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THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

SIXTH

SEVENTH

EIGHTH

NINTH

TENTH

ELEVENTH



edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771.

ten 17771784.

eighteen 1788 1797.

twenty 1801 1810.

twenty 1815 1817.

twenty 1823 1824.

twenty-one ' 1830 1842.

twenty-two 1853 1860.

twenty-five 1875 1889.
ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



All rights reserved



THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XIX

MUN to ODDFELLOWS




Cambridge, England:
at the University Press

New York, 35 West 32nd Street
1911



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XIX. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



A. A. W. H. AMBROSIUS ARNOLD WILLEM HUBRECHT, LL.D., D.Sc., PH.D.

Professor of Zoology, and Director of the Institute of Zoology in the University-^ Nemertina (in part).
of Utrecht. Author of Nemertines. I

A. Ca. ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S. I Numbers, Partition of.

See the biographical article : CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

A. E. S. ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. J JJematoda (in part);

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University, i Nematomorpna;

Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History. I- Nemertina (in part).

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HisT.S. f

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' Nicholas, Henry;

College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- -j Northumberland, John Dudley,

1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of duke of.

England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. I

A. Ge. SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, K.C.B. \

See the biographical article : GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD. \

r Mutian;

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. J ,_. .

Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester. US '

1 Myconius, Oswald.



Nnn n|ot nn icm a n
M 80 ? 1 " 0111 l I*



A. Ha. ADOLF HARNACK, PH.D.

See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. \

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINBLER, C.I.E. f W | eh ,.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ m

A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. f Nestorians (f part);

Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent) NestOHUS (in part);
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of | New Jerusalem Church;
Mysore Educational Service. [ Nicholas of Basel.

A. L. ANDREW LANG, LL.D. f Mytholop;

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW. Name (Local and Personal

Names).
A. LI. D. ARTHUR LLEWELLYN DAVIES (d. 1907).

Trinity College, Cambridge; Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Formerly Assistant -I Negligence.

Reader in Common Law under the Council of Legal Education.

A. M. CL AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Edward Wilde). ("

Late Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-editor of Sources of-{ Municipium.
Roman History, 133-70 B.C. l_

( Nestor;

Nidiflcation (in part);

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. ., . Vn ^ .

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. tmgaie, fi lay.

Nutcracker; Nuthatch;

[ Oeydrome.

A. P. H. ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P. f

President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies ;

&c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical I w a tal (in hn.rf)

practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, '

and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts,

1910.

A. R. S. SIR ALEXANDER RUSSELL SIMPSON, M.D., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.).

Emeritus Professor of Midwifery, Edinburgh University. Dean of the Faculty of -I Obstetrics.
Medicine and Professor in the University, 1870-1905.

A. S. E. ARTHUR STANLEY EDDINGTON, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.A.S. f

Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, \ Nebula.
Cambridge.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributions, appears in the final volume.

v

1988



all]

n



VI

A. S. P.-P.

A. Ts.

A. W. H.*
A. W. Hu.

B.

S. R



B. S. P.

B. W.*

C. F. M. B.

C. H. Ha.
C. H. W. J.

C. K. S.
C. M.

C. Mi.

C.PL
C. R. B.

C. S. S.

D. B. Ma.
D. F. T.
D. G. H.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford J Mysticism.
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy.
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos ; The Philosophical Radicals ; &c.

ALBERT THOMAS.

Member of the French Chamber of Deputies. Contributor to Vol. xi. of theH Napoleon III.
Cambridge Modern History. Author of Le second Empire, &c. I



ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford.



Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900



I Nonjurors.



'ARTHUR WOLLASTON HUTTON. f

Rector of Bow Church, Cheapside, London. Formerly Librarian of the National J
Liberal Club. Author of Life of Cardinal Manning. Editor of Newman's Lives 1
of the English Saints ; &c. I

-LORD BALCARRES, F.S.A., M.P.

Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Hon. Secretary of Society for Protection
of Ancient Buildings; Vice-Chairman of National Trust. Junior Lord of the'
Treasury, 1903-1905. M.P. for Chorley division of Lanes from 1895. Son and
heir of the 26th earl of Crawford.



Museums of Art..



SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., ASSOC.INST.C.E.,

M.INST.M.E.

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of
London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical "
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of
Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and
its Products; Chemical Technology; &c.



Naphtha.



BERTHA SURTEES PHILPOTTS, M.A. (Dublin).

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.

BECKLES WILLSON.

Author of The Hudson's Bay Company ; The Romance of Canada ; &c.

CHARES FREDERIC MOBERLY BELL.

Managing Director of The Times. Correspondent in Egypt, 1865-1890. Author of
Khedives and Pashas; From Pharaoh to Fellah; &c.



j Norway: Early History.



Newfoundland.



JJubar Pasha.



Author of ) Nineveh.



CARLTON HUNTLY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. r iis/.i.i., m ru

Assistant Professor of History at Columbia University, New York City. Member J * las ' m " IV
of the American Historical Association. [ (popes).

REV. CLAUDE HERMANN WALTER JOHNS, M.A., LITT.D.

Master of St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Canon of Norwich.
Assyrian Deeds and Documents.

CLEMENT KING SHORTER. r

Editor of the Sphere. Author of Charlotte Bronte and her Circle; The Brontes :J *
Life and Letters ; &c. [ Illustrated Papers.

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.TH. f

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik < Nicaea, Council of.
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstlhums ; &c. [

CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH. r

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's, 1895-1900, and 1902-
1903-

CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ES L. f

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J Neustria.
Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux.

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT.



Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow J .

of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. ] Nlkltin;

Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. [ Norden, John.

CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON, D.Sc., M.D., M.A., F.R.S., LL.D. r

Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member of Academies J Mnclim Ihn
of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of The Integrative Action of]
the Nervous System. |_

DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D. r

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of J mr.,-,1,. _ nl i
Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selec-} rauscle
lions from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. [_

DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. f

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical
works.

DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis 1899 and
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



vn



D. H.
D. M. W.

D. N. P.

D. Wr.

E. A. F.
E. B. T.
E. F. S.

E.G.

E. Gr.
E.He.

E. H. M.
Ed. M.

E. N.-R.
E. Pr.

E. P. C.
E. R. L.



E. S. G.
E. Wa.

E. W. H.*

F. E. B.

F. G. M. B.
F. G. P.



DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona.
Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.



{Napoleonic Campaigns:
Naval Operations;
Navarino, Battle of; Navy;
Nelson; Nile, Battle of the.



SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE, K.C.I. E., K.C.V.O.

Extra Groom-in-Waiting to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Depart-
ment of The Times, 1891-1899. Joint-editor of new volumes (loth edition) of the { Nihilism.
Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question;
The Web of Empire; &c.

DIARMID NOEL PATON, M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.).

Regius Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Super- I

intendent of Research Laboratory of Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh. T Nutrition.

Biological Fellow of Edinburgh University, 1884. Author of Essentials of Human I

Physiology; &c.
DANIEL WRIGHT, M.D.

Translated the History of Nepaul, from the Parbatiya, with an " Introductory -| Nepal (in part).

Sketch of the Country and People of Nepaul." L

EDWARD AUGUSTUS FREEMAN, LL.D. ("

See the biographical article: FREEMAN, E. A. \ Nobility; Normans.



EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, D.C.L., LL.D.

See the biographical article: TYLOR, EDWARD BURNETT.

EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE.

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects,
of Bell's " Cathedral '' Series.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

See the biographical article : GOSSE, EDMUND.



Oath.



Member of n llt ,i,o,>*,,
Joint-editor 1 lnk aesy.



ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A.

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY.



: Norton, Thomas;
J Norway: Norwegian Literature;
[ Novel.

'. Mycenae; Naucratis.



Librarian of the Royal



Geographical -j Nyasa.



Neuri.



Nascimento.



EDWARD HEAWOOD, M.A.

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Society, London.

ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A.

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.

EDWARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LITT. (Oxon.), LL.D.

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme.

EUSTACE NEVILLE-ROLFE, C.V.O. (1845-1908). -f Nanles

Formerly H.M. Consul-General at Naples. Author of Naples in the 'Nineties; &c. \ '

EDGAR PRESTAGE.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester.
Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com-
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters
of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea ; &c.

E. P. CATHCART, M.D.

Grieve Lecturer in Chemical Physiology, University of Glasgow.

SIR EDWIN RAY LANKESTER, K.C.B., F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc., LL.D. f

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906.
Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London,
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898.
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907.
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905.
Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c.

EDWIN STEPHEN GOODRICH, M.A., F.R.S.

Fellow and Librarian of Merton College, Oxford. Aldrichian Demonstrator of Com-
parative Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford.

REV. EDMOND WARRE, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O.

Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Headmaster of Eton
College, 1884-1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c.



Narses (King of Persia).



| Nutrition (in part).



Mussel (in part).



Myzostomida.



Oar.



SIR EDWARD WALTER HAMILTON, G.C.B., K.C.V.O. (1847-1908). r v .. . n

Joint Permanent Secretary to H.M. Treasury, 1902-1908. Author of National J " onal "
Debt Conversion and Redemption. Conversions (in part).



FRANK EVERS BEDDARD, M.A., F.R.S.

Prosector of the Zoological Society, London. Formerly Lecturer in Biology at
Guy's Hospital, London. Naturalist to "Challenger" Expedition Commission,
1882-1884. Author of Text-Book of Zoogeography; Animal Coloration; &c.

FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.

FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on
'



... ,. -,

lematooa (in part).



r M uscu i ar system-
"



-, .

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. 1 Nerve;
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. L Nervous System.



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

F. J. H. FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. f

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Senior Censor, Student, Tutor -i Numantia.
and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford, 1891-1907. Author of Monographs on
Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c.

F. LI. G. FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A.

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and J
Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial |
German Archaeological Institute. L

F. L. L. LADY LUGARD. f Nassarawa;

See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F. J. D. \ Nigeria.

F. N. M. COL. FREDERIC NATUSCH MAUDE, C.B. (" jj aDO i eon i c

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the~{ f,...
World's Policy; The Leipzig Campaign ; The Jena Campaign; &c. L **

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. ("Natal (in part); Niger;

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ Nile (in part).

F. W. Ha. FREDERICK WILLIAM HASLUCK, M.A. r

Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King's^ Mysia.
College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901. [_

F. W. Mo. FREDERICK WALKER MOTT, F.R.S., M.D., F.R.C.P. f"

Physician to Charing Cross Hospital, London. Pathologist to the London County J Neuralgia; Neurasthenia;
Asylums. Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal Institution. Editor of Archives | Neuropathology.
of Neurology. I

G. A. C.* REV. GEORGE ALBERT COOKE, M.A., D.D. f

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture. University of Oxford. .
Fellow of Oriel College; Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral,
Edinburgh. Formerly Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. L

G. B. M. GEORGE BALLARD MATHEWS, M.A., F.R.S. [

Professor of Mathematics, University College of N. Wales, Bangor, 1884-1896. 4 Number.
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. L

G. C. L. GEORGE COLLINS LEVEY, C.M.G.

Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General for Victoria. Formerly Editor and

Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal Com- -\ New South Wales: History.

mission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the

Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne.

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HiST.S. \

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909- J w ,, . ,
1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the j letnerianos.
British Guiana- Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian Boundary Arbitrations. [

G. F. H.* GEORGE FRANCIS HILL, M.A. r

Assistant in the Department of Coins, British Museum. Corresponding Member of I v um j sma tics
the German and Austrian Archaeological Institutes. Author of Coins of Ancient"]
Sicily ; Historical Greek Coins ; Historical Roman Coins ; &c. L

G. H. Bo. REV. GEORGE HERBERT Box, M.A. r

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Bedfordshire. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, Uni- J Nahum
versity of Oxford. 1908-1909. Author of Short Introduction to Literature of the Old |
Testament; &c. t

G. H. C. GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. (Lond.). f

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: -I Neuroptera.
their Structure and Life.

G. J. T. GEORGE JAMES TURNER. f

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden J. Northampton, Assize of.
Society. [

G. K. G. GROVE KARL GILBERT, LL.D. r

Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. President of the American Geological Society, J wj aeara
1892-1893 and 1909-1910. Formerly Special Lecturer at Cornell, Columbia and 1
Johns Hopkins Universities. Author of Glaciers and Glaciation ; &c. L

G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. r-vi j._ rn, u - -

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old J HaDl?
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. ( Nawawl; Nosairis.

H. A. G. HERBERT APPOLD GRUEBER, F.S.A.

Keeper of Coins and Medals, British Museum. Treasurer of the Egypt Exploration I

Fund. Vice-President of the Royal Numismatic Society. Author of Coins of the'] Numismatics (in part).

Roman Republic ; &c.

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f National Debt <i

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the llth edition of -| H
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition. [ newspapers.

H. D. T. H. DENNIS TAYLOR. /

Inventor of the Cooke Photographic Lenses. Author of A System of Applied Optics. \ Objective.

H. E. KARL HERMANN ETHE, M.A., Pn.D. r

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of J Nasir Khosrau;
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, 1 NizamL
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. fvMii.. HT / j i- i

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author \ *
of " Amphibia and Reptiles," in the Cambridge Natural History. I tton.

H. F. P. HENRY FRANCIS PELHAM, LL.D., D.C.L. f .

See the biographical article : PELHAM, HENRY FRANCIS. \ "'

H. L. B. HANS LIEN BRAEKSTAD. f

Vice-Consul for Norway in London. Author of The Constitution of the Kingdom of-< Norway: History, 1814-1007.
Norway; &c. L

H. M. C. HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A. f

Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and University Lecturer in i Norns.
Scandinavian. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.

H, BI. S. HENRY MORSE STEPHENS, M.A>

Balliol College, Oxford. Professor of History and Director of University Extension, j Necker (in -barf)
University of California. Author of History of the French Revolution ; Modern ]
European History ; &c.

H. M. T. HENRY MARTYN TAYLOR, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; formerly Tutor and Lecturer. Smith's ^ Newton, Sir Isaac.
Prizeman, 1865. Editor of the Pitt Press Euclid. L

H. N. D. HENRY NEWTON DICKSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S. f

Professor of Geography at University College, Reading. Formerly Vice-President, J Morth Sea;
Royal Meteorological Society. Lecturer in Physical Geography, Oxford University, j Norwegian Sea.
Author of Meteorology ; Elements of Weather and Climate ; &c. L

H. R. M. HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.Sc., LL.D.

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Formerly President of the Royal
Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon.



Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St .
Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. British Delegate to International Conference on the
Exploration of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of The Realm of Nature; The
Clyde Sea Area; The English Lakes; The International Geography. Editor of
British Rainfall.



Ocean and Oceanography.



H. St. HENRY STURT. M.A.



{



mj,,n



Author of Idola Theatri ; The Idea of a Free Church ; Personal Idealism.
H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. r

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, J Murimuth* Nennius.
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins ; Charlemagne.

H. Wy. MAJOR-GENERAL HENRY WYLIE, C.S.I. f

Officiating Agent to the Governor-General of India for Baluchistan, 1898-1900. < Nepal (in part).
Resident at Nepal, 1891-1900. I.

H. W. R.* REV. HENRY WHEELER ROBINSON, M.A. r

Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, J _. .. . ,. ..

Oxford, 1901. Author of "Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthrop- 1 Oaoian (in part).
ology," in Mansfield College Essays; &c. L

L A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. (" Nachmanides;

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, I m a j ara .
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- \ " "
ture; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. {. "asi.

J. A. C. SIR JOSEPH ARCHER CROWE, K.C.M.G. /- u.,,, *-, c~ n ^\

See the biographical article : CROWE, SIR JOSEPH ARCHER. \ H( ' er ' V n f art >-

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. (Lond.). f Mncphoiiraiir-

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of -{ rau!>l ' ne *"*
The Geology of Building Stones. I Neocomian.

J. A. L. R. JOHN ATHELSTAN LAURIE RILEY, M.A. J .., / . .%

Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Athos, or the Mountain of the Monks ; &c. \ Nl istonans ( P art >-

J. A. P.* REV. JAMES .ALEXANDER PATERSON, M.A., D.D. f

Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, New College, Edinburgh. Editor < Numbers, BOOK of.
of Book of Numbers in the " Polychrome " Bible; &c. L

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. f

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J Nicholas (King of Monte-
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 1 neern)
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. [

J. F. -K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D., F.R.HiST.S. r

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and_ Literature, Liverpool University.
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. J Nunez de Arce.
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. L

J. Hd. JOHN HOLLINGSHEAD (1827-1904). (*

Founder of the Gaiety Theatre, London. Member of Theatrical Licensing Reform -| Music Halls.
Committee, 1866 and 1892. Author of Gaiety Chronicles; &c. [

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. [ Name: Gree * and &"*an

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Names;

I Noricum.

J. H. H. JOHN HENRY Mn>DLET9N, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). r

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director Mural TWoratinn fi -hurt)-
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South J " U6COra
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times;
Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. f



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