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H SM ,v *ii




THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771.

SECOND ten 17771784.

THIRD eighteen 17881797.

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810.

FIFTH twenty 18151817.

SIXTH twenty 1823 1824.

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842.

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860.

NINTH twenty-five 18751889.

TENTH ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911.



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE



All rights reserved



THE

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XIV

HUSBAND to ITALIC




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 3 and Street
1910



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XIV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS,! WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



A. Bo.* AUGUSTE BOUDINHON, D.D., D.C.L. f Index Librorum Pro-

Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of H hibitorum
Paris. Editor of the Canonists contemporain.

A. Cy. ARTHUR ERNEST COWLEY, M.A., LiTT.D. / Ibn Gabirol;

Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College. I Inscriptions: Semitic.

A. C. G. ALBERT CHARLES LEWIS GOTTHILF GUNTHER, M. A., M.D., PH.D., F.R.S.

Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist,

Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia Salientia, -I Ichthyology (in part).

and Fishes in the British Museum; Reptiles of British India; Fishes of Zanzibar;

Reports on the " Challenger " Fishes; &c.

A. E. G.* REV. ALFRED ERNEST GARVIE, M.A., D.D. f

Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and the I Immortality;
Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the inner Life\ Inspiration.
of Jesus; &c. I

A. E. H. L. AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. I"

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. I rifini*cimi rininc.
Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford ; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 1 nal ^ aloulus -

Secretary to the London Mathematical Society. I

A. F. C. ALEXANDER FRANCIS CHAMBERLAIN, A.M., PH.D. I"

Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. I Indians North American.
Member of American Antiquarian Society; Hon. Member of American Folk-lore 1
Society. Author of The Child and Childhood in Folk Thought.

A. G. MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908). I"

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;] Identification.
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. L

A. Ge. SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D. / ummn

See the biographical article, GEIKIE, SIR A. \ "

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. f ...

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. \ luuminatl -

A. G. G. SIR ALFRED GEORGE GREENHILL, M.A., F.R.S. r

Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author I
of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on]
Dynamics; &c. [_

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. J i v-

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. \ ran n ( part).

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. r

See the biographical article, CLERKE, A. M. | Huygens, Cnnstiaan.

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. f

See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED. "5 "" s >

A. So. ALBRECHT SOCIN, PH.D. (1844-1899). f

Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tubingen. -| Irak-Arabi (in part).
Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c.

A. S. Wo. ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S. f Ichthyosaurus*

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary oH To-nannrtr
the Geological Society, London. I Iguanoaon.

A. W. H.* ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. (" , . , _.,.

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 4 J rlal ' .

1900. [Instrument of Government.

A. W. Po. ALFRED WILLIAM POLLARD, M.A.

Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College,

London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books] Incunabula.

and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of The Library. Chief Editor of the " Globe "

Chaucer.

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, with the articles so signed, appears in the final volume.

V

1933



vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B. f Inebriety, Law of;

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the -\ insanity; L aw .
Laws of England.

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. J Infantry;

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 1 Italian Wars.
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.

C. G. COLONEL CHARLES GRANT. -I India: Costume.

Formerly Inspector of Military Education in India.

C. H. Ha. CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. f

Assistant Professor of History at Columbia University, New York City. Member ~\ innocent V., Vlll.
of the American Historical Association.

C. LI. M. CONWAY LLOYD MORGAN, LL.D., F.R.S. f Instinct;

Professor of Psychology at the University of Bristol. Principal of University College, 1 intelligence in Animals.

Bristol, 1887-1909. Author of Animal Life and Intelligence; Habit and. Instinct.
C. R. B. CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Lrrr., F.R.G.S., F.R.HisT.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow |u Ratuta (in -hart}

of Merton College, Oxford ; and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 4 .

Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of

Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.

C. T. L. CHARLTON THOMAS LEWIS, PH.D. (1834-1904).

Formerly Lecturer on Life Insurance, Harvard and Columbia Universities, and on J Insurance (in part).
Principles of Insurance, Cornell University. Author of History of Germany; Essays;
Addresses; &c.

C. We. CECIL WEATHERLY. J Infant <!phoni

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. \ "

D. B. Ma. DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D.

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author J T mam
of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory ; 1
Selection from Ibn Khaldum; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.

D. G. H. DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A.

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Ionia (in part)'
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and S saur j a
1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at Athens,
1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.

D. H. DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal i Impressment.
Navy, 1217-1688; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis; comprising The Classical Concerto, The'} Instrumentation.
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. I

D. S. M. DUGALD SUTHERLAND MACCOLL, M.A., LL.D.

Keeper of the National Gallery of British Art (Tate Gallery). Lecturer on the History J im nrpinn km
of Art, University College, London; Fellow of University College, London.]
Author of Nineteenth Century Art; &c.

E. A. M. EDWARD ALFRED MINCHIN, M.A., F.Z.S. [

Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton J HydTOmedUSae;
College, Oxford ; and Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy in the University of Oxford. 1 Hydrozoa.
Author of " Sponges and Sporozoa " in Lankester's Treatise on Zoology; &c.
E. Br. ERNEST BARKER, M.A. f

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly { Imperial Chamber.
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.

E. Bra. EDWIN BRAMWELL, M.B., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (Edin.). f

Assistant Physician, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. -I Hysteria (in part).

E. C. B. RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.Lirr. ("

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius " -j Imitation of Christ,
in Cambridge Texts and Studies.

E. C. Q. EDMUND CROSBY QUIGGIN, M.A. , ("

Fellow, Lecturer in Modern History, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville and 4 Ireland: Early History.
Caius College, Cambridge.

E. F. S. EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. I"

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member" of J Illustration: Technical

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor | Developments
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series.

E. F. S. D. LADY DILKE. J .

See the biographical article: DILKE, SIR C. W., BART. \ Ingres.

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D. f Huygens, Sir Constantijn;

See the biographical article, GOSSE, EDMUND. \ Ibsen; Idyl.

E. Hu. EMIL HUBNER. r

See the biographical article, HOBNER, EMIL. j Inscriptions: Latin (in part).

E. H. B. SIR EDWARD HERBERT BUNBURY, BART., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).. f

M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of a History of Ancient Geography; J Ionia (in part),
&c.

F. H. M. ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A. r

Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow, Pembroke College, Cambridge \ lazyges; Issedones.
University Lecturer in Palaeography.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES vii



E. H. P. ^ PALMER , E . H . ""I Khaldun (in



Illuminated MSS.



E. K. EDMUND KNECHT, PH.D., M.Sc.TECH.(Manchester), F.I.C.

Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical ,
Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, "j Indigo.
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor
of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.

E. L. H. THE RIGHT REV. THE BISHOP OF LINCOLN (EDWARD LEE HICKS). . r ,

Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly Canon Residentiary I l
of Manchester. Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College. Author of Manual 1 ( in part),
of Greek Historical Inscriptions ; &c. L

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LiTT.(Oxon.), LL.D. f

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des -j Hystaspes; Iran.

Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. I

E. M. T. SIR EDWARD MAUNDE THOMPSON, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Lrn.D., LL.D.

Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader
in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College,
Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian ,
Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography.
Editor of Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical
Society, the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian
Sophocles.

E. 0.* EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J JJvdroeeDhalus
Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, 1 *
Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

F. A. F. FRANK ALBERT FETTER, PH.D.

Professor of Political Economy and Finance, Cornell University. Member of the 1 Interstate Commerce.
State Board of Charities. Author of The Principles of Economics; &c.

F. C. C. FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.TH.(Giessen). [iconoclasts'

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. ~] ?,.- Wnrchin
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. L ""

F. G. M. B. FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. f TT W - P .

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. \ tiwicce.

P. J. H. FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of

Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, 1 Icknield Street.

Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907.

Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.

P. LI. G. FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A. I"

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey J Hvksos* Isis
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1
German Archaeological Institute. I

P.P.* FREDERICK PETERSON, M.D., PH.D. flnsanitv

Professor of Psychiatry, Columbia University. President of New York State \ T
Commission in Lunacy, 1902-1906. Author of Mental Diseases ; &c. [ -treatment.

F. S. P. FRANCIS SAMUEL PHILBRICK, A.M., Ph.D. f Tnd p D p nl1 p np p

Formerly Fellow of Nebraska State University, and Scholar and Resident Fellow of 4 " P '

Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association. [ Declaration 01.

F. Wa. FRANCIS WATT, M.A. [ H t __.

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law's Lumber Room. \ I]

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. \ Hyacinth' lolite
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.

P. Y. P. FREDERICK YORK POWELL, D.C.L., LL.D. f Ice i and: History, and

See the biographical article, POWELL, FREDERICK YORK. \ Ancie t



G. A. B. GEORGE A. BOULENGER, F.R.S., D.Sc., Pn.D. r

In charge of the collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British -j Ichthyology (in part)
Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.

G. A. Gr. GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., D.Lrrr.(Dublin).

Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey

of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President -j Indo-Aryan Languages

of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author

of The Languages of India ; _&c.

G. A. J. C. GRENVILLE ARTHUR JAMES COLE.

Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland Professor of Geology, Royal College-) Ireland: Geology.
of Science for Ireland, Dublin. Author of Aids in Practical Geology; &c.

G. B. SIR GEORGE CHRISTOPHER MOLESWORTH BIRDWOOD, K.C.I. E. J" T

See the biographical article, BIRDWOOD, SIR G. C. M. |_ *' lse>

G. F. H.* GEORGE FRANCIS HILL, M.A. r .

Assistant in Department of Coins and Medals, British Museum. Author of J )DS: "****

Sources for Greek History 478-431 B.C. ; Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins; &c. 1 ^ n PVT)-

G. G. Co. GEORGE GORDON COULTON, M.A. r

Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author { Indulgence.

of Medieval Studies ; Chaucer and his England ; &c.



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



R w C GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. (Lond.).

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: 1

their Structure and Life. I Insect.

G ' J ' GE Form^C S onsul C Ge11e G al a Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, { Hwang Ho.

Shanghai.

G. K. GuST p A ro fe ] s^?of E Church D History in the University of Giessen. Author of Da* Papstthum ; \ Irenaeus.

&c. L

G. P. M. GEORGE PERCIVAL MUDGE, A.R.C.S., F.Z.S J Incubat i n and Incubators.

Lecturer on Biology, London Hospital Medical College, and London bctiool ot 1
Medicine for Women, University of London. Author of A Text Book of Zoology ; &c. L

G. W. K. VERY REV. GEORGE WILLIAM KITCHIN, M.A., D.D., F.S.A

Dean of Durham, and Warden of the University of Durham. Hon. Student of J Hutten, Ulrich von.
Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow of King's College, London. Dean of Winchester, I
1883-1894- Author of A History of France; &c. *

Ibn Abd Rabbihi;

Ibn 'Arabi; Ibn AthTr;
Ibn Duraid; Ibn Faradi;
Ibn Farid; Ibn Hazm;
Ibn Hisham; Ibn Ishaq;
Ibn Jubair; Ibn Khaldun

(in part);
Ibn Khallikan;
Ibn Qutaiba; Ibn Sa'd;
Ibn Tut'ail; Ibn Usaibi'a;
Ibrahim Al-MausilT.

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor the llth edition-! Iron Mask; Ismail,
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition.

H. C. R. SIR HENRY CRESWICKE RAWLINSON, BART., K.C.B. J Isfahan: History.

See the biographical article, RAWLINSON, SIR HENRY CRESWICKE. I



G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D.

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old .
Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of a Commentary on
Judges; An Arabic Grammar; &c.



H. L. H. HARRIET L. HENNESSEY, M.D., (Brux.) L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. { Obstruction.



H. M. H. HENRY MARION HOWE, A.M., LL.D. J rt <sf ,

Professor of Metallurgy, Columbia University. Author of Metallurgy of Steel; &c. L J

H. N. D. HENRY NEWTON DICKSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.G.S. J

Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary | Indian Ocean.
Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c.

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. - Induction.

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism.

H. T. A. REV. HERBERT THOMAS ANDREWS.

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of the J Ignatius.
" Commentary on Acts " in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the
Apocryphal Books in the " Century Bible."

H. Y. SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., C.B. (. _ . ,.

See the biographical article, YULE, SIR HENRY. Ibn Batuta (m P art >-

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Ibn Tibbon;

Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society in England. Author of A Short Immanuel Ben Solomon.

History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c.

J. A. P. JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc.

Fender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow

of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, { Induction Coil.

and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and

r->i j * /-

hlectnc Currents.

3. Bs. JAMES BURGESS, C.I.E LL.D., F.R.S.(Edin.), F.R.G.S., HoN.A.R.I.B.A.

Formerly Director General of Archaeological Survey of India. Author of Archaeo- I - .. . ...

logical Survey of Western India. Editor of Fergusson's History of Indian Archi- | Indian Architecture.

lecture. L

J. B. T. SIR JOHN BATTY TUKE, KT., M.D., F.R.S.(Edin.), D.Sc., LL.D. f ,.

President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director J Hysteria ( t part) ;

of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universities of Edinburgh 1 Insanity: Medical.
and St Andrews, 1900-1910.

. C. H. RIGHT REV. JOHN CUTHBERT HEDLEY, O.S.B., D.D. J" i mmacu i a te Concention

R.C. Bishop of Newport. Author of The Holy Eucharist ; &c. I "

J. C. Van D. JOHN CHARLES VAN DYKE. f

Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J. Formerly J innp

Editor of The Studio and Art Rev ** -< *- * -*-'- -'- "''" -r 1
Painting; Old English Masters; &c.



Editor of The_Studio and Art Review. Author of Art for Art's Sake; History of j



J. C. W. JAMES CLAUDE WEBSTER. J i nn . nf r -.... t

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. I InnS f C Urt '



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S.

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J i on j n islands
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.

J. P. P. JOHN FAITHFULL FLEET, C.I.E. PH.D. [

Commissioner of Central and Southern Divisions of Bombay, 1891-1897. Authors Inscriptions: Indian.
of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings ; &c. (.

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, Lirr.D., F.R.HiST.S.

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. .

Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy, "j ""j F. de.

Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of

Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.

J. G. K. JOHN GRAHAM KERR, M.A., F.R.S.

Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator I

in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ's College, ~{ Ichthyology (in part).

Cambridge, 1898-1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal

Society of Edinburgh, 1904.

J. G. Sc. SIR JAMES GEORGE SCOTT, K. C.I.E.

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, ~{ Irrawaddy.
a Handbook ; The Upper Burma Gazetteer ; &c. I

J. H. A. H. JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A. J" Hyrcanus.

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. I

J. H. Mu. JOHN HENRY MUIRHEAD, M..A., LL.D. f

Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of Elements { Idealism.

of Ethics ; Philosophy and Life ; &c. Editor of Library of Philosophy. I

J. H. Be. VERY REV. JOHN HENRY BERNARD, M.A., D.D., D.C.L. [

Dean of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. Archbishop King's Professor of Divinity J
and formerly Fellow of Trinity College,. Dublin. Joint-editor of the Irish Liber] Ireland, Church of.
Hymnorum ; &c. I.

J. H. van't H. JACOBUS HENRICUS VAN'T HOFF, LL.D., D.Sc., D.M. / T

See the biographical article VAN'T HOFF, JACOBUS HENRICUS. \ u

J. L. M. JOHN LYNTON MYRES, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S. f

Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly) n-a-ianc- Innianc
Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of | '

Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford. L

J. Mn. JOHN MACPHERSON M.D. /Insanity: Medical (in part}.

Formerly Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bengal. l_

J. M. A. de L. JEAN MARIE ANTOINE DE LANESSAN. J"

See the biographical article, Lanessan, J. M. A. de. \ Indo-China, French (in part).

3. M. M. JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL. r

Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London { Hvaeinthus
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece.

J. P. E. JEAN PAUL HIPPOLYTE EMMANUEL ADHEMAR ESMEIN. (

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. I T f H f
Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elementaire d'histoire du droil 1 mlen oam.
franc.ais ; &c. L

J. P. Pe. REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. r

Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in

the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Baby-J Irak-Arab! (in part).
Ionia, 1888-1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the
Euphrates. I

J. S. Bl. JOHN SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A., LL.D. r

Assistant Editor of the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor-! Huss John.
of the Encyclopaedia Biblica.

J. S. Co. JAMES SUTHERLAND COTTON, M.A. f India : Geography and

Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Explora- J Statistics (in part)
tion Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's College, Oxford. Author 1 History (in part)-'

I Indore.

J. S. F. JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. r

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edin- J
burgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 "aeolumite.
Medallist of the Geological Society of London.

J. T. Be. JOHN THOMAS BEALBY. r

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical -| Irkutsk (in part)
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [

J. V.* JULES VIARD. r

Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction. Author J Isabella Of Bavaria

of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois; &c.

Jno. W. JOHN WESTLAKE, K.C., LL.D.

Professor of International Law, Cambridge. 1888-1908. One of the Members for the I"

United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Convention, International Law

1900-1906. Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. Author of A Treatise on Private International \ p

Law, or the Conflict of Laws ; Chapters on the Principles of International Law, pt. i. mvate.

" Peace," pt. ii. " War."



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

L. COUNT Lurzow, Lrrx.D. (Oxon.), PH.D. (Prague), F.R.G.S.



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