Hugh Mercer Blain.

Syntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. online

. (page 1 of 4)
Online LibraryHugh Mercer BlainSyntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. → online text (page 1 of 4)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


^m



^nibtv^it^ at WivQinis^ M^naQVHpM

SCHOOL OF TEUTONIC LANGUAGES
No. II.

'dited by JAMES A. HARRISON, Professor of Teutonic Lamouaqes



SYNTAX OF THE VERB



IN



HE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE FROM 787 A.D.
TO 1001 A.D,



DISSERTATION



Presented to the Faculty of the University of Virginia for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

BY

HUGH MERCER BLAIN, M.A.



NEW YORK
A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY

1901



ANGLO-SAXON TEXTS.



ANGLO-SAXON PROSE READER

With Grammar and Vocabulary Combined.

LV

JAMES A. HABBISON, L.H.D., LL.D., W. H. BA8KEB7ILLE, PH.D. (Lipi.),

Professor of English Language in ^•*'' Professor of English in I'anderbilt

University of Virginia, University, Nashville, Tenn.

200 pp. x2mo. Cloth. Price, $i.ao, ntt.

In the preparation of this manual the Editors have had in view, first, the supply of new
and fresh elementary prose texts for the use of students and teachers desirous of varying the
Anglo-Saxon primers and readers now before the public; second, a more complete and prac-
tical presentation of working forms in the grammar proper.

During the progress of the work of preparation, friendly and valuable suggestions were
received from Professors Bright, Mead, W. Calloway, Jr., and Blackburn.



By the same Authors,

A Handy Poetical Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.

BASED ON GBOSCHOPP'S QREIN.

Edited, RE\nsKD, and Corrected, with Grammatical .\ppksdix, List of
Irregular Verbs, and Brief Etymological Featvrks.

318 pp. 8vo. Half Leather. Price, $340, net.

In preparing this edition of Groschopp's Revised Grein's Poetical Lexicon of the Anglo-
Saxon Language, several new and important features have been introduced; the prominent
ones are: —

1. A Grammatical Appendix intended to convey in brief but explicit form a working Out-
line of Anglo-Saxon Grammar.

2. Cognate words from the Icelandic, Gothic, Old High German and Modern German,
intended to show some of the etymological connections of the Anglo-Saxon poetic vocabulary.

3. A List of the Irregular Verbs occurring in Anglo-Saxon Poetry.

4. The use of Antique Type in the definitions of words, by which the modem English
derivative may be directly traced to the Anglo-Saxon original.

The present volume contains all words in Anglo-Saxon Poetry, affording students of Old
English a handy volume by means of which any poem of that time may be read and sttidied.



Also

AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR

WITH A

LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS.

66 pp. 8vo. Cloth. Price, 60 cents, net.

A. S. BARNES & CO., Publishers,

156 FIFTH AVENUE, - - - - NEW YORK



SYNTAX OF THE YEHB



SCHOOL OF TEUTONIC LANGUAGES

No. II.

Edited by JAMES A. HARRISON, Pkofkssou of Teitontc lAycvAfiHS ',



SYNTAX OF THE VERB



IN



THE ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE FROM 787 A.D.
TO 1001 A.D.



DISSERTATION



Presented to the Faculty of the XJNtVERsixY of Virginia for the
Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

BY

HUGH MERCER BLAIN, M.A.



NEW YORK

A. S. BARNES AND COMPANY

1901



Copyright, 1901
By a. S. Barnkh and Compant

All rights reserved



TO

MY FATHER



814983



PREFACE.



The object of this paper is to furnish a nucleus for a " Working
Syntax of the Anglo-Saxon Verb." My original plan was to
combine the results of this research with other treatises on the
Verb in Anglo-Saxon (as suggested by Professor Chase in his
" Bibliography of Anglo-Saxon Monographs "), thus forming a
convenient working syntax of the verb. After much labor and
delay, however, in endeavoring to obtain the necessary books and
dissertations, I decided to present this part of the work, with the
hope that I may be able in the near future to carry out the
original plan.

The research is for the most part limited to the Parker (A) and
Laud (E) MSS. of the Chronicle, between the years 787 and
1001, as being representative of the whole Chronicle. It is im-
possible here, — even were it necessary, — to discuss the origin
of the Chronicle, the relative value of the MSS., and their dates
of writing. For the full discussion of these important points, I
would refer to Vol. II. of Earle and Plummer's " Two Saxon
Chronicles Parallel." It is only necessary to state that this
valuable authority concludes that the entries in the Parker MS.
(787 to 1001) were made not long after the events which they
describe, while the Laud MS. was written between the years 1121
and 1154. Thus our work is a comparison of the Anglo-Saxon
Prose Syntax of the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries with that
of the twelfth. In case of doubtful points, however, the conclu-
sions are based on the whole text as found in Vol. I. of Earle
and Plummer.

In general arrangement I have followed Eeussner's " Untersuch-
ungen liber die Syntax des Verbums im Heiligen Andreas," but



viii PREFACE.

wiili numeroCis variations. Although there is necessarily little
claim to ongiiiality in general, I would call especial attention
to the treatment of Number and Person, which is original in
both order and contents.

Other books from which I have gleaned valuable suggestions
are : March's " Anglo-Saxon Grammar," Sweet's " Xew English
Grammar," Nader's " Syntax in Beowulf," Blackburn's " Future in
Old English," Smith's " Order of Words in Anglo-Saxon Prose,"
Smith's " Collective in Modern English," Gori-ell's "Indirect Dis-
course in Anglo-Saxon," Harrison's " French Syntax " (condensed
by H. M. Blain), Harrison and Baskerville's " New Anglo-Saxon
Reader," Gildersleeve's " Latin Grammar," numerous issues of
Auglia and Modem Language Publications, and the author's
" Subordinate Clauses in Judith."

I am especially indebted to Prof. J. A. Harrison, of the Uni-
versity of Virginia, for his ready aid at all times and f(tr the
general oversight of the whole work.

Although one among many bearing on the same subject, it is
my hope that this little monograph may serve to hasten, and may
even furnish some suggestions to be incorporated in the much-
needed " Working Syntax of Anglo-Saxon."



CONTENTS.



A. — Voices.



I. Active: — §§ 1-4, Periphrastic forms. § 5, Indef. man. II. Passive: — § 6,
Formation. § 7, Present. § 8, Pret. §9, Perf. § 10, Plup. §§11, 12, Fu-
ture. § 13, Imperat. § 14, Infin.

B. — Tenses.

I. Simple: — §§ 15-19, Present. §§ 20-24, Pret. II. Compound:— §§ 26, 27,
Perf. §§ 28, 29, Plup. § 30, Fut. formed by sc«/a« and m7/an, + Inf. §31,Fut.
Perf. § 32, Condit. III. Sequence : — § 33, Prin. Clause, Present ; Dep.
Clause, Pres. or Imperf . §§ 34, 35, Prin. Clause, Pret.; Dep. Clause, Pret. (pres.).

C. — Number and Person.

I. Agreement of pred. with single subject : — § 37, Agreement of vb. with subj.
§§ 38-44, Collectives : here, fierd, laf, tSeod, sumer-lida, eaca, unfritSJlota, dcel,
tSeodsci/pe. §§ 42-44, Rel. Pron. Subj. § 45, '5cet as subj. § 46, hiccet as subj.
§ 47, Feala. § 48, Monig mon, tntpnig secg. § 49, ma with foil. gen. §§ 50, 51,
Numerals. II. Agreement of pred. with more than one subject: — § 53, Sub-
jects. . . . plur. vb. § 54, Vb. . . . Subj. § 55, Aux. . . . Subj. . . . particip.
§ 56, Sing. subj. . . . vb. . . . additional subj. § 58, Vb. + Subj. + mid-phrase.
§ 59, Subj. + vb. -|- mjc?-phrase. § 60, Subj. -f »j/c?-phrase. . . + vb.

D. — Moods.

I. Principal Clause ; — § 61, Indie. § 62, Subj. § 63, Imperat. § 64, Subj.
used imperatively. II. Dept. Clauses: — 1. Subject Clauses: §§ 65, 66, Ind. ;
§ 67, Subj. 2. Obj. Clauses : §§ 68-70, Ind. ; §§ 71-73, Subj. § 74, App. obj.
clauses. 3. Rel. Clauses: §§ 75, 76, Ind.; § 77, Subj. 4. Temp. Clauses:
§ 80, Zonne = cum ; § 81, 3a = cum ; § 82, .swd (sona swd) ; § 83, 5a hwile tSe ;
§ 84, tSrt hwile tJe lengest ; § 85, |>aes he, si^an ; § 87, ar -f Ind. ; § 88, aer -f Subj. ;
§ 90, o(J, etc., -f Ind. 5. Causal Clauses : § 91, ^if^forZan Zmt, fnr1i(vvi ^e, for^i
Zet, foils 1/ 'Se, mid 3rem tScet. 6. Cond. Clauses: § 92, Ind.; §§ 93, 94, Subj.
7. Concess. Clauses: § 95, Ind. ; §§ 96. 97, Subj. 8. Consec. Clauses: §98,
Ind.; § 99, Temp, meaning; § 100, Subj. 9. Final Clau.ses : § 101, Subj. with
tScet (swd •ScEt] ; 10. Modal Clauses: § 103, swd (. . . swd) ; § 104. tices 3e.



CONTENTS.



E. — Infinitive.

§ 105, Simple Inf. with aux. vbs. § 106, luf. ojiiittod. § 107. Inf. (or Inf. 4-obj.)
after traus. vbs. § 108, vb. + obj. Inf. (+obj.) §§109-111, Simple Inf. after
Intraus. vbs. §§ 112, 113, Inf. with to.

F. — I'akticiples.

I. Present part. : — §§ 115, 116, Attrib. u.^e. §§ 117, 118, Predic. §119, Snbst.
II. I'crf. part. : — §§ 121, 122, Attrib. §§ 123, 124, I'redic. §§ 125, 126, Agree-
ment of i)art. § 127, Subst. § 128, Used for a dcj). clause, pure part. § 129,
Verbal Subst.

G. — Auxiliary Vkkiis.

§ 131, WeorZan as notional verb. § 132, Ilahlmu a.s notional verb. § 133, Dun.
§ 134, Cunnan. § 135, Diirran. §§ 136, 137, Miujan. § 138, Zurfan. § 139.
H7//an = desire. § 140, 141, IF/Y/an — futurity. § 142, Wiltan as notional
verb. § 143, Sculan as aux. vb. § 144, Pret. of scnlan + Inf. = futurity.
§ 145. Other uses of sculan.

11. — Government of Verbs.

§ 147, Vbs. with ace. § 148, Dat. § 149, Gen. § 150, Two cases. § 151, Retiex
vbs. § 152, lutr. vbs. § 153, Impers. vbs.



EXPLANATION OF REFERENCES.



The text used is that of Earle and Plummer. Reference is
made by means of annals, unless the annal covers more than a
page, in which case the page is generally given in addition. The
letters t, h, m, 1, b, suflixed to page references indicate top, high,
middle, low, bottom. The letters A, E, C, F, etc., indicate the
MS. to which the example belongs, — A being the Parker MS., and
E the Laud MS. Examples with no capital letter following the
annal occur in both A and E, the text being that of E. M= the
Menologium.

A small figure in parenthesis, following an example, indicates
the number of similar examples in the same annal.



THE VERB.



A. — VOICES.

ACTIVE.

§ 1. It is necessary here merely to call attention to one or
two circumlocutions which were in use in Old English, though
not to the extent that they are employed in Modern English.

§ 2. The periphrastic forms corresponding to the modem
English ivas (fighting^, were {Jighting}, are not in frequent use
in the Chronicle, and are only vaguely differentiated from the
simple preterit. In almost every case these forms are from the
verbs feohtan and winnan, although the simple preterits of these
verbs are found with the same meaning. [See Sweet, N. E. G.,
§ 2203, foil.]

fa ut resde on hine, and hine mycckim gewundode, and he
ealle on Sone cining feohtende wseron, o6 pet hig hine ofslsegen
haefdon, 755, p. 49 1.

Her com micel sciphere on Waest Wealas, and hi to anum
gecyrdon, and wiS Ecgbriht Waest Seaxna cining winnende
wseron, 835.

and ])y ilcan geare ferde to Rome mid mycclum wurSscipe, and
pger wunade • XII • monaS, 855 E. Cf. . . ., and pser was
• XII • monap wuniende, 855 A.

and hi late on geare to J)am gecyrdon, pset hi wi5 Jjone here
winnende wseron, 867.

Her on fisum geare com Anlaf . . . mid . . . scipum, and hi
Sa on Sa burh festlice feohtende waeron, and eac hi mid fyre
ontendan woldon, 994 E.

Her com se here to exanmuSan, and up Sa eodan to Sere byrig,
and |)aer fgestlice feohtende waeron, ac him man swySe faestlice
wiSstod, 1001 E.

1



2 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

§ 3. lu several iiistauces tlie idea of coutiauity is more
prominent (= " proceeded to ").

and J»oer wearS Sidrac eorl ofslflegen. . . . and )»a hergas begen
geflymde, and feala |>usendaofslagenra,:ind onfeohtende waeron
oS niht, and ))a!S ynib • xiiii • niht gefeaht .-ESered cining
. . ., 871.

and J)y geare Ilealfdene NorSunhymbra land gedadde, and
hergeude weron, and heora tiligende wuTon, 87G.

and ]>xs on Eastrou wrohte /Elfred cyning lytle werede
geweorc aet /ESelinga ige, and of pam geweorce waes winnende
wis )>one here, 878.

§ 4. In the following sentence the participle is used as a
substantive :

Nil wille ic hit segge mid worde pxt hwa swa halt ))is write
and )>is bode, \>a, wurSe he efre wuniende (= a dweller) mid
God .Elmiliti on heuenrice, 675 E. p. 3G b.

§ 5. The indefinite man with an active verb, instead of the
regular passive construction, is found throughout the Chronicle, —
frequently instead of the definite pronoun hie.

and hine man ofsloh pa, 787.

and man gehalgodo on his steal Ecgberht . . . and Wulfred
[wjes] to arceb gehalgod, 803 E.

8o 794 E. 796 E. 797 E. 798 E. 82o. 871. 877. 878. 892 A.
894 A, p. 8G ].; p. 87 t. 896 A. 897 A, p. 91 m. 901 A (2).
906 A. 913 A. 918 A. 962 A. 963 E, p. 116 (3) : p. 117 b (3).
975 A. 993 A. 991 E. 992 E. 993 E. 994 E (rep.). 998 E. 999 E
(2). 1001 E (2).

PASSIVE.

i; 6. The Passive is formed by the past i)articiple with the
auxiliary verbs hPon, nraan, and unn'^an (^(jcweor^nn).

§ 7. The Present Passive is formed by the perfect participle
with the present forms of Mon, wesan, and ^vcortitm.

eoni, etc. :

hie gedydon on anre westre ceastre on Wirhealum, sec is

Legaceaster gehaten, 894 A. p. 88 t.



VOICES — PASSIVE. 3

pset is Meres ig haten, 895 A.

and his hauda sindon on Bebbanburh ungebrosnode, 641 E.

beon, etc. :

and ic wille ])et j)us be gifen se toll. . . . And ic wille pset

markete beo in ))e selue tun, 963 E, p. 116 b.

So 675 E, p. 36 m. ; p. 31 h.

weor^an :

and hwa swa hit to breceS, l>a wurSe he amansumed and
aniSrod mid ludas and mid ealle deoiie on lielle baton he
cume to dedbote, 675 E, p. 37 t.

§ 8. The Preterit is formed by the perfect participle with
the preterit of weor'Sctn and ivesan.

iveor'&an :

twfBgen aldormen wurdon of slagene, 821.

se ealdorman waerS of sloegen, 837 E.

and J>8er gehorsade wurdon,866.

and se dsel }?e ])8er aweg com wurdon on fleame generede,

894 A, p. 87 b.

Ne wearS Angelcynne nan wsersa daed gedon, 979 E.

and j/0er wearS para Denescra micle ma ofslegenra, 1001 A.

fonne wearS )7ser aefre purh sum ]nng fleam astiht, 998 E.

So also : 794 E (2), 822. 833. 838 A. 853 A. 866. 870 1. 871 (6).

881. 885. 887. 892. 893 A. 894 A, p. 87 b (2). 896 A. 897 A
(2). 905 A (2). 925 A. 937 A. 948 E. 962 A. 959 E (2). 975 A

■ (3). 978 1. 1001 A (2). 894 A, p. 87 h ; p. 87 m.

wesan :

Her wses sinoS gegaderod, 788 E.

and aefter him wses Paschalis to papan gehalgod, 815 E. 816 A.

and ])aer wses my eel wsel geslaegen, 823.

So also : 789 E (4). 790 (2). 791 E. 792 E (3). 793 E (2). 794
(2). 795 E (3). 800 E (2). 800 1. (wceron omitted). 802. 806 E.
830 (2). 838 A. 852 E (A has wear^). 867 (2). 871 (3). 878.

882. 887. 890 A. 89i A (2). 894 A, p. 87 t ; p. 87 h ; p. 87 1.

895 A. 897 A (7). 901 A. 905 A. 911 A. 921 1, p. 103 t (2).
922 A. 925 E. 937 A. 942 1. 963 E (9). 972 E. 973 A (5).
975 A (3). 975 E. 978 E. 979 E (2). 984. 985 E. 987 E. 988 E.
989 E. 991 E (2). 993 E. 996 E. 1001 A.



4 VERBS IN TIIK ANGLO-SAXON.

§ 9. The Perfect is formed by eotn, etc. witli ihe perfect
participle, and fre(iueutly denotes a condition or state. The par-
ticiple in this case approaches the meaning of an adjective.

Ic tySe I'iet eallu \>a |'ing \>e her is gifen and sprecon.
and . . . yG3E, p. 117 h.

§ 10. The Pluperfect follows in its formation that of the
preterit. It is equivalent to the Latin Pluperfect Passive.

ne com se here oftor ealle ute of \mm setuin ))onne tuwwa,
o)>re s\\>e )>a hie aerest to londe comon, aer sio fierd gesamnod
wcere, 894 A, p. 84 b.

and 8a Deniscan sseton fser behindan, for)>8em hiora cyning
waes gewundod on paem gefeohte, 894 A, p. 86 1.

§ 11. The Future is sometimes formed by the present of b^on
and weor^an with the perfect participle :

paucod wurS hit )»on li.Tge .iElmihti God )iis wurSscipe ])aet
her is gedon, 656 E, p. 30 m.

and hwilc abbot }>e he\> )»aer coren of ))e munecan ))aet he beo
gebletsad of J>an aercebiscop of Cantwarbyrig, 675 E, j). 36 m.

§ 12. The Future is also formed by sceal and the jussive
infinitive.

Nu sceal beon ipfre on li abbod na?s biscop, and )'am sculou
[beon] underj'U'dde ealle Scotta biscopes, 56") E.

§ 13. The Imperative is formed willi ivcor^an (or wesan)
and the perfect participle. There is no example of pure impera-
tive in the Chronicle.

and hwa swa hit to brecoS, J»a wurSo he amansumed and
anifirod . . . 675 E, p. 37 t. (Subj as Iniperat.)

§ 14. The Inlinitive is fornii'd ]>y the infinitive of weortSan
(or wesan) witli the jK'rfect participle. Tlie Chronicle has not a
single infinitive passive.



THE TENSES— PRESENT.



B. — THE TENSES OF THE VEEB.

USE OF THE SIMPLE TENSES.
PKESENT.

§ 15. The Present Tense is used of that which is going on
now, denoting action as well as state.

aud his lie liS on Wintanceastre, 855 E.

and py ilcan geare for se here of Sigene to Scandlaudan, |>et
is betwix Bryttum and Francum, 890.

. . . seteowde se steorra pe mon on boclseden haet cometa, same
men cwepa}) ou Englisc paet hit sie feaxede steorra, for]?aem
paer stent lang leoma of . . . 892 A.

se muSa is on eastwarde Cent. ... J^e we Andrsed hataS, se
wudu is . . . hundtwelftig mihx lang, 892 E (893 A).

pa gegaderedon fa pe in Norphymbrum bugeaS, 894 A, p. 86 1.
So also : 860 (2). 871. 874. 888. 962 A. 963 E, p. 115 b. 973 A
(rep.). 979 E. 1001 A (rep.).

§ 16, In the following example the Preterit would be more
natural :

and hine geces pa to fseder and to hlaforde Scotta cyning and
. . . and ealle pa pe on jSTorphyrabrum bugeap . . . 924 A.

The clause Sa 3e on Hor^hymhrum hugeatS is regularly used as a
noun (= the inhabitants of Northumbria), and the scribe does
not see fit to change the tense in this instance.

§ 17. The following show the simple Present where in
Modern Enghsh we regularly use the c?o-form :

Ic Wulfere gife to daii See Fetre ... 656 E.

Ic ^dgar geate and gife to d?ei toforen Gode . . . 963 E. [See
under the auxiliary verb do?i (§ 133).]

§ 18. The Historical Present is rare, the preterit being
almost invariably employed.

Marcus se godspellere in Egipta aginp writan paet godspell,
47 F.



6 VKRHS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

§ 19. The Present is regularly used for the future in Old
English, but it seldom occurs in this capacity in the Chronicle.
Instead is found the circumlocution with sculan and willan,
from which our Modern English future is derived.

and gif hwa cow wiSstent, we eow fultumiaS, J>aet ge hit
nuigon gegangan, p. 3 E.

pancod wur8 hit J)ou haege iElmihti God J)is wurSscipe paet
her is gedon, and ic wile wurSigen J)is daei Crist and See Peter,
65G E, p. 30 lu.

and hwilc abbot Jje hep J>fer coren of pe munecan [ic wille"]
paet he beo gebletsad . . . 075 E, p. 30 ui.

PRETERIT.

§ 20. The Preterit states a past action, without any refer-
ence to the present (Historical Perfect). It is the great narrative
tense, and is found in almost every line of the Chronicle.

Her nora Beorhtric cyning offan debtor Eadburge ; and on his
daguin cuomon aerest • iii" scipu, and pa se gerefa J>cTerto gerad,
and hie wolde drifan to pses cyninges tune l>y he nyste hwset
hie wseron ; and liieiie men of slog ; p?et waeron pa arestan
scipu Deniscra monna pe Angelcynnes lond gesoliton, 787.
Et al. ad infin.

§ 21. The Preterit denotes continuance in the past, and is
employed to represent customs, conditions, feelings, etc. The
analytical form is generally employed. [For examjUes, see § 3.]

J)a wicode se cyng on neaweste J)are byrig, pa hwile pe hie hira
corn gerypon, paet . . . 890 A.

A doubtful example is :

and pa swi8e rape refter paeim, swa pa opre ham comon, pa
fundon hie opif Hocradc, 917 A.

Also : pa gewendon hi geond pa?t laud, and dydon call swa
hi bewuna wapron, slogon and beorndon, 1001 E.

§ 22, The Preterit represents an action as completed in tlie
past, or a condition resulting from the completed action (= Lat.
Pres. Perf.).



THE TENSES — FORMATION AND USE. 7

and J>aer f»8et mseste wael geslogou on hseSene here pe we aefve
gesecgan herdoii (cf. Vulgar "heard tell of"), 851.

Her for se myccla here J>e we gefyru £er ymbspraecon, 892 E
(893 A).

§ 23. The Preterit sometimes has the meauiug of a Plu-
perfect.

paet waerou J?a aerestau scipu Deniscra uionua pe Angelcynnes
lend gesohton, 787.

and 3a Deniscan saeton paer behindan, forp?em hiora cyning
waes gewundod on psera gefeohte . . . 894 A, p. 86 t.

pa hie 'Sa fela wucena steton on twa healfe })cer[e] e, and se
cyng wass west on Defnum wij) J)one sciphere, pa wteron hie
mid metelieste gewsegde . . . 894 A, p. 87 1.

§ 24. The Preterit is also employed with the meaning of a
Conditional.

Her bsed Burgrced Miercna cyning and his wiotan iE}>ehvulf
cyning ps&t he him gefultuuiade pset him Nor}) Walas gehiersu-
made, 853 A.

and Burhcred Myrcena cining and his witan bsedon ^Selred
West Seaxna cining and Alfred his broSor J>et hi him fultu-
medon, 868.

and he him aSas swor and gislas sealde, ]>et hit him georo
wsere swa hwilce dsege swa hi hit habban woldon, 874.

pa gerjedde se cyng and ealle his witan foet man gegaderode
J)a scipu ... 992 E.

and wrohton pset mseste yfel pe sefre aenig here don mihte
(could have done) . . . 994 E.

cume to J)aet mynstre . . . and haue foet i'l'ce forgiuenesse . . .
paet he scolde haueu gif he to Eonie fore, 675 E, p. 36 1.

FORMATION AND USE OF THE COMPOUND TENSES.

§ 25. In addition to the use of the simple Preterit as a
Perfect and Pluperfect (§§ 22 and 23), these tenses are formed
by an auxiliary verb with the perfect participle.

§ 26. The Perfect of transitive verbs is formed in the active
by the present of habban with the perfect participle.



8 VERBS IN TIIK ANGLO-SAXON.

Ic bane geheord seo kyuiuges .^Selredes geornunge . . . and
ic wille I)a?t hit on a?lle wise beo, swa swa ge hit sprecou
huuen, G7o E, p. 3G li.

ac hine hafaS his heofonlica fieder swi?5e gewrecen. ... Ac se
uplica Wrecend hafaS his geuiynd on heofenum, and on
eoiSan tobra;d, 971) E.

For the Perfect Passive, see § 9.

§ 27. The Perfect of intransitive verbs is formed by the
present of the substantive verb with the perfect participle. It
generally expresses the condition (state) arising from an uncom-
pleted action.

GO niin broSer is faren of J)isse liue swa swa Crist wolde,
656 E, p. 29 b.

§ 28. The Pluperfect of transitive verbs is formed in the
active by the preterit of hahhan with the perfect participle.

Her Ecgbriht cining forS ferde, and hine a>r hirfde Offa ^lyr-
cena cining, and Byrhtric Waest Siexna cining aflymde . . .
836.

and hi haefdon heora cining aworpene Osbriht, 867.

pa . . . and sc here J)a burg beseten haefde, 894 A, p. 87 t.

fand ])a liidde in ])a ealde wealle writes ])et Headda abb Iroafde
fer gewriton, liu Wulfhere kyng and .ESelrod his broSor hit
hi-afden wrolit, 963 E, p. 116 t.

So also : 894 A, ad init. (2) ; p. 85 : p. 86 1 ; p. 86 b ; p. 87 1.
895 A (3). 896 A (2). 897 A. 901 A. 905 A. 917 A. 918 A.
921 A, p. 102 ni. 1001 A (2).

For tlie Plu])erfect Passive, see § 10.

§ 29. The Phi]H'rfect of intninsiiive verbs of motion is
f<»rme<l by the preterit of vH-mn with the |»erfert participle.

Iler.wa'ron n-JSc fmi'liccna cuniene ofi r X<ir^anhynibra land,
793 E.

hfefde Ilajsten aer goworlit I).Tt goweorc tet lieaniflote, and wa's
J)a utafaren on liergap, 891 A, ]i. 8(5 ni.

and him ciorde call p.i't folc to peon Mercna lande geseten
wais, ajgper ge Denisc ge Englisce, 922 A.



THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES. 9

and seo unfriSflota waes paes sumeres gewend to Ricardes rice,
1000 E.

So also : 894 A, p. 86 m. (2) ; p. 87 t (2) ; p. 87 1. 897 A.
963 E, p. 117 1. 973 A (2). 1001 A.

§ 30. Besides the use of the Present as a Future (§ 19), the
Future is more frequently formed by sculan and willan with the
infinitive.

gif Wealas nellaj? sibbe \vi5 us, hy sculon set Seaxena haiida
forwurjjan, 605 E.

and ic wile wurSigeu pis dsei Crist and See Peter, (^oQ E.
p. 30 m.

For other examples, see the auxiliary verbs loillan and
sculan.

§ 31. For the Future Perfect we find the Pluperfect em-
ployed,

Ic wille and ty8e J)aet while man swa haued behaten to faren
to Rome, and henemuge hit forSian . . . cume he to pset
mynstre on Medeshamstede, 675 E, p. 36 m.

§ 32. For the Conditional, see § 24.

THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES,

§ 33. A Present (or Present Perfect, or Present used as
Future) in the Principal clause is followed in the Dependent
clause by a Present or Imperfect.

Hit is litel Jjbos gife, ac ic wille paet hi hit hselden swa kyne-
lice and swa freoliee, }»aet paer iie be numen of na geld na


1 3 4

Online LibraryHugh Mercer BlainSyntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. → online text (page 1 of 4)