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THE



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA



ELEVENTH EDITION



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771.

SECOND ten 17771784.

THIRD eighteen 17881797.

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810.

FIFTH twenty 18151817.

SIXTH twenty 1823 1824.

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842.

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860.

NINTH twenty-five 18751889.

TENTH ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903.

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911 =



COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention

by
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS

of the f



UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE <



All rights reserved



THE



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA



DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION



.

ELEVENTH EDITION



VOLUME XXI

PAYN to POLKA




Cambridge, England:

at the University Press

New York, 35 West 32nd Street
191 1



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911,

by
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.



A. B. R.
A. F. P.

A. G.
A. G. T.
A. H.*



A. H. C.
A. H. H.

A. H.-S.

A. H. S.
A. J. G.

A. J. H.

A. J. L.
A. Ma.

A. N.



ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classi- '
fication of Flowering Plants ; &c.

ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HiST.S.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls'
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-"
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.

MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908). J

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;] Police.
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c.



Plants: Classification.





"erne, Andrew.



ARTHUR GEORGE TANSLEY, M.A., F.L.S.

Lecturer in Botany in the University of Cambridge.
of Botany, University College, London.



Formerly Assistant Professor 1 Plants: Anatomy.



ALBERT HAUCK, D.Tn., D.Pn.

Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director of the Museum

of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of the Kingdom of Saxony. ,

Member of the Royal Saxon Academy ot Sciences and Corresponding Member of ") Pilgrimage.

the Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands;

&c. Editor of the new edition of Herzog's Realencyklopddie fur protestantische

Theologie und Kirche.

SIR ARTHUR HERBERT CHURCH, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A. f

Professor of Chemistry, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Author of Chemistry \ Pigments.
of Paints and Painting ; English Earthenware ; English Porcelain ; &c.



Photography: Pictorial.

|" Persia: Geography and
\ Statistics.

\ Persepolis (in part).



ARTHUR HORSLEY HINTON (1863-1008).

Editor of The Amateur Photographer, 1897-1908, and the Photographic Trades
Gazette, 1904-1908. Author of Practical Pictorial Photography; &c.

SlR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D., LL.D., LITT.D.
See the biographical article : SAYCE, A. H.

REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. r

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent J , / \

College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of] p 'y moutn Brethren (in part).

Mysore Educational Service.
ALFRED J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. (1826-1903). r

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, Pianoforte (in part)'

' Pitch, Musical.



London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885;
of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of
Musical Instruments; &c.



ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University.
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.



Editor of the Rio News ] Peru: Geography and Statistics.



ALEXANDER MACALISTER, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. f Phrenology;

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's ~{ Phveino-nnmv
College. Author of Text Book of Human Anatomy; &c.



Peacock; Pelican;
Penguin; Petrel;
Pheasant; Pigeon;
Pipit; Pitta;
Plover; Pochard.
1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.



ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.



1990



VI

A. Se.*

A. SI.
A. S. P.-P.

A. S. Wo.

A. T. I.

B. R.



C. Bi.

C. E.*
C. E. A.

C. E. M.
C. G. K.

C. L. K.
C. M.
C. Pf.
C. P. J.

C. R. M.
C. S. P.

C.T.*

C. W. R.

D. G. H.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

.ADAM SEDGWICK, M.A., F.R.S.

Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London.
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909.

ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D.

Member of Council of Epidemiplogical Society. Author of The London Water-
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.

ANDREW SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.

Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy.
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.

ARTHUR SMITH WOODWARD, LL.D., F.R.S.

Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington,
the Geological Society of London.




ALEXANDER TAYLOR INNES, M.A., LL.D.

Scotch Advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in
Scottish History ; &c.

SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.lNST.C.E.,

M.lNST.M.E.

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of
London, and Port of London Authorty. President of the Society of Chemical
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of
Institute of Chemistry. Author of "Cantor" Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum
and its Products ; Chemical Technology ; &c.

REV. CHARLES BIGG, M.A., D.D. (1840-1908).

Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford, and Canon
of Christ Church, 1901-1908. Formerly Senior Student and Tutor of Christ Church.
Headmaster of Brighton College. Author of The Christian Platonists of Alexandria;
&c.

CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.



Secretary of-j Plesiosaurus.

Pilate, Pontius.



Petroleum.



Philo (in part).



-; Phosphates.



CHARLES EDWARD AKERS. r

Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South J Peru: History (in part)
America, 1854-1904. ^



CHARLES EDWARD Moss, D.Sc.
Emmanuel College, Cambridge.



Curator of the University Herbarium.



Plants: Ecology.



Photometry.



CARGILL GILSTON KNOTT, D.Sc.

Lecturer on Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh University. Professor of Physics,
Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo, 18831891. Author of Electricity and'
Magnetism ; Physics ; &c. [

CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HiST.S., F.S.A. [~

Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor J Payne, Peter,
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London.



CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Tn.

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik-
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums ; &c.



Pius IX.;

Poissy, Colloquy of.



CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D. ES. L. r

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of \ Pippin I.-III.
Etudes sur le rkgne de Robert le Pieux.

CHARLES PIERPOINT JOHNSON (1791-1880). r

Lecturer on Botany, Guy's Hospital, London, 1830-1873. Editor of J. A. Sowerby's ^ Pine.
English Botany ; &c. Author of Ferns of Great Britain ; &c.



SIR CLEMENT? ROBERT MARKHAM, K.C.B., F.R.S.

See the biographical article: MARKHAM, SIR CLEMENTS ROBERT.



J Peru: History (in part).



THE RT. HON. CHARLES STUART PARKER, LL.D., D.C.L. (1829-1910).

M.P. for Perthshire, 1868-1874; M.P. for Perth City, 1878-1892. Honorary Fellow, i D

formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Life of Sir Robert Peel;^ * Bel & '"

&c.

REV. CHARLES TAYLOR, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).

Master of St John's College, Cambridge, 1881-1908. Vice-Chancellor, 1887-1888. J Pirke Aboth.
Author of Geometrical Conies ; &c. 1

MAJOR-GENERAL CHARLES WALKER ROBINSON, C.B., D.C.L. r

Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 1890-1892. Lieut.- Ponincniir War
Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895-1898. Author of 1

Strategy of the Peninsular War ; &c.

DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. r

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Perga;
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899^ Pergamunr
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at
Athens. 1897-1000. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



vn



D. H.

E. A. J.

E. A. So.

E. Br.

E. G.
E. Gr.
E. J. D.

Ed. M.

E. M. H.
E.G.*

E. O'N.
E. Pr.

E. R. B.
E. S.*

E. Tn.

F. A. P.
F. G. P.

F. J. G.
F. LI. G.

F.N.
F. W. Ga.



DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona.

Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. :



Author of Short History of the Royal



E. ALFRED JONES.

Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England ; Illustrated Cata- <
Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of the



Penn, Admiral; Pepys;
Pescara, Marquis of;
Peter I.-IV. of Aragon;
Peter of Castile;
Pirate and Piracy: History;
Poe, Edgar Allan;
Poland: History (in part).

Plate (in part).



I



Plautus.



logue of .

Royal Plate at Windsor Castle ; &c.

EDWARD ADOLF SONNENSCHEIN, M.A., Lrrr.D.

Professor of Greek and Latin in the University of Birmingham. Hon. Secretary J j
of the Classical Association. Professor of Greek and Latin in Mason College,
Birmingham, 1883-1900. Editor of several of the plays of Plautus.

ERNEST BARKER, M.A. J

Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly "\ "6ter the Hermit.
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L.

See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND.

ERNEST ARTHUR GARDNER, M.A.

See the biographical article : GARDNER, PERCY.

EDWARD JOSEPH DENT, M.A., MUS.BAC.

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.



Pindarics.
| Phigalia.



- Pergolesi.



{PerSz;
Persia* Ancient History-
D ; ' n . "

rersis, rnarnaoazus,
Phraates; Phraortes.



EDWARD MORELL HOLMES.

Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London.



f Pharmacopoeia;
1 Pharmacy.



EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f Ppritnni -,.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J L:* 1
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner 1 rnaryngltis;
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Phlebitis.

Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.

ELIZABETH O'NEILL, M.A. (MRS H. 0. O'NEILL). /Peckham, John.

Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of Manchester University. \

EDGAR PRESTAGE. r

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex-
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- J Pma, Ruy de;
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon j Pinto, Fernao Mendes.
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters
of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea ; &c.



EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A.

New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the-
High Priests.

EMIL SCHURER, D.PH. (1844-1910).

Formerly Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the Universities of Giessen,
Kiel and Gottingen. Author of Geschichte des jiidischen' Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu '
Chris ti; &c.

REV. ETHELRED LUKE TAUNTON (d. 1907).

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict ; History of the Jesuits in England.



Perdiceas;
Philip I., II., and V. of Mace-
donia.

Philo (in part).



Pole, Cardinal.



J Plutarch (in part).



FREDERICK APTHORP PALEY, LL.D.

See the biographical article, PALEY, F. A.
FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I Pharynx;

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, H Placenta.

London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.



MAJOR-GENERAL SIR FREDERIC JOHN GOLDSMID.
See the biographical article : GOLDSMID (family).

FRANCIS LLEWELLYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A.

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford' University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey Pelusium;

and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial J Pharaoh;

German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Assistant Professor of Egyptology ~\ p n jlae'
in University College, London. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ;

I "itiioni.



J Persia: History, 1405-1884 (in
\ part).



&c.

FRIDTJOF NANSEN.

See the biographical article: NANSEN, FRIDTJOF.



Polar Regions (in part).



FREDERICK WILLIAM GAMBLE, D.Sc., M.Sc., F.R.S. r ,__.._,.,-.,..

Professor of Zoology, Birmingham University. Formerly Assistant Director of the J "*
Zoological Laboratories, and Lecturer in Zoology, University of Manchester. 1 Platyelmia.
Author of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst's Practical Zoology; &c. I



Vlll

F. W. R.*

G. A. C.*
G. A. Gr.

X

G. Ch.
G. C. W.

G.E.

G. E.*

G. E. C.
G. G. P.*
G. H. Bo.

G. H. Fo.

G. W. R.
H. Bi.

H. Cl.

H. De.
H.E.

H. F. G.

H. G. de W.
H. H. T.

H. L. H.

H. M. W.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES

FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Peridot; Phosphates:

Curator and Librarian of the Museum f Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. H Mineral Phosphates (in part).
President of the Geologists Association, 1887-1889.

REV. GEORGE ALBERT COOKE, D.D.

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of I Petra;
Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral,] Phoenicia.
Edinburgh. Author of Text Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c.

GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, .
Indian Civil Service, 1873-190
1902. Gold Medallist, Ro
Asiatic Society. Formerly
of India ; &c.

GEORGE CHRYSTAL, M.A., LL.D. f

Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. -( Perpetual Motion.
Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. L

,, f Petitot, Jean; Petitot, J. Louis;

GEORGE CHARLES WILLIAMSON, LITT.D. Pinwpll rpnnra Inhn-

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard \ eii, ueo e jonn,
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of New Edition! rumer, Andrew;
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. Plimer, Nathaniel;

I Plumbago Drawings.



-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-

>yal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal 4 Pisaca Languages

Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages



Ford's Lecturer, 1909.
Member, Netherlands



Pensionary;

Peru: History (in part).



Joint-editor of English \ Peerage.



I



Plata, Rio de la.



Phylactery (in part).



f Petersburg Campaign:

I (1864-1865).



REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HisT.S.

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford.
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society; and Foreign
Association of Literature.

ROBERT GEOFFREY ELLIS.

Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History.

GEORGE EARL CHURCH.

See the biographical article: CHURCH, G. E.

GEORGE GRENVILLE PHILLIMORE, M.A., B.C.L. /Pilot (in hart)

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. \ r

REV. GEORGE HERBERT Box, M.A.

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors'
School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908- '
1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; &c.

GEORGE HERBERT FOWLER, F.Z.S., F.L.S., PH.D.

Formerly Berkeley Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant j Plankton.
Professor of Zoology at University College, London.

GEORGE WILLIAM REDWAY.

Author of The War oj Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War.

HIRAM BINGHAM, A.M., PH.D. r

Assistant Professor of Latin-American History, Yale University. Albert Shaw J pv,jij DD j np
Lecturer on Diplomatic History, Johns Hopkins University. Author of Journal']
of an Expedition across Venezuela and Colombia ; &c.

SIR HUGH CHARLES CLIFFORD, K.C.M.G.

Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author-^ Penang.
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary
of the Malay Language.

HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, SJ.

Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana -< Pelagia, St.
and A eta Sanctorum. (

KARL HERMANN ETHE, M.A., PH.D. f

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of I p ers j a .
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, ]
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c. L

HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. [

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. J Phororhacos.
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History.

HERMANN G. DE WATTEVILLE.

Instructor, Staff College, Camberley, Surrey.

HERBERT HALL TURNER, M.A., D.Sc., D.C.L., F.R.S.

Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford and Fellow of New J Photography, Celestial;
College. President of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1903-1904. Author ofl Photometry, Celestial.
Modern Astronomy; &c. t

r Pharmacology: Terminology;



/Plymouth (England).



. TT , r , T , TTT , r , CT
HARRIET L. HENNESSY, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.



plague



HARRY MARSHALL WARD, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (d. 1905). f

Formerly Professor of Botany, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Sidney
Sussex College. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber J Plants: Pathology.
and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures on the Physiology of Plants;
Diseases in Plants ; &c.



J. Ga.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix

H. R. H. HARRY REGINALD HOLLAND HALL, M.A. f

Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. ~{ Plate (in part).
Author of The Oldest Civilization of Greece ; &c. I

H. R. K. HARRY ROBERT KEMPE, M.lNST.C.E. f

Electrician to the General Post Office, London. Author of The Engineer's Year"] Pneumatic Despatch.

Book ; &c. I

H. R. M. HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.Sc., LL.D. i

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of British Rainfall. President
of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1907-1908. Hon. Member of Vienna Gep- J p Iar Regions
graphical Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris,
Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. Author of The Realm of Nature;
The International Geography; &c.

H. R. T. HENRY RICHARD TEDDER, F.S.A. f p er j 0( jj ca i s

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. \

H. Sc. HENRY SCHERREN, F.Z.S. f

Assistant Natural History Editor of The Field. Author of Popular History of\ Platypus (in part).
Animals for Young People; Pond, and Rock Pools; &c.

H. Sw. HENRY SWEET, M.A., PH.D., LL.D. f

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Corresponding Member of the Academies J pj, nnp f,,c
of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English 1
Sounds since the Earliest Period ; A Primer of Phonetics ; &c.

H. S.-K. SIR HENRY SETON-KARR, C.M.G., M.A. /Pistol

M.P. for St Helen's, 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c. \

H. S. J. HENRY STUART JONES, M.A. f

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J p , t ,. . ,\
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 1 a e ^ n P an >-
Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. I

H. W.* HAROLD W. T. WAGER, F.R.S. f

H.M. Inspector of Secondary Schools, Board of Education, London. President, J Plants: Cytology.
Botanical Section, British Association, 1905. Author of Memoirs on the Structure j
of the Fungi ; &c.

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. f _

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1 Peter des R ch es.
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Perles Joseph.
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short j
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.

I. G. ISRAEL GOLLANCZ, M.A., Lrrr.D.

Professor of English Language and Literature, King's College, London, and Dean J p pa ,i rr,u
of the Faculty of Arts, University of London. Fellow and Secretary of the British 1 '

Academy. Editor of The Pearl ; The " Temple " Shakespeare ; &c. I

J. A. H. JOHN ALLAN HOWE, B.Sc. I" Permian;

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 1 Pleistocene;
The Geology of Building Stones. [ Pliocene.

J. A. S. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS, LL.D., D.C.L. J Petrarch; Poggio;

See the biographical article: SYMONDS, J. A. j Politian.

J. Bt. JAMES BARTLETT. r

Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's] pi.-for u/nrt
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior I rlasMr ~ worK -
Engineers. Author of Quantities.

3. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. r

King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J phjlinnj
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of ]
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. t.

J. E. S.* JOHN EDWIN SANDYS, M.A. , Lrrr.D., LL.D. f Pliny the Elder;

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's College. 4 niinu *i,.
Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c.

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D., F.R.HiST.S. r ,

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Pereda, Jose Maria de;
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 4 Perez Galdos, Benito;
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Picaresque Novel The.
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.

J. F. P. JOSEPH FRANK PAYNE, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1840-1910). r

Formerly Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians. Hon. Fellow of J _, ,. ,

Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of University of London. Author of Lectures 1 Plague (in part),
on Anglo-Saxon Medicine; &c.



JAMES GAIRDNER, C.B., LL.D. Jr>.,, . /.;., (; i, n .f\

See the biographical article: GAIRDNER, JAMES. \ *"* / om/ ? P ari >



J. G. C. A. JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. f Po . c -_.. c

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln 1
College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.



X

J. G. FT.

J. H. A. H.
J. H. M.

J. H. R.
J. H. V. C.

J. L. M.

J. L. W.

J. Mt.

J. M. M.
J. P. P.

J. R. C.
J. R. Gr.

J. S. F.

J. T. Be.
J. T. C.

J. W.
J.Wa.

J. Wai.*
J. W. D.



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES



JAMES GEORGE FRAZER, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Lirr.D.

Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University, and Fellow of Trinity -
College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden
Bough; &c.

JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A.

Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge.



Penates (in part).



Pharisees.



JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). r



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