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and a shot in the thigh. On his return
to England he was made a knight of the
Bath. On the recommencement of hos-
tilities, after the short peace of 1802, he
was employed, by his own desire, in a
camp of instruction on the Kentish coast,
in training his own and several other
regiments as light infantry. After being
for some time employed in the occupation
of Sicily, he was sent, in May 1808, at
the head of 10,000 men, to Sweden, with
a view of aiding the gallant but unreason-
able sovereign of that country, Gustavus
Adolphus IV., in the defence of his
dominions against the designs of Napo-
leon. He returned with his troops to
England, and proceeding to the Penin-
sula, landed in Portugal in August 1808.
After the expulsion of the French from
that kingdom, and the recall of the British
generals who had negotiated the Conven-
tion of Cintra, he was appointed to the
command of the army intended to co-
operate with the Spanish forces in the
north of the Peninsula against the French.
He began his march from Lisbon in
October 1808; but he had scarcely en-
tered Spain before the defeat and destruc-
tion of the Spanish armies at all points
on their northern line utterly extinguished
the prospect of a successful campaign.
Receiving intelligence that the whole of
the disposable French armies in the
Peninsula were gathering to surround
him, he commenced a rapid retreat to
Corunna, where, in a decisive action
(January 16th, 1809) in which the French


were repulsed, he fell in the arms of

MOORE, (Philip,) rector of Kirkbridge,
and minister of Douglas, in the Isle of
Man, was the chaplain, friend, and com-
panion of bishop Wilson, whose funeral
sermon he preached. He superintended
the revision of the translation of the Bible
into Manks, and other theological works.
He died in 1783. He was buried in
Kirk Braddon church, and his obsequies
were attended by all the clergy of the

MOORE, (John,) archbishop of Can-
terbury, born in 1733, was son of a
grazier at Gloucester, and was educated
at the grammar-school of that city, and at
Pembroke college, Oxford, where he took
his degrees, and from which he was
recommended to the duke of Marlborough
as tutor to his sons. He was rewarded
for his services with a prebendal stall at
Durham. In 1771 he was made dean of
Canterbury; and in 1776 he was raised
to the see of Bangor. On the death of
archbishop Cornwallis, in 1783, he was
recommended to the king by bishops
Lowth and Hurd, who declined the
honour, as the most proper person to
succeed on the archiepiscopal throne of
Canterbury. He died in January 1805.
He published only two sermons, preached
on special occasions.

MOORSOM, (Sir Robert,) a brave
naval officer, was born near Whitby, in
Yorkshire, in 1760, and entered the ser-
vice at the age of seventeen, under
captain Phipps, afterwards lord Mulgrave,
in the Courageous. In 1790 he was made
a post captain ; and when the war broke
out in 1793, he was appointed to the
Niger frigate, and sent to ascertain the
enemy's force at Brest. In 1804 he was
appointed to the Majestic, 74, and joined
admiral Russel off the Texel. In 1805
he had the command of the Revenge, 74,
and was attached to the Channel fleet
under admiral Cornwallis ; by whom he
was sent, in Sir R. Calder's squadron,
to reinforce lord Collingwood off Cadiz,
where they were soon joined by Nelson,
and the memorable battle of Trafalgar
ensued. In that engagement captain
Moorsom bore a most distinguished part,
having for two hours engaged a Spanish
three-decker, the Prince of Asturias, 112
guns, on one side, and a French 74 on
the other, while three more of the enemy's
ships supported them. In 1806 he re-
signed the command of the Revenge, and
was made private secretary to lord Mul-
grave, first lord of the Admiralty ; and

on his lordship becoming master-general
of the ordnance, captain Moorsom was
appointed to the office of surveyor-general
of that department, and became member
of parliament for Queenborough. In
1830 he attained the rank of admiral.
He died in 1835.

MOPINOT, (Simon,) a learned Bene-
dictine, of the congregation of St. Maur,
was born at Rheims in 1685, and at fifteen
years of age was sent to the monastery of
St. Faron, at Meaux, where he took the
vows in 1703. He went through his
courses of philosophy and divinity at
St. Denis, where he assisted Didier in an
edition of Tertullian ; and he afterwards
taught the classics and rhetoric at Point-
le-Foi, in the diocese of Blois. He also
occasionally appeared in the pulpit, and
was much admired as a preacher. About
1715 his superiors called him to Paris,
where he was associated with father Peter
Coustant in preparing his collection of
the Letters of the Popes. The first
volume of this work was published in
1721, fol., with a dedication to Innocent
XIII., and a preface by Mopinot. Upon
the death of Coustant, in 1721, the whole
care of continuing this collection devolved
upon Mopinot ; and he was preparing to
print a second volume, when he was
attacked by a violent dysentery, of which
he died in 1724, in the thirty-ninth year
of his age. Father Mopinot wrote in
Latin with all the purity and elegance of
the best authors; and he had considerable
pretensions to poetic genius. In dif-
ferent monasteries of his order Hymns
of his composition were chanted, which
some prefer to those of M. Santeuil de
St. Victor for genuine devotional senti-
ment and spirit, while they are inferior
to the latter in point of energy and liveli-
ness of imagery. He was also the author
of the dedicatory epistle prefixed to the
Thesaurus Anecdotum of fathers Mar-
tenne and Durand ; and, A Funeral Eulo-
gium in Latin, on M. Prousteau, professor
of law in the university of Orleans.

MORABIN, (James,) a man of letters,
secretary to the lieutenant-general of the
police in Paris, was a native of La Fle'che,
and died in 1762. He published, A
Translation of Cicero's Treatise on Laws,
and of the Dialogue on Orators attributed
to Tacitus, 1722; Histoire de I'Exil de
Ciceron, an esteemed work, which has
been translated into English; Histoire de
Ciceron; this appeared nearly at the same
time with that of Middleton on the same
subject, and shared with it in reputation ;
Nomenclator Ciceronianus; and, A Trans-

M o a


lation of Boetius de Consolatione. He
also wrote the Dissertation prefixed to
Chateauneuf's Dialogue on the Music of
the Ancients.

MORALES, (Ambrosio,) a Spanish
historian and antiquarian, whom Southey
styles the Camden of Spain, was born at
Cordova in 1513, and studied under Juan
de Medina at Alcala, and under Mel-
choir Cano at Salamanca, where he became
a good Greek scholar, and while yet a
youth translated the Table of Cebes.
At the age of nineteen he entered a
Jeronymite convent near Cordova, under
the name of Ambrosio de Santa Paula.
After the death of his father he became
a professor at Alcala, where he had,
among others, Guevara, Chacon, San-
doval, and the first Don Juan of Austria,
among his pupils ; and on the death of
his friend Florian de Ocampo, he obtained
the place of royal chronicler ; but his
first appearance as an author was in
defending the historian Zurita. At the
death of the bishop of Piacenza, the col-
lector of MSS. for the Escurial, Morales
succeeded him in that office. In the
mean time he extended the Cronica
general de Espana, which Ocampo had
carried no further than the death of the
Scipios. He was afterwards sent to Leon,
Galicia, and Asturias, to examine sepul-
chres and temples, archives and libraries;
and he collected much curious matter,
which was published from the original
MS. in the Escurial by the antiquarian
Florez in 1 765, and has been since inserted
in the complete collection of Morales'
works, Madrid, 1791-2. In 1583 he
finished the third volume of the Cronica,
which brought down the works to 1037.
He also printed a volume of the works
of his uncle Fenian Perez de Oliva; and
he inserted at the end of it fifteen essays
of his own, his juvenile version of Cebes,
and an exposition of Don Juan of Austria's
device. In his seventy-second year he
recast his favourite manual, Arte para
servir a Dios, the production of an un-
lettered Franciscan, Alonso de Madrid.
He died in 1591.

MORALES, (Cristobal, or Cristoforo,)
a distinguished Spanish singer, who,
about the middle of the sixteenth cen-
tury, became the most eminent composer
at the Roman Pontifical chapel. The
antes of his birth and death are not

MORALES, (Luis,) a Spanish painter,

surnamed El Divino, from having devoted

liis pencil exclusively to sacred subjects.

His Saviours and Magdalens exhibit the


extreme of human suffering endured with
a celestial meekness. Cean Bermudez
finds in Morales correct design, know-
ledge of the naked form, a fine gradation
of tints, and the most perfect expres-
sion of sorrow, or true Christian grief.
Philip II., passing through Badajoz on
his return from Lisbon, in 1581, relieved
Morales, who was then suffering from
poverty and old age, with a yearly pension
of 300 ducats. He died, at a very ad-
vanced age, in 1586.

MORAND, (Sauveur,) a celebrated
surgeon, was born at Paris in 1697, and
educated at the college Mazarin. At an
early age he was entered under his father
at the Invalicles, of which the latter was
principal surgeon. Hearing of the suc-
cess of Cheselden's lateral method of
lithotomy, he visited London in 1729 at
the expense of the Academy of Sciences,
and made himself master of that opera-
tion, which on his return he practised
with success at the hospital of La Charite,
of which he was made surgeon. To the
Academy of Sciences he was associated
as pensioner and professor of anatomy ;
and he was admitted a member of the
Royal Society of London, and of the Aca-
demies of Petersburg, Stockholm, Bologna,
Florence, and Rouen. In 1751 he was
decorated by the king with the order of
St. Michael. He was well versed in anti-
quarian and medallic science, He died
hi 1773. He wrote several memoires in
the Collections of the Academies of
Sciences and of Surgery, and composed
the history of the latter for the second
and tHird volumes.

MORAND, (Peter de,) a dramatic
writer, born at Aries in 1701. In 1731
he went to Paris, where in 1734 he
brought upon the stage Teglis, a tragedy,
which was followed, in 1736, by Childeric.
His comedy, entitled L'Esprit de Divorce,
one of his best pieces, was published in
1738. In 1749 he was nominaied lite-
rary correspondent of the king of Prussia.
He died in 1757. His works were pub-
lished in 3 vols, 12mo, Paris, 1751.

MORAND, (John Francis Clement,)
son of the preceding, was born at Paris
in 1726, and was created doctor of the
medical faculty of Paris in 1750, and be-
came anatomical professor in their schools.
The Academy of Sciences in Paris, the
Royal Society of London, and several
other learned bodies, enrolled him among
their members. He died in 1784. He
wrote, Nouvelle Description des Grottes
d'Arcy ; Lettre sur les Antiquites trouvees
a Luxeul ; MSmoire sur les Eaux Ther-



males tie Bains en Lorraine; Du Char-
bon de terre et ses mines, fol. ; this forms
the fortieth number of the arts described
by the Academy of Sciences.

MORANT, (Philip,) a learned and in-
dustrious translator, editor, biographer,
and antiquary, was born in 1700, at St.
Saviour's, in the isle of Jersey, and edu-
cated at Abingdon school, and at Pem-
broke college, Oxford. He was succes-
sively presented to several benefices in
the county of Essex, one of which was in
Colchester. Of that town he published
a history in 1748. His antiquarian know-
ledge, and his acquaintance, as a native
of Jersey, with Norman French, caused
him to be appointed in 1768, by the
House of Lords, to succeed Mr. Blyke in
preparing for the press a copy of the
rolls of Parliament. In this service he
diligently employed himself till his death,
in 1770. This work, which he had con-
tinued down to the sixteenth year of the
reign of Henry IV., afterwards devolved
upon his son-in-law, Thomas Astle, Esq.
Several of Morant's literary labours re-
lated to English history; among which
was the comparing of Rapin's History
with all Rymer's Fcedera, and all the an-
cient and modern historians ; the result
of which furnished most of the notes to
the folio edition of 1728, 1734. He wrote
a History of Essex, in 2 vols, fol. 1760,
1768; and, The Life of King Edward the
Confessor ; and he composed all the lives
marked with the letter C in the Biogra-
phia Britannica. He was a fellow of the
Society of Antiquaries.

MORATA, (Olympia Fulvia,) one of
the most learned females of her age, born
at Ferrara in 1526, was the daughter of
Pellegrino Morata, a native of Mantua,
who settled at Ferrara as a teacher of the
learned languages. At an early age she
was invited to the court of Ferrara, and
placed as a companion to the princess
Anne of Este, whom her mother, the
duchess Renata, had determined to edu-
cate on a plan of liberal study. Olympia
soon rendered herself celebrated for her
extraordinary talents, and the success
with which she pursued the studies of
literature and philosophy. She retired
from court on account of the artifices of
her enemies, who had injured her in the
opinion of the duchess ; but she had
already imbibed from her residence there
that attachment to the principles of Pro-
testantism, which she ever after retained.
Her faith was confirmed by her union
with Andrew Grundler, a young German
physician, who had come to study medi-

VOL. x. 209

cine at Ferrara, and had graduated there.
She accompanied her husband in 1548
to Schweinfurt, in Franconia, his native
place ; but they were scarcely settled be-
fore the entrance of the Imperial troops
drove them thence, stript of almost all
their property. She was for a long time
obliged to wander about in Germany
while labouring under a burning fever,
destitute of every comfort, and conti-
nually exposed to the danger of losing
her life. Her health was by this means
totally ruined, so that the relief offered
by the elector-palatine came too late.
He invited Grundler to the professorship
of physic in the university of Heidelberg.
But Elizabeth did not survive above a
year longer : she died on the 26th Octo-
ber, 1555, in the twenty-eighth year of
her age, and was soon followed to the
grave by her husband and brother. Her
writings, consisting of dialogues, letters,
short Latin orations, and Greek poems,
were collected by Celio Secondo Curione,
and published at Basle, in 1562, 8vo,
with the title of Olympiae Fulviae Mo-
ratae, feminae doctissimse ac plane divina*,
Opera omnia quse hactenus inveniri

MORATIN, (Nicolo Fernandez,) a
Spanish dramatist, born at Madrid in 1737.
In 1762 he produced his comedy, La Peti-
metra, which contains some fine passages,
but wants comic power. It is framed
according to the rules of the French
stage. This was followed by his tragedy
of Lucrecia. Neither of these pieces
was performed ; such was the prejudice
against what was denominated French
taste. But his Hormesinda, performed in
1770, was received with great applause.
Moratin's three discourses, Desenganador
del Teatro Espaflol, drove from the stage,
with the aid of an injunction from govern-
ment, the Autos Sacramentales. Besides
remodelling the drama, Moratin was a
successful restorer of lyric poetry in
Spain. The Arcadi of Rome gave him
the name of Flumisbo Thermodonciaco
as a fellow-member. In 1764 he pub-
lished periodically some of his light poetry,
under the title of El Poeta. Soon
after appeared his didactic poem on the
chase, La Diana, which was greatly ad-
mired. His tragedy, Guzman el Bueno,
published in 1777, contains several fine
passages, but was not performed. He
practised the law merely for the sake of
providing for his wife and son. His Me-
moir on the means of encouraging Agri-
culture in Spain without injuring the
Breed of Cattle, attracted the attention of



the Economical Society of Madrid, and
led to his being chosen a member of it.
His beautiful epic canto, Las Naves de
Cortes destruidas, was printed at Madrid
in 1785. He died in 1780.

MORATIN, (Leandro Fernandez,) a
celebrated dramatic writer, son of the
preceding, was born at Madrid in 1760,
and began to versify at six or seven years
of age. Though apprenticed to a jeweller,
he, at the age of eighteen, obtained a
prize from the Spanish Academy for his
heroic poem entitled Toma de Granada.
In 1782 he gained another prize from
the same society for his Leccion Poetica,
a satire against poetasters. At the sug-
gestion of Jovellanos, he became secre-
tary to Cabarrus, who was sent, in 1786,
by the Spanish government to the court
of Versailles. In 1789 he published,
without his name, his Derrota de los
Pedantes, written in the manner of the
Viage al Parnaso of Cervantes. In the
same year the minister Florida Blanca
rewarded his ode to the new king, Charles
IV., with a pension of 300 ducats; which
was afterwards increased to 900 ducats
by the well-known minister Godoy, called
El Principe de la Paz. In 1790 he pro-
duced his play of El Viejo y la Nina.
In 1792 followed La Comedia Nueva,
or El Cafe. About this time Moratin
travelled through France, England, Bel-
gium, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy.
In 1798 he published his translation of
Hamlet. In 1 803 he produced El Baron ;
in 1804, LaMogigata; and in 1806 his
very popular piece, El Si de las Ninas.
His Escuela de los Maridos was repre-
sented in March 1812, under Joseph
Buonaparte, who made the author chief
royal librarian. On the restoration of
Ferdinand in 1814, Moratin's property
was seized, and himself reduced to actual
starvation. In 1817 he fled from Barce-
lona to Paris, where he lived with his
early friend Melon, till the restoration of
the popular Spanish constitution in 1820,
when he returned to Barcelona, where in
the following year he edited his father's
works. He next took up his residence
at Bourdeaux, where he devoted himself
to the improvement of his Origenes del
Teatro Espanol. He returned in 1827
to Paris, where he died on the 21st of
June, 1828, and his remains were de-
posited near Moliere's monument in Pere
la Chaise. The poetical works of L. Mo-
ratin were published at Paris, in 3 vols,
8vo, 1825, and reprinted in 3 vols, 12mo,
in the following year. His Poesias Liricas
were printed in London, in 12mo, 1825.

The edition of his works, in 3 vols, 8vo,
by the Spanish Academy in 1830, was
reprinted in 1835, at Barcelona, without
the Origenes. An edition of the Origenes,
with an Appendix by Don Ochoa, was
published at Paris, in 1838, 8vo.

MORAY, or MURRAY, (Sir Robert,)
one of the founders of the Royal Society,
was descended of an ancient and noble
family in the Highlands of Scotland, and
was educated partly at the university of
St. Andrews, and partly in France. He
entered the French army, in the service
of Louis XIII., and became a favourite
with cardinal Richelieu. According to
Anthony Wood, he was general of the
ordnance in Scotland, against Charles I.,
when the Presbyterians of that kingdom
first set up and maintained their Covenant.
He afterwards joined the royalists, and at
Newcastle suggested a device for the escape
of the king, which seems to have been
frustrated only by Charles's want of resolu-
tion. Upon the restoration of Charles II.
he was appointed lord-justice-clerk, one
of the auditors of exchequer, and a privy-
counsellor for Scotland ; and he was em-
ployed by the king in his chemical pro-
cesses, and had the management of his
laboratory. He died suddenly, in his
pavilion, in the Garden of Whitehall, on
the 4th of July, 1673, and was interred,
at the king's expense, in Westminster
Abbey. Bishop Burnet asserts that he
was the first former of the Royal Society,
and that, while he lived, he was the life
and soul of that body. We meet with his
name in almost every page of Dr. Birch's
circumstantial History of the Society ; in
which, likewise, are inserted some of Sir
Robert's papers. Another of his papers,
concerning the mineral of Liege, is printed
in the Philosophical Transactions. He
had a very considerable share in obtain-
ing the charters of the Society ; was con-
cerned in framing its statutes and regula-
tions ; and was indefatigably zealous in
whatever regarded its interests. In both
the charters of the Royal Society he is
first mentioned in the list of the council :
he was always afterwards chosen of the
council ; and his name sometimes occurs
as vice-president.

MORDAUNT, (Charles,) earl of
Peterborough and Monmouth, the eldest
son of John viscount Avalon, and Eliza-
beth, daughter of Thomas Carey, second
son of Robert earl of Monmouth, was bom
in 1658, and was brought up to the sea-
service under the admirals Torrington
and Narborough in the Mediterranean.
In 1680 he signalized his courage at



Tangier, then besieged by the Moors.
He opposed the repeal of the Test Act,
which James II. endeavoured to pro-
mote ; and, disapproving the measures
pursued by that infatuated prince, he
went to Holland, and at the Hague was
one of the first of the English nobility
that attached themselves to the prince of
Orange, who paid great deference to his
advice, and whom he accompanied in his
expedition to England. This attach-
ment was rewarded, on the accession of
William III., by a seat in the privy-
council, and the place of one of the lords
of the bed-chamber. In 1689 he was
appointed to the post of first lord of the
treasury, and was raised to the dignity of
earl of Monmouth. He served a cam-
paign in Flanders in 1692 under Wil-
liam, and resigned his post at the treasury
in 1694. He succeeded in 1697 to the
earldom of Peterborough, on the death
of his uncle Henry, the second earl. In
1705, on the breaking out of the war of
the Spanish Succession, he was made, by
queen Anne, commander-in-chief of the
forces sent into Spain in support of the
archduke Charles of Austria, competitor
for the crown, and also joint-admiral of
the fleet with Sir Cloudesley Shovel.
Taking the archduke on board at Lisbon,
the fleet proceeded to Barcelona, which
soon capitulated, and Charles, recognised
as king, entered it in triumph. Lord
Peterborough's skill and bravery in
driving out of Spain the duke of Anjou
and the French army, which consisted of
25,000 men, though his own troops never
amounted to 10,000; and his capture of
Catalonia, of the kingdoms of Valencia,
Arragon, and Majorca, with part of
Murcia and Castile, by which he gave
opportunity to the earl of Galway of
advancing to Madrid without a blow ;
caused him to be regarded as one of
the ablest captains of his time. For his
services abroad he was declared general
in Spain by Charles III. afterwards em-
peror of Germany ; and, the war being
thought likely to be concluded, he was
appointed by queen Anne ambassador
extraordinary, with power and instruc-
tions for treating and adjusting all mat-
ters of state and traffic between the two
kingdoms. The king of Spain, however,
having transmitted some charges against
him, his conduct was examined by Par-
liament, and cleared up to their entire
satisfaction. The House of Lords, in
particular, who were pleased with his
justification, voted (Jan. 12,1710), "that
he had performed many great and emi-

nent services" during his command in
Spain. In 1710 and 1711 he was em-
ployed in embassies to Vienna, Turin,
and several of the courts in Italy. On
his return to England he was made
colonel of the royal regiment of horse-
guards ; and being general of the marines,
and lord-lieutenant of the county of
Northampton, he was (August 4, 1713)
installed at Windsor a knight of the
Garter. Soon afterwards he was sent
ambassador extraordinary to the king of
Sicily, and commissioned to negotiate
affairs with other Italian princes ; and in
March 1713-14, he was made governor
of the island of Minorca. In the reign
of George I. he was made general of
all the marine forces in Great Britain,
in which post he was likewise continued
by George II. He died on the 25th
October, 1735, in his passage to Lisbon,
whither he was going for the recovery of
his health. In politics he was a violent
Tory. He lived on terms of affectionate
intimacy with Pope, Swift, Prior, Atter-
bury, Berkeley, and others. Lord Orford
has characterised him as " one of those
men of careless wit and negligent grace,
who scatter a thousand bon-mots and

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