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THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

SIXTH

SEVENTH

EIGHTH

NINTH

TENTH

ELEVENTH



edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771-

ten 17771784.

eighteen 17881797.

twenty 1801 1810.

twenty 18151817.

twenty 1823 1824.

twenty-one 1830 1842.

twenty-two 1853 1860.

twenty-five 18751889.
ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911*



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR. MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



All rtfhts reserved



THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XIII

HARMONY to HURSTMONCEAUX




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 32nd Street
IQIO



E3



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XIII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



A. E. G.* REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D. [

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and J Harocu i ,\

the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life ] resy <* r art >-
of Jesus, &c.

A. D. HENRY AUSTIN DOBSON, LL.D. J Hogarth.

See the biographical article, DOBSON, H. A. I

A. E. T. W. ALFRED EDWARD THOMAS WATSON. f w ., , .

Editor of the Badminton Library and Badminton Magazine. Formerly Editor J R K&cm S (tn part);
of the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News. Author of The Racing World and ] Hunting.
its Inhabitants; &c.

A. C. S. ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. J Hugo victor

See the biographical article, SWINBURNE, A. C. I

A. Cy. ARTHUR ERNEST COWLEY, M.A., LITT.D. f Hebrew Language;

Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College. \ Hebrew Literature.

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HisT.S. r Heath, Nicholas;

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls I Henry VIII. of England*
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- H rf nnn p- "u
1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892, Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England no P el > B'snop;
under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I Humphrey, Lawrence.

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. / Hofmann, Melchior;

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. I Hotman.

A. H. S. REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D. , LITT.D., LL.D. Humboldt Karl W Von

See the biographical article, SAYCE, A. H. \

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. f ~ _

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ Hormuz (tn part).

A. J. H. ALFRED J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. (1826-1903). ,

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music,
London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; oM Harp (in part).
the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical I
Instruments ; &c.

A. L. ANDREW LANG. f Hauntings.

See the biographical article, LANG, ANDREW. I



A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE.



See the biographical article, CLERKE, A. M.



A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.



See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED.



Herschel, Sir F. W. (in part) ;
Herschel, Sir J. F. W.

(in part).

Hevelius; Hipparchus;
Horroeks; Huggins;
Humboldt.

Harpy; Harrier; Hawfinch;
Hawk; Heron; Hoactzin;
Honeyeater; Honey Guide;



Hoopoe; Hornbill;
. Humming-Bird.
A. SI. ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P. r

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of Industrial Efficiency; J Housing.
The London Water Supply; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. f Henry IV.: Roman Emperor;

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. < Hide; Hohenzollern;

[Honorius II.; Anti-Pope.

A. W. W. ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D. f _

See the biographical article, WARD, A. W. \ Hrosvitna.

C. A. M. F. CHARLES AUGUSTUS MAUDE FENNELL, M.A., LITT.D. ["

Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Editor of Pindar's Odes and Frag- -I Hercules.
mints ; and of the Stanford Dictionary of A nglicised Words and Phrases.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, with the articles so signed, appears in the final volume.

V



VI

C. B.
C. El.

C. F. A.
C. H. Ha.
C. J. L.

C. L. K.

C. Mo.
C. P.

C. Pf.

C. R. B.

C. S.

C. W. W.

D. B. M.
D. F. T.

D. Gi.

D. G. H.

D. H.

D. Mn.

D. S.*

E. C. B.
E. D. B.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

CHARLES BEMONT, Lirr.D. (Oxon.). jHavet;

See the biographical article, BEMONT, C. I Hozier.

SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B, M.A., LL.D., D^C.L. (

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Hissar (in part),

Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East -4 Hungary: Language;

Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; and Consul-General Huns.

for German East Africa, 1900-1904.

CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London
(Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.



Hohenlohe (in part).



Member 1 Honorius II., III., IV.



CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City,
of the American Historical Association.

SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).

Secretary Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King s College, J _

London. Secretary to Government of India, Home Department, 1889-1894. 1 Hmdostam
Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of Translations
of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.

CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HisT.S., F.S.A.

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V.
Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow's Survey of London.

WILLIAM COSMO MONKHOUSE.

See the biographical article, MONKHOUSE, W. C.



Henry IV., V., VI.:



REV. CHARLES PRITCHARD, M.A.

See the biographical article, PRITCHARD, CHARLES.



| Hunt, W. Holman.

f Hersehel, Sir F. W.

(in part);

I Hersehel, Sir J. F. W.
L (in part).



CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ES-L.

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
of Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux.

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Lnr.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography.
Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

CARL SCHTJRZ, LL.D.

See the biographical article, SCHURZ, CARL.

SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary
Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com-
mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General
of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of
Lord Clive; &c.

DAVID BINNING MONRO, M.A., Lrrr.D.

See the biographical article, MONRO, DAVID BINNING.



Author j Hunald.



Hayton; Henry
the Navigator.



| Hayes,



Rutherford B.



Hierapolis (in part).



Homer



DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The -I Harmony.
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. (_



SIR



DAVID GILL, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.A.S., D.Sc.

H.M. Astronomer at Cape of Good Hope, 1879-1907. Served in Geodetic Survey

of Egypt, and on the expedition to Ascension Island to determine the Solar J Heliometer.

Parallax by observations of Mars. Directed Geodetic Survey of Natal, Cape Colony i

and Rhodesia. Author of Geodetic Survey of South Africa; Catalogues of Stars for

the Equinoxes (1850, 1860, 1885, 1890, 1900); &c.



DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens,
1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.



DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona.
Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.



Author of Short History of the Royal



REV. PUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A.

Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive
Congregational Ideals; &c.

DAVID SHARP, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., F.Z.S.

Editor of the Zoological Record. Formerly Curator of Museum of Zoology, Univer-
sity of Cambridge. President of Entomological Society of London. Author of
" Insecta " (Cambridge Natural History); &c.

RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.Lrrr.

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius "
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.

EDWIN DAMPIER BRICKWOOD.
Author of Boat-Racing ; &c.



Heraclea (in part);
Hierapolis (in part);
Hittites; Horus.

f Heyn; Hood, Viscount;
"I Howe, Earl; Humour.

f Henderson, Alexander
(_ (in part).

f
Hexapoda (in part).



f Hieronymites;
| Hilarion, Saint.

f Horse: History;
\Horse-Racing (in part).



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES vii

E. D. Bu. EDWARD DUNDAS BUTLER.

Formerly Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Foreign J * ungary: Literature
Member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Author of Hungarian Poems and (in part).
Fables for English Readers ; &c.

E. E. S. ERNEST EDWARD SIKES, M.A. f

Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer, St John's College, Cambridge. Newton Student at J Hephaestus;
Athens, 1890. Editor of the Prometheus Vinctus of Aeschylus, and of The Homeric 1 Hera; Hermes.
Hymns.

E. F. S. EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. C

Assistant-Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of J Hiroshige;

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor 1 Hokusai
of Bell's " Cathedral Series. I

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. J Heroic Romances;

See the biographical article, GOSSE, EDMUND, W. Heroic Verse;

I Herrick; Holberg.

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.Lirr. (Oxon.), LL.D. f

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte S Hormizd.
des Alterthums ; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens ; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. {,

E. M. W. REV. EDWARD MEWBURN WALKER, M.A. J Herodotus (;*, * r i\

Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen's College, Oxford. I

E. 0.* EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, I Heart: Sttreerv
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner H w prn ja
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of
A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. [

E. Pr. EDGAR PRESTAGE. f

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature at the University of Manchester. Com- I Herculano de Carvalho e
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon | Araiyo.
Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society. I

E. Re.* EMIL REICH, Doc. JURIS., F.R.HisT.S. /Huiwarv- m* rn i,, r , (;*, * n , t

Author of Hungarian Literature ; History of Civilization ; &c. \ * ' Dgary ' Llterature ( P

E. R. B. EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A. f

New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the High 1 Hellenism.
Priests. I

F. B. FELICE BARNABEI, LITT.D.

Formerly Director of Museum of Antiquities at Rome. Author of archaeological
papers in Italian reviews and in the Athenaeum.

F. C. C. FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. (Giessen). f

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. \ Holy Water.
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magi? and Morals; &c. {

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. f Heruli.

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. \

F. G. P. FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST. f

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer oirj Heart- A t
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 1
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. L

F. G. S. F. G. STEPHENS. f

Formerly art critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruik- I jj o j] Frank.

shank; Memorials of W. Mulready; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Landseer;\
T. C. Hook, R.A.;&c.

F. H. B. FRANCIS HENRY BUTLER, M.A. f Honey; Hunter, John;

Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of the Royal School of Mines. \ Hunter, William.

F. LL G. FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. r Heliopolis;

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey! i orrnec TVimo<ri<:tii<:'
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1 fl erl
German Archaeological Institute. I Horus.

F. 0. B. FREDERICK ORPEN BOWER, D.Sc., F.R.S. r

Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow. Author of Practical J Hofmeister.
Botany for Beginners.

F. Px. FRANK PUAUX. r

President of the Societe de 1'Histoire du Protestantisme francais. Author of J _ ,

Les Precurseurs francais de la tolerance ; Histoire de I' etablissement des protestants l HUguenoiS.
fran$ais en Suede; L'Eglise reformee de France; &c.

G. A. Gr. GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E. PH.D., D.Lrrr.

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 18731903. In charge of Linguistic Survey

of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of -| Hindustani.

the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of

The Languages of India ; &c.

G. C. R. GEORGE GROOM ROBERTSON M.A. J Hobbes Thomas (in part).

See the biographical article, ROBERTSON, G. C. \

G. C. W. GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D. f Hilliard Lawrence*

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard J '. 'U- C IH_

Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition 1 ira > w

of Bryan's Dictionary of Printers and Engravers. [ Humphry, Ozias.



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

0. G. S. GEORGE GREGORY SMITH, M.A. f

Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. Author of The\ Henryson.
Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HisT.S. f Holland: History.

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. J Holland: County and

Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- 1

tion of Literature. Province of.

G. H. C. GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. f

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the! * rniptera;
Association of Economic Biologists. Member of the Royal Irish Academy. Author] Hexapoda (in part).
of Insects: their Structure and Life; &c. '

G. J. T. GEORGE JAMES TURNER.

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas for the Forests for the H Hundred.
Selden Society. L

G. K. GUSTAV KRUGER. f =__,,,

Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen. Author of Das'] ll PP 'y lus -
Papsitum; &c.

G. R. REV. GEORGE RAWLINSON, M.A. f Herodotus (in part).

See the biographical article, RAWLINSON, GEORGE. I

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. f Hasan-ul-Basn

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old 1 Hassan ibn Thablt;
Testament Histony at Mansfield College, Oxford. [ Hisham ibn al-Kalbi.

H. LORD HOUGHTON. /Hood, Thomas.

See the biographical article, HOUGHTON, IST BARON.

H. Br. HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D. J

Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. ] Holland.

Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
H. Bt. SIR HENRY BURDETT, K.C.B., K.C.V.O. f

Founder and Editor of The Hospital. Formerly Superintendent of the Queen's J Hospital.

Hospital, Birmingham, and the Seamen's Hospital, Greenwich. Author of 1

Hospitals and Asylums of the World; &c.

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition^ Howe ' Samuel Gndley.
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition.

H. De. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. f

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandianai ena > 5t * ert st>
and A eta sanctorum.

H. L. HENRI LABROSSE. f Hugh of St Cher.

Assistant Librarian at the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. iOfficer of the Academy. L

H. L. C. HUGH LONGBOURNE CALLENDAR, F.R.S., LL.D. J

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, Condon. Formerly Professor of "l Heat.
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. I

H. M. V. HERBERT M. VAUGHAN, F.S.A. [ Henry, Stuart (Cardinal

Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; 1 York)
The Las: Stuart Queen.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. f Henry L IL ' IIL:

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1 f England. _
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. [ Henry of Huntingdon.

H. W. R.* REV. HENRY WHEELER ROBINSON, M.A. I"

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, J Hosea (in part).

Oxford, IQOI. Author of Hebrew />-""'-'- -'- D-I-I..'...- > .,;, ^ <;..>,; i

(in Mansfield College Essays) ; &c.
H. W. S. H. WICKHAM STEED.

Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, *j Humbert, King.

1897-1902.-

H. Y. SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., C.B. f Hormuz (in part);

See the biographical article, YuLE/-SlR H. |_ Hsiian Tsang (in part).

1. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. f Hasdai ibn Shaprut;

Reader in Talmudic "and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Herzl'

Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short \ ,,.L c-mcnn n

History of Jewish literature ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages ; Judaism ; &c. I H rscn ' aar

J. A. C. SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G. /Hnhhpma- Hnlhcin

See the biographical article, CROWE, SIR J. A. I H

J. A. R. VERY REV. JOSEPH ARMITAGE ROBINSON, D.D. f

Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ's

College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Norris- J. Hippolytus, The Canons Of.
ian 'Professor of Divinity in the University. Author of Some Thoughts on the
Incarnation; &c.

J. Bt. JAMES BARTLETT. f

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's J Heating.

College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of 1
Junior Engineers.



Oxford, 15)01. ^Author^of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology^



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix

J. B. T. SIR JOHN BATTY TUKE, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), D.Sc., LL.D. f

President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director J ,

of New SaughtoA Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universities of Edinburgh 1 M 'PP cra tes.

and St Andrews, 1900-1910. (_

J. Da. REV. JAMES DAVIES, M.A. (1820-1883). f

Formerly Head Master of Ludlow Grammar School and Prebendary of Hereford J D j /
Cathedral. Translated classical authors for Bohn's " Classical Library." Author 1 Hesloa U part).
of volumes in Collins's Ancient Classics for English Readers.

J. E. H. JULIUS EGGELING, PH.D. f

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, University of Edinburgh. *! Hinduism.
Formerly Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic Society.

J. F. F. JOHN FAITHFULL FLEET, C.I.E. f

Commissioner of Central and Southern Divisions of Bombay, 1891-1897. Author { Hindu Chronology.

of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings ; &c.

J. F. H. B. SIR JOHN FRANCIS HARPIN BROADBENT, BART., M.A., M.D. r

Physician to Out-Patients, St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Hampstead n t .

General Hospital. Assistant Physician to the London Fever Hospital. Author) e8rl> Heart Disease.

of Heart Disease and Aneurysm; &c.

J. G.* REV. JAMES Gow, M.A., LITT.D. /-

Head Master of Westminster School. Fellow of King's College, London. Formerly I

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of Horace's Odes and Satires. Author 1 Horace (w part).

of A Companion to the School Classics; &c.

J. Ga. JAMES GAIRDNER, C.B. r

See the biographical article, GAIRDNER, J. \ Henry VII.: of England.

J. G. M. JOHN GRAY MCKENDRICK, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P. (Edin.) f

Emeritus Professor of Physiology at the University of Glasgow. Author of Life -| f
in Motion ; Life of Helmholtz ; &c. \ Helmholtz.

J. G. R. JOHN GEORGE ROBERTSON, M.A. , PH.D. [Heine (in part);

Professor of German at the University of London. Formerly Lecturer on the English -| Hildebrand Lay of-
Language, Strassburg University. Author of History of German Literature; &c. Hoffmann *E T W

J. Hn. JUSTUS HASHAGEN, PH.D. f Hecker, F. F. K.;

Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of- Hertzberg Count Von'
Das Rheinland unter der franzosischen Herrschaft. Hormavr

J. H. A. H. JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A. /-

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. \ Herod; Herodians.

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. r

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. -j Herald; Hesiod (in part).

J. H. Mu. JOHN HENRY MUIRHEAD, M.A., LL.D. /

Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of Elements \ He S e!: Hegelianism in
of Ethics; Philosophy and Life; &c. Editor of Library of Philosophy. 1 England.

3. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). r

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage andJ Here ward.
Pedigree.

3. J. F. REV. JAMES J. Fox. (

St Thomas's College, Brookland, D.C., U.S.A. \ Hecker, I. T.

J. K. L. SIR JOHN KNOX LAUGHTON, M.A., LITT.D. r

Professor of Modern History, King's College, London, Secretary of the Navy
Records Society. Served in the Baltic, 1854-1855; in China, 1856-1850. Honorary Tr j
Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow, King's College, London. ] Hood of
Author of Physical Geography in its Relation to the Prevailing Winds and Currents;
Studies in Naval History; Sea Fights and Adventures; &c.

J. M. M. JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL. r

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London J Heraclitus;

College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 1 Hume, David (in part).

3. P.-B. JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST. r

Editor of the Guardian (London). ! Hepplewhite.

J. P. Pe. REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. r

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in

the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to J Hillah; Hit.

Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the \

Euphrates.

3. S. Co. JAMES SUTHERLAND COTTON, M.A.

Editor of The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Explora-
tion Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's College, Oxford. Author 1 Hastings, Warren.
of India in the " Citizen " Series; &c.

J. S. F. JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S.

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J Homfels.



Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby '
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. L

J. T. Be. JOHN T. BEALBY.

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ Hissar (in part).
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet; &c. \_



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

J. T. C. JOSEPH THOMAS CUNNINGHAM, M.A., F.Z.S. f

Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow J Op,-,,,,
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in'the 1
University of Edinburgh and Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. I

J. T. Mo. JOHN TORREY MORSE, Jr. /

Author of The Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes. \ Uo es, Oliver Wendell.

J. T. S.* JAMES THOMSON SHOTWELL, PH.D. f

Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. \



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