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IWITANNICA

I I I.VI.NTII
EDITION




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INDEX



TO THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



edition, published in three



Tolomes, 1768 1771.



FIRST

SECOND ten 17771784.

THIRD eighteen 17*81797.

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810.

FIFTH twenty 18151817.

SIXTH twenty 18231814.

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842.

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860.

NINTH twenty five 18751889.

TENTH ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1901 1903.

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
FETTER LANE, LONDON, E.G.

C. F. CLAY, MANAGER
Edinburgh : 100, Princes Street




THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XXIX

INDEX




Cambridge :

O

at the University Press
iqn




A El s
E.3



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the

Bern Convention

by

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



*







All rights reserved



INDEX

VOLUME XXIX

PREFACE

IT may, perhaps, appear at first sight that an encyclopaedia arranged in alphabetical order should
need no Index volume, more especially a work like the Eleventh Edition of the Encycloptedia
Britannica, which has replaced the comprehensive general, or " omnibus," articles, so char-
acteristic of the earlier editions, by a number of shorter articles easily consulted by the student.
But it still remains true that to make the fullest and best use of the book an index of some kind is
imperatively needed. Since any encyclopaedia worthy of the name must take all knowledge for its
province, it is obvious that the world itself would scarcely contain the volumes which /v/ tor an
would have to be written, were every person, place or thing treated in a separate index.
article. Moreover, the distribution of information over a number of short articles involves the
necessity of collecting it together again in a form convenient for reference. To meet this need, as
well as to point the reader to information on other subjects, not themselves included among the
40,000 article headings of the. Eleventh Edition, an Index has been compiled, which, though
containing considerably more than 500,000 headings, even so only aims at presenting a selection,
not a miscellany, of information. If every name mentioned, however casually, in the Encycloptedia
Britannica and every scrap of information had been indexed, the references would have filled a
library. Indeed the Encyclopedia Britannica itself would have been rewritten, and not bettered
in the process.

The editors of this Index believe that in the case of such a work as the Encyclopedia
Britannica the value of the Index depends less upon exhaustiveness than upon intelligent selection
and arrangement. There is no more potent cause of mental indigestion than a mass Principle of
of unsifted and often irrelevant detail. If economy of space is required in a reference tae la ^*-
book, there is a still more urgent demand on the part of the inquirer for economy of effort. In the
case of any one of the great figures of history, or the leading scientific theories, a reader does not
want to be referred to every passing allusion to Julius Caesar, or Napoleon, or Bismarck. The
article on Augustus says that he was born in the year of Cicero's consulship, but to record that fact
in the Index under the heading "Cicero" would be neither intelligent nor useful. Nor would the
reader who wishes to get a clear idea of die 1 )ar\vinian theories be grateful to an index which
referred him to every passage containing the word "evolution."

In short, the Concordance-index has been studiously avoided. The ideal has rather been to
render easily accessible all information of real importance in the book, and rigorously to exclude
passing allusions to subjects which are more fully treated elsewhere. To help the reader to find

199



vi PREFACE

what he wants in the quickest and easiest way has been the guiding principle throughout. It
is, for instance, scarcely necessary to enunterate the different holders of a title such as the
Concordance earldom of Derby, when the majority of them are dealt with only in the article
ideal avoided. " Derby, Earls of." In all such cases the one general reference to the article has
been allowed to cover all the particular references to individual earls; but if important references
to these individuals occur in other articles, such as the article " English History," they will be found
in the Index under the name of the earl in question.

No index can divine every difficulty in advance or forestall every objection. There are many
words, more or less synonymous, which might equally well be chosen as index headings. Is
Selection of " Arboriculture " or " Forestry " to be taken as the heading under which to group
headings. foresters' lore ? Is theology and legend about the prince of darkness to be indicated

under the heading "Satan" or "Devil"? Here the work of the compilers of the Index has
been to a great extent simplified by the necessity of following the article headings, which
all appear in the Index, standing out boldly in capital letters. There are articles on both
"Arboriculture" and "Forests and Forestry." The Index gives one reference to the first, adding
a cross-reference "see also Forests and Forestry," and under this heading groups all further
information on the subject. Similarly under "Satan" we find "see Devil," and the first reference
under " Devil " is to the article so entitled.

The aim of the Index is, in fact, twofold. In the first place it seeks to distribute under a still
larger number of headings the information which the editor has distributed over 40,000 headings in

the book. The measure of success attained may be estimated by the fact that these
Twofold aim.

headings total over 500,000, every one of which is, as it were, the skeleton of an

encyclopaedic article. Even a single textual reference and a map-reference to a town not important
enough to call for a separate article enable the reader to find its geographical position, its accessi-
bility by rail, sea, river or canal, its distance from other towns, and its commercial, historical or
other principal interest. In the second place the Index seeks to group round each of the
40,000 article headings all other important references to the same subject found in other parts of
the book. It is important, however, to notice that in all such cases the first reference given is the
reference to the article itself, and that references to the same subject from other articles will be
naturally fewer in proportion to the amount of detail contained in that article. Hence the absence
of any specific reference in the Index to any special event in a man's life, or to one particular aspect
of a well-known theory, does not imply that the information is not in the book, but merely that it
is so fully dealt with in the article itself that other references would add no substantial information.

On the other hand, in the case of very large articles such as those on Egypt, England or the
United States, the Index will be found to contain further references to special sections of the article
Arrangement itself. This is especially noticeable when it has been necessary to collect together
of references. information germane to such sections from other articles. The best example of this
principle is to be found in the history sections of the Index under the names of all the larger
countries. The Index has throughout steadfastly avoided the common fault of supplying merely
a long list of entries without specific description. Such entries technically called "blind" have
been limited to four at the outside. Those which will be found standing at the head of a group of
specified entries are to passages giving general infoimat'on. Thus, if a commander has an article
heading, the first entry directs the inquirer to that article ; the second perhaps to a passage
describing his importance in the history of the country to which he belonged ; the third to an article
on the military aspects of the war in which he fought. Specified entries thereafter will refer to
particular battles described in and by themselves from the tactical standpoint. All such entries,



PR I- 1 \CE vii




. arc admitted only if il.ry lead i<> maicri.il information not in the arli< IP on the
commander himsell.

This has Ix-cii tin: hr-.t \y. The second has been effected by the shortness of the form

ol reference adopted. It is i in > t point how far an index should itself convey information. Is
every individual to have a d;*te an 1 .1 description attached to his name? If he has, he will occupy
two lines, where one will do ; if IK has not, he may get confused with a place or a thing, or with
another person of the same| name To obviate this catastrophe Christian names Form of
or initials are given wherever possible, and in their absence a short description, eg. reference*.
"author." "general," " vizier, " " I rsian governor." Geographical references can be recognized

ich by the fact that every town name is followed by an abbreviation indicating the country
in which it is situated, whilst ph\sical features such as Like, river, mountain are so described. Now
and again, no doubt, confusion is possible; every index has its humours, and at first sight the
rryplic form " Folk, ( ). 20-~<"' ( ' I 14)" may not suggest a town in Ohio. But the initiated, who have
consulted the list of abbreviations on p. i, will know that on p. 26 in vol. 20 they will find that place
in the map square (H-I4). In l;he case of references which are neither to persons nor to places, a
description is seldom given, th assumption being that the man who consults an. index knows what
he is looking for and is capable of recognizing it when he sees it. But in the case of names very
similar to each other, or of tertais used in more than one science, such distinguishing marks as
"geol.", " bot." or "zool." are added in parentheses. In a word, the principle has been to avoid
any possible confusion.

The system of alphabetization adopted is that of the Encyclopedia itself, which takes every



heading, whether consisting of "in-
"Ant" comes before "Antae," bu



eater." Some slight modifications
persons bearing the same first na
if read right through, would cause
or other references, these suffixes
the names Albert, Alfonso, Alexan
in a continuous list. These i
Where the number of such p-
arranged thus :



ord or of more than one, as read right through. For example,
"Ant-bear" between "Antarctic" and "Ant- Alphabet!**



lave, however, been introduced. In the case of tlon -
e, but with various distinguishing epithets or phrases which,
them to be separated by intervening blocks of geographical
lave been enclosed in brackets, so that all persons bearing
:r, John, William, &c., worthy of reference in the Index, stand
re then alphabetized by the suffix or territorial designation,
is very great the territorial magnates are placed in one list

xander (of Macedon)



(- (of Russia)
- (of Scotland)

and the scholars, bishops, chronic' ., in another list, as

Alexander (Aetolus)

- (of Hales)

- (the Paphlagonian).

The system adopted for th'- geographical references has already been indicated. It will
be found that the very numerou maps have been systematically indexed throughout, and that
every place marked in them : : n the Index, these map references being Map refer-

readily distinguishable by the ad' letter and number in brackets, indicating .

map squares, e.g. 5-403 (A'2). The Index is, therefore, not only an index, but also a gazetteer.

The numerous illustrations, whether 1'lates or Cuts in the text, received careful consideration.
As economy of space was thre'ighout an urgent necessity, it was finally decided not to index the
illustration as such where it in its natural context, or where there is a reference to



Vlll



PREFACE



the description in the text. For instance, the article " Carp," about p column in length, contains
an illustration. It did not appear necessary to duplicate the referenlce to "Carp" in the Index,
so as to indicate this figure. But if the figure had appeared elsewhere (e.g. in
the article "Ichthyology"), the Index would have acjlded to its references under



Illustrations.



" Carp " a reference to the volume and page where this figure occur
after the reference. The reference is always specifically given, if
the text. The Plates illustrating long articles such as Painting, Si
Heraldry, Ship, &c., are indexed wherever there is no text refer
itself has a sufficiently distinctive title. Little would be gained
illustrations as " Faience plaque, Cnossus " under that title ; but h
name " Cnossus " to illustrations of articles found there. Or if he
particular sculptor, the Index will assist him more by a reference un<
Plates of his works in the article " Sculpture," than by specific ref<



:d, with the contraction " fig."
ie figure is not described in
jlpture, Greek Art, Ceramics,
nee, and wherever the Plate
jy directing a man to such
can be directed under the
interested in the works of a
er that sculptor's name to the
ences to the names of works



known only to experts. On the other hand, pictures, statues or other objects of interest bearing
well-known distinctive names are separately indexed with their Platrt references.

One other class of references calls for special notice. It ha^ been the aim of the Eleventh
Edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica to assist readers in the interpretation of technical or unusual
Dictionary terms. To this end the editor has included a nurjnber of dictionary headings, i.e.
headings. short articles giving the derivation, meaning and vjarious uses of such terms. These

article headings appear as a matter of course in the Index, but a much greater number of terms,
English and foreign, defined in the course of the scientific, philosophical and other articles have
also been indexed. To such references the word " diet." is adcaed by way of an indication that the
information to be found will be of a dictionary rather than of an Encyclopaedic character.

The value of any index depends to a large extent on the fulness of its cross-references. This
Index has tried to supply a reasonable number of variants to j names which a reader may look for
Cross- under more than one spelling. It has also indicated the relationship between family

references. names and titles, by cross-referencing the first" to the second. Under such geo-
graphical prefixes as "North," "South," "High," "Low," "Great," "Little," a general cross-
reference indicates that such names are as a rule to be found reversed, e.g. " Wycombe, High,"
except in American place-names, and a few other special ca.ses. It should be observed that the
simple cross-reference ("Julius Caesar: see Caesar") is us id only when the two sides of the
reference are exactly equivalent. Other cross-references (e %. a single peer to the family title)
are in the form "see also " or "see under"

An entirely new feature has been added to the Index volu me of this edition for the use of those
desiring to study subjects as a whole. At the conclusion of tli Index proper there will be found a
Classified table classified table of contents, in which the article headings in the Encyclopaedia are
of contents. grouped broadly according to their subjects, e.^. Geography, History, Religion, Art,
and subdivided into their natural sections (e.g. Art into Pairjiting, Sculpture, Music, Architecture).
In all cases the biographical articles will be found together with the appropriate subject headings.
A fuller account of the system adopted is prefixed to the tablej itself.

At the end of the volume is appended a complete alphab ;ti ced list of the contributors of signed
List of articles, the principal articles being specified.} Tnis supplements the special lists



contributors.



prefixed to each of the twenty-eight volumes



the contributors is given.



LONDON, May 5, 1911.



where biographical information about

JANET E. HOGARTH.

J MALCOLM MITCHELL.



RULES AND ABBREVIATIONS



I. Typ. Headings printed in bold Clarendon type (e.g.
ALEPPO) represent article headings in the Encyclopedia, and
the first reference under every such heading is to the article in
ion.

All references show (i) the volume in bold Clarendon figures ;
(2) the page in light face type; (3) the exact quarter of the
page by means of the letters a, b, c, d, signifying respectively
the upper and lower halves of the first and second columns,
e.g. A (letter) 1-1 a. In geographical references these letters are
replaced by an indication of the map square in the usual form,



A rule or dash ( ) denotes the repetition of the preceding head-
ing, or of its first separate word. Hyphened words are treated
as single words. Headings in italic type denote books, news-
papers, or periodicals. Quotation marks are used for pictures,
ships, statues, race horses and separate poems or musical
compositions.

II. Alphabetization. All titles, whether consisting of a
single word or of more than one, and if of more, whether
hyphened or not, are treated for the purpose of alphabetization
as single complete headings. In the majority of cases the same
rule applies to inverted headings. Surnames followed by Chris-
tian names and geographical headings like " Wycombe, High " are
exceptions. An epithet or phrase in parentheses is not treated



as part of the heading for alphabetical purposes except in a
series of identical headings (see Preface, p. vii.).

Where the same name denotes human beings, places and
objects, the order is (i) persons, (2) places, (3) things.

The prefixes " Me " and " M' " are alphabetized as " Mac " ;
" St " is treated as " Saint," " S.S. " as " Saints."

III. Geographical Headings. The names of towns and
villages are followed by the abbreviation for the country to
which they belong. For this purpose English counties and the
states of the United States rank as countries. All other topo-
graphical headings are described as "riv.," "mt.," &c. In
cases like " Big Mountain," " Big River," denoting physical
features the arrangement is

Big, mt.

,riv.

Such a heading as " Big Mountain, Utah " would therefore
denote a town, not a mountain. In the names of American
counties, e.g. Madison Co., the word Co. is treated as part of
the heading.

IV. Abbreviations. The following list includes general
contractions adopted for the purpose of this Index. The
contractions usual in special branches of knowledge are in-
cluded in the Index itself and in the article Abbreviation
(vol. i. page 27).



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS



Aby.


tbrMtoh


A.-,-.S.


A. _.,!< BM


Af.


Africa


Ate.


Afghanistan


Af.Rotn.


Roman Africa


agri.


agriculture


Ala.


Alabama


Alban.


Albania


A In.


Algeria


Alk.


Alaska


Als.-Lor.


Alsace-Lorraine


Alta.


AlbertA


aunt.


anatomy


And. I*.


Andaman Islands


Anir.


lafoli


Antarc.


South Polar Regions


Arab.


Arabia


arch.


archlteoture


archac.


archaeology


aivhip.


archipelago


Arvt.


North Polar Regions


Arg.


Argentina


Arir.


Arizona


Ark.


Arkansas


Ann.


Armenia


Ash.


Ashanti


A- i M.


Asia Minor


Assln.


Assinlbola


astron.


astronomy


Atbab.


Athabasca


AU.O.


Atlantic Ocean


An-.


Austria (Including Bohemia)


All^tr.


Au-tralia


Ax.


Azores



Babyl.


Babylonia


Bah,


Bahamas


Dal.


Baluchistan


Bal.Is.


Balearic Islands


Ban


Basutoland


Bav.


Bavaria


B.C.


British Columbia


Bech.


Bechuanaland


Baa*.


Bedfordshire


Bel.Cong.


Belgian Congo (Including




Congo Free State)


BclK.


Belgium


Ber.


Bermudas


Berks.


Berkshire


bibl.


biblical


bi.il.


biology


Bol.


Bolivia


Bor.


Borneo


Bom


Bosnia


bat


botany


Braz.


Brazil


Br.E.Af.


British East Africa


Brit.


Britain


Brit.Gul.


British Guiana


Bucks.


Buckinghamshire


Bulg.


Bulgaria


Bur.


Burma


cut


Central Africa


CkL


California


C.Am.


Central America


Cambs.


Cambridgeshire


Camer.


Cameroon


Can.


Canada


Can.Ig.


t .1:: *T- ! -l,i:i'l-



Capo Col.


Cape Colony


Cauc.


Caocaata or OKMMM


Cey.


Ceylon


chan.


channel


Chan. Is.


Channel Island!


chem.


chemistry


i INK


Cheshire


Chll.


Chile


chron.


chronology


eo.


county


Colo.


Colorado


Colom.


Colombia


Conn.


Connecticut


Corn.


Cornwall


Core.


Corsica


C.R.


Costa Rica


CroaUSlav.


Croatia Slavonla


crystall.


crystallography


Cu.


Cuba


Cumb.


Cumberland


C.Verd.Is.


Cape Verde Island*


d.


daughter


Dab.


Dahomey


Dalm.


Dalmatla


D.C.


Columbia, District 0*


Del.


Delaware


Den.


Denmark


dept.


department


Der.


Devonshire


D.Gul.


Dutch Guiana


diet.


dictionary heading


dlst.


.t


div.


division


D-X.Ouln.


Dutch New Guinea



i



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS



Dorset.


Dorse tahire


Dur.


Durham


E.Af.


East Africa


EC.


Ecuador


eccL


ecclesiastical


econ.


economics


Egy.


Egypt


elec.


electricity


embryol.


embryology


Eng.


England


engin.


engineering


Ep.


Epirus


Erit.


Eritrea


Ess.


Essex


est.


estuary


ethnoL


ethnology


Eur.


Europe


Falk.Is.


Falkland Islands


Fin.


Finland


Fla.


Florida


For.


Formosa


FT.


France


Fr.GuL


French Guiana


Fr.I.C.


French Indo-China


Fr.W.Af.


French West Africa


G.


Georgia


Gam.


Gambia


geog.


geography


geol.


geology


Ger.


Germany


Ger.E.Af.


German East Africa


Ger.S.W.Af.


German S.W.Afrioa


Glos.


Gloucestershire


Go.Cst.


Gold Coast


govt.


government


Gr.


Greece


Green.


Greenland


Guat.


Guatemala


Gum.


Guinea


Hai.


Haiti


Hants.


Hampshire


barb.


harbour


Haw.


Hawaii


her.


heraldry


Hereford.


Herefordshire


Herts.


Hertfordshire


Herz.


Herzegovina


Holl.


Holland


Hond.


Honduras


hort.


horticulture


Hung.


Hungary


Hunts.


Huntingdonshire


I.


Island


la.


Iowa


Ice.


Iceland


Ida.


Idaho


111.


Illinois


Ind.


Indiana


Ind.O.


Indian Ocean


I. of M.


Isle of Man


Ire.


Ireland


Is.


Islands


U.


island


i-U


islands


i-th.


isthmus


It,


Italy


Iv.Cst.


Ivory Coast


Jam.


Jamaica


Jap.


Japan


Jav.


Java


Kan.


EMM


Kor.


Korea


Ky.


Kentucky


La.


Louisiana


Lab.


Labrador


Lac. Is.


Laccadive Islands


Lag.


Lagos


Lanes.


Lancashire


Leics.


Leicestershire


Lib.


Liberia


Lib.Des.


Libyan Desert


Lines.


Lincolnshire


lit.


literature


Lond.


London


Lnxem.


Luxemburg


Lye.


Lycia


m.


married



Maced.


Macedonia


Mack.


Mackenzie


Mad.


Madagascar


Mad.Is.


Madeira Islands


Mal.Arch.


Malay Archipelago


Mal.Penin.


Malay Peninsula


Man.


Manitoba


Mass.


Massachusetts


math.


mathematics


Maur.


Mauritius


Md.


Maryland


Mdx.


Middlesex


Me.


Maine


inoch.


mechanics


med.


medicine


Medit.


Mediterranean


Mesop.


Mesopotamia


metall.


metallurgy


meteorol.


meteorology


Mex.


Mexico


Mich.


Michigan


min.


mineralogy


Minn.


Minnesota


Miss.


Mississippi


Mo.


Missouri


Monm.


Monmouthshire


Mont.


Montana


Mnnten.


Montenegro


Mor.


Morocco


mt.


mount


mts.


mountains


mus.


music


myth.


mythology


N.Af.


North Africa


N.Am.


North America


N.Br.


New Brunswick


N.C.


North Carolina


N.Dak.


North Dakota


N.E.Af.


North-East Africa


Neb.


Nebraska


Nev.


Nevada


Nfd.


Newfoundland


N.a.


New Guinea


N.H.


New Hampshire


Nio.


Nicaragua


Nig.


Nigeria


N.J.


New Jersey


N.MOX.


New Mexico


Xorf.


Norfolk


Northanta.


Northamptonshire


Northumb.


Northumberland


Notts.


Nottinghamshire


N.S.


Nova Scotia


N.S.W.


New South Wales


Nub.


Nubia


N.Y.


New York


N.Z.


New Zealand


O.


Ohio


Okla.


Oklahoma


Ont.


Ontario


Oreg.


Oregon


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500

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