. GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ, A.M., PH.D., D.Sc.

Gem Expert to Messrs Tiffany & Co., New York. Hon. Curator of Precious Stones,

American Museum of Natural History, New York. Fellow of Geological Society of ^ Lapidary and Gem-cutting.

America. Author of Precious Stones of North America; &c. Senior Editor of Book

of the Pearl. \_

G. H. C. GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. f

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: < Lepidoptera.
Their Structure and Life. [_

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURV, D.C.L., LL.D. J JUS? L * T0 ^ nB '

See the biographical article: SAINTSBURV, GEORGE E. B. [ HZchefoucauld; Le Sage.

G. S. L. GEORGE SOMES LA YARD. f

Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Author of Charles J Linton, William James.
Keene ; Shirley Brooks ; &c.

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. r

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old } Labid.
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

H. A. L. HENDRIK ANTOON LORENTZ. r

Professor of Physics in the University of Leiden. Author of La theorie electro- < Light: Nature of.
magnetique de Maxwell et son application aux corps mouvanls.

H. B. W.* HENRY BENJAMIN WHEATLEY, F.S.A. f

Assistant Secretary, Royal Society of Arts, 1879-1909. President of the Samuel J London: History.
Pepys Club, 1903-1910. Vice-President of the Bibliographical Society, 1908-1910. |
Author of The Story of London ; London Past and Present ; &c. L

H. B. Wo. HORACE BOLINGBROKE WOODWARD, F.R.S. , F.G.S. [Logan, Sir William E.;

Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. ! Lonsdale William
President Geologists' Association, 1893-1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908. I



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of i Lloyd George, D.

the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition. L

H. De. REV. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. S Lawrence, St;

Bollandist. Joint-author of the Acta Sanctorum. I Linus.

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, M.A., F.R.S., PH.D. [

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge, "j Lizard.
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles (Cambridge Natural History). L

H. F. P. HENRY FRANCIS PELHAM, LL.D. /Livy (in part}.

See the biographical article: PELHAM, H. F. L

H. H. J. SIR HENRY HAMILTON JOHNSTON, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. /Liberia

See the biographical article : JOHNSTON, SIR HENRY HAMILTON. L

H. M. S. HENRY MORSE STEPHENS, M.A., LITT.D. f -

Professor of History and Director of University Extension, University of California. ( Llttre.
Author of History of the French Revolution ; Revolutionary Europe ; &c. L

H. R. T. HENRY RICHARD TEDDER, F.S.A. (Libraries (in part).

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. L

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. J Lange Friedrich Albert.

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism. I

H. T. A. REV. HERBERT THOMAS ANDREWS. [

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of the J Loeia
"Commentary on Acts," in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the]
Apocryphal Books in the " Century Bible."

H. W. B.* HERBERT WILLIAM BLUNT, M.A. f _

Student, Tutor, and Librarian, Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of All 1 Logic. History.
Souls' College.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. f T ._...,.

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, J p n nc '
1895-1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins; I Langton, Stephen.
&c.

H. Y. SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I. /Lhasa (in

See the biographical article : YULE, SIR HENRY. \

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS. [ Lazarus, Emma;

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J _-_ M oses -
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short | J* 011 ' ~*
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. L Leon Of Modena.

J. An. JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D.

Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. Assistant Secretary to J Lake Dwellings.
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, and Rhind Lecturer, 1879-1882 and 1892. 1
Editor of Drummond's Ancient Scottish Weapons; &c.

J. A. P. JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of J Leyden Jar;
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 1 Lighting: Electric.
Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles
of Electric Wave Telegraphy ; Magnets and Electric Currents ; &c.

J. A. F. M. JOHN ALEXANDER FULLER MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A.

Musical critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann ; The Musician's Pil- j

grimage ; Masters of German Music ; English Music in the Nineteenth Century ; "j Lind, Jenny.

The Age of Bach and Handel. Editor of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians ;

&c. I

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. [ Lias;

Curator and Librarian of the Musi ~' D ''"' ^ ' * ' A " i!

The Geology of Building Stones ; &c.



Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of S Llandoverv Group



J. Dr. SIR JAMES DEWAR, F.R.S. , LL.D. -f Liquid Gases.

See the biographical article: DEWAR, SIR J. \

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. f

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe, j To r j ssa
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. L

J. D. Br. JAMES DUFF BROWN. f ,

Borough Librarian, Islington Public Libraries. Vice-President of the Library^ Libraries (in part).
Association. Author of Guide to Librarianship; &c.

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D., F.R.HiST.S. f

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. La Cueva;
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. < Larra;
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Literature.
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.

J. F. St. JOHN FREDERICK STENNING, M.A. f

Dean and Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Aramaic, { Leviticus.
Lecturer in Divinity and Hebrew at Wadham College.

f Lancaster, House of;
J. Ga. JAMES GAIRDNER C.B., LL.D. J Leicester, Robert Dudley, earl

See the biographical article: GAIRDNER, JAMES. j

J. G. F. SIR JOSHUA GIRLING FITCH, LL.D. /Lancaster, Joseph.

See the biographical article: FITCH, SIR J. G. L



X

J. 6. N.

J. G. P.*
3. G. R.

J. Hn.

J. H. F.
J. HI. R.

J. J. L.*

J. K. I.

J. Le.
J. L.M.

J. L. W.

J. Mu.
J. M. C.
J. M. G.

J. P. E.
J. P. P.
J. P. Pe.

J.S.

J. Si.

J. S. P.

J. S. K.

J. S. W.
J. T. Be.

J. T. Br.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



JOHN GEORGE NICOLAY (1832-1901).

Marshal of the U.S. Supreme Court, 1872-1887.
&c.



Joint-author of A braham Lincoln: 4 Lincoln, Abraham (in part).



JAMES GORDON PARKER, D.Sc., F.C.S. f

Principal of Leathersellers Technical College, London. Gold Medallist, Society i Leather.



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