Hugh Mercer Blain.

Syntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. online

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Online LibraryHugh Mercer BlainSyntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. → online text (page 2 of 4)
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gaule, butou to pa munecan ane, 656 E, p. 31 1. So p. 30 ni.,
et al,

same men cwepap on Englisc pa-t hit sie feaxede steorra, for-
pa?m peer stent lang leoma of, . , , 892 A.

§ 34. A Preterit in the Principal clause is followed by a
Preterit in the Dependent clause ; the compound tenses likewise
have the auxiliary verb in the Preterit. This is the case even
when the action of the Dependent clause extends into the present
or states a general truth.



10 VEKBS IX THE ANGLO-SAXON.

and he wolde drifan to 5es ciuinges tune j»y he nyste hwoet
hi waerou, 787.

and he him aSas swor and gislas sealde, J>et hit him georo
woere swa hwilce daege swa lii hit habban woldon, 874.

and saede )>aet he wolde oSer o5Se jiaer libban o3Se )>£er licgan,
901 A.

bed him pet lie scolde him giuen ealle \>a, minstre J)a lia-Sene
men haifden xr tobiocou, 903 K, p, 1151.
So also : 852 A. 853 A. 87G. 878. 887. 894 A, ad init. 896 A.
921 A (3). 946 A. 948, E. 972 E. 992 E. 994 E (2). 999 E.

§ 35. Under similar circumstances the Present is sometimes
found in the Dependent clause.

§ 36. For fuller treatment, see the auxiliary verbs, sculan
and willan.

C — XUMliER AND PERSOX.

AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH A SINGLE SUBJECT.

§ 37. The tinite verb agi-ees with the subject in number and
person.

Ic iEdgar geate and gife todaei toforen Gode . . . 963 E, p. 116.
So p. 117, etc.

Saxulf la leof, ne J)et an ptrt (Su geornest oc ealle )»a }>ing j'oet
ic wat pet 5u geornest on ure Drihtnes halfe, swa ic lufe and
tytSe, 656 E, p. 31 1.

and he feng to Karles dohter Francua ciuing pa he hamweard
waes, 855 E.

Her on pysum gcare for se micla here, pe we gefyrn ymbe
sprajcon . . . 893 A.

We witan oper egland her be easton, per ge magon eardian gif
ge willaJJ, p. 3 E.

and on his dagum oomon an-pst • iii • scipu NorSmanna of
Her('«a lande, 787. Etc.

§ 38. If the suliject is a collective noun in the sin*rular, the
verb stands sometimes in the singular, sometimes in the pluiul.



NUMBER AND PERSON. 11

§ 39. If there is only one predicate, the verb is generally
in the singular, the plural is the exception. This depends upon
the thought that is uppermost in the mind of the speaker. If
the idea of plurality prevails, the verb is in the plural.

here and fierd :

Her for se here of East Englum ofer HumbremuSan, 867.
So also : 871. 875. 877. 881. 885 A (2). 887. 891 A. 894 A,
p. 86 t.; p. 80 m. ; p. 87 t. 895 K. 896 A (2). 897 A. 921 A, p.
103 t. 992 E. 999 E.

The following example is worthy of notice :

and hi })anon ferdon and iorohto)i j'set maeste yfel pe tefre senig
here don mihte^ 994 E.

We find one example with a single plural verb after here :

and hi fa under J^am hi nihtes bestaelon fsere fyrde se gehorsade
here into Exanceastre, 876.

laf: and seo lafe vvi3 pone here fryS nam, 867.

Hieod: and seo J>eod gesohte Ecgbriht cining him to friSe, 823.

sumer-Uda : and aefter pisum gefeohte com mycel sumerHda
to Readingum, 871.

eaca : and him com micel eaca to, aegj'er ge of East Enghim,
ge of ISTorjjhymbrum, 894 A, p. 87 h.

"Seodscyjje : and him cierde to call se feodscype on Myrcna-
lande, 922 A.

unfrltiflota : and seo unfriSflota waes fses sumeres gewend to
Ricardes rice, 1000 E.

dcel : ]>a, wende se here j)get his fultumes se msesta dael wgere
on peem scipum, 911 A.

and him beag god docl paes folces to, 913 A.

))a pses on sumera foron micel dsel para burgwara, and eac
swa opres folces . . . 896 A.

Out of 30 examples, only 2 show the plural.

§ 40. With two or more predicates the tendency is to
pluralize all after the first or second. But there are many (10)
examples of two singular verbs, and one of six. The transition



12 VERBS IX Tin: ANGLO-SAXON.

is always from singular to i)lural. Sometimes the subject pro-
noun is expressed, sumetimes uoL

Two verbs in singular :

Her for se here eft to Eoferwic ceastre, and )>£er saet an gear,
869. So : 875. 879. 882. 883. 884. 885 E. 921 A, p. 1021.
921 A, p. 103 t. ; p. 103 1.

Her for se here of Circenceastre on East Engle, and gesaet past
land and gedaelde, and |>y ilcan geare for se liere ofer sse Jje on
Fullanhamme saet on Frangland to Gent, and saet faer an gear,
880.

Two or more predicates, all plural after first or second :

Her com micel sciphere on Wiest Wealas, and hi to anum
gecyrdon, and wi5 Ecgbriht Waest Seaxna cining winnende
waeron, 835.

and on his dsege com niycel sciphere up, and abraecon Wint-
anceastre, 800.

So: 865 A. 865 E. 866. 808. 870. 872. 873 A. 874. 876. 877.
878. 885 (2). 886. 887. 890. 893 A (892 E). 894 A, p. 84 b. ;
p. 85; p. 87 b {dceOj. p. 88 t (laf); p. 88 h. 897A, p. 89 b.
910 E. 911 A. 917 A. 918 A (2). 920 A. 921 A, p. 101 m ;
p. 101 b ; p. 102 h (2) ; p. 102 in. 922 A. p. 103 1. 993 E. 994 E.
997 E. 998 E. 999 E. 1001 E.

§ 41. A following dependent clause always serves to bring
out the idea of plurality.

and ]>a, sealde se here him gislas, and mycele aSas, \>et hi of
his rice woldon, and liim eac geheton )»et heora cyng fulwihte
onfon wolde, 878.
So : 894 A, p. 85. 805 A. 021 A, p. 103 ni.

§ 42. If the subject is a relative, the verb agrees with the
idea contained in the antecedent.

Her for se here eft west )>e rer east gelondo, 886.

So : 894 A, p. 86 m. 895 A, ad lin. 921 A, p. 101 1 ; p. 103 t ;

p. 103 ni; p. 10:5 1. 922 A (2).

^Vc tind i>iie exception:

and se dad )'e I'ut aweg com wurdon on floame generede,
894 A, p. 87 b.



NUMBER AND TERSON. 13

§ 43. Sometimes a plm-al verb appears after a relative
which refers to a collective in the singular.

and waes se cyng ]>a, jnderweardes on faere, mid psere scire pe
mid him fierdedon, 894 A, p. 86 t.

§ 44. Earely the verb stands in the singular, when the rela-
tive (Se refers to the genitive of the demonstrative (Sara), and this
depends upon a singular. This is a case of attraction.

He arerde Godes lof wide,
and Godes lage lufode, and folces friS bette,
swiSost fara cyninga, pe aer him gewurde,
be manna gemynde, 959 E, p. 114 b.

§ 45. The neuter substantival demonstrative ^cct (^ Sis) often
points out a following predicate substantive ; in this case the
verb agi'ees with the predicate.

))is sindon ])a landes and 5a feonnes fe seo kyning gef into
See Petres mynstre, 656 E, p. 31 1.

'pset wseron pa erestan scipu Deniscra manna ]>e Angel cynnes
land gesohton, 787.

We find the plural of the demonstrative used in the same
way :

fas sindon ]>a. witnes fe faer waeron, 656 E, p. 31 b.

§ 46. The same incongruity occurs with the neuter substan-
tival interrogative hwcct :

. . . and hi wolde dvifan to pes cyninges tune py he nyste
hwset hi wseron, 787.

§ 47. Fela (fcala), with (or without) following genitive,
takes a singular or plural verb indifferently.

and heora feala psev adruncon, 794 E.

and ]>seT wseron feala ofslaegene, 852 E. (peer wearj? monig mon
ofslfegen, 853 A).

fela wearS todrrefed gleawra Godes Seowa, 975 A, p. 120 m.

and l^aer weartJ fela ofslegenra, 1001 A.

§ 48. Monig mon, mcenig secg, are followed by a singular verb.



14 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

and faer wear)> monig mou ofslaegen, 853 A.

paer Iseg secg maeiiig gar urn ageted, 937 A, p. 106 b.

§ 49. Ma wiili fullowing genitive has a singular verb.

and J»ara Deuiscena }>£er weartJ ma ofslaegen, )>eh hie wsel stowe
gewald ahton, 905 A.

and )»a'r wear8 j'ara Denescra micle ma ofslegenra, )»eah Se hie
woelstowe geweald ahtau, lOUl A.

§ 50. Numerals regularly take the verb in the singular.

and ))y ilcau geare com feorpe liealf hand scipa on Temese
muj)an, 851.

and faer forwearS • cxx • scipa set Swanawic, 877.

and Engliscra • Ixii • and j)ara Deniseena • cxx • ))a com
faem Deuiscum scipum ))eh ter tied to, 897 A, p. 91 m.

)>y ilcan sumera forwearS noloes )>onne • xx • scipa mid
monnum mid ealle, 897 A, p. 91 1.

§ 51. In one place // occurs in the plural, and is followed
by a plural verb.

fife Isegun on J)am campstede cyninges giunge sweordum
aswefede. swilce seofene eac eorlas Anlafes, unrim heriges,
flotan and Sceotta, 937 A, p. 108 h.

AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE WITH MORE THAN ONE SUBJECT.

§ 52. In this case the form of the verb depends upon the
order and connection of the subjects,

§ 53. The subjects stand tirst and the verb follows in the
plural.

Her Adrianus papa and Offa cining forSferden, 794.

and Ceolwulf biscop and Eadbald biscop of jiaii Ian do aforon,

794.

So: 799. 812. 833. 851. 853 A. 868. 871 (2). 910 E. 922 A,

p. 103 b.

§ 54. The verb jjrecedes the subjects and agrees with the
ncari'st.



AGREEMENT OF THE PREDICATE. 15

and Jjy ilcan geare gefeaht Ecgberht West Seaxna cluing, and
Beornulf Myrcena cining aet Ellaudune, 823.

Her bsed Burgred Miercua cyning and his wiotan ^pelwulf
cyning . . . 853 A.

Her wfes wiS se cining Burhred, and Ceolred aerce biscop and
Tunberht biscop and . . . 852 E.

and for Godrum, and Oscytel, and Anwend, j)a ))ry ciningas
of Hreopedune to Grantanbrycge, myd mycclum here, and
saeton ])cer an gear, 875.
So: 836. 871 (3). 903 A. 924 A. 992 E. 994 E (2). lOUl A.

§ 55. The first subject may be between the auxiliary and
the participle of a compound tense.

and jiaer wearS Sidrac eorl of slaegen se ealda. and Sidrac se
geonga, and Osbeorn eorl, and . . . 871, p. 71 1.

and J'ser wear)) Heahmund biscop ofslaegen, and fela godra
manna, 871, p. 72 h. So : 905 A. 1001 A.

§ 56. Wlien a single subject precedes, and an additional
subject is attached to the verb the latter depends exclusively on
the preceding subject word.

and Brlbtric cining forpferde and Worr aeldormon, 800.

Her CuSred cining forSferde on Cantwarum. and Ceolburli
abbe and Heardberht.

Her Herebryht aldormon wses ofslaegen from hjepnum mon-
num, and monige mid him on Merscwarum, 838 A.
So : 894 A, p. 87 b. 897 A, p. 91 h.

§ 57. A singular subject with a mi^-phrase takes the .verb
in the singular or plural according to the order of subject, verb,
and phrase.

§ 58. If both the subject and the phrase follow the verb,
the latter is generally in the singular, but sometimes in the
plural. When there are two predicates, the second is in the
pluraL

and wis }jone here fuhton Osric ealdorman mid Hamtunscire,
and ^Selwulf ealdorman mid Barruscire, . . . 860. (The
only instance of the plural.)



16 VEKliS IN TllK ANGLO-SAXON.

pa sona aefter ]>xm com Haesten mid • Ixxx • scipa up on
Temese muSaii ... 893 A (892 E).

\>a. rad se cyning mid firde . . . 901 A.

So : 920 A. 923 A. 924 A. 934 E. 993 A. 1001 A.

§ 59. If the subject precedes and the phrase follows the
verb, the latter is in the singular.

Her Ceorl ealdorman gefealit wiS hetJene men raid Defene
scire set Wicgeanbeorge, 851.

Her Eanulf aldorman gefeaht mid Sumursaetum . . . 845 A.
So: 919 A.

§ 60. The only example of both subject and phrase preced-
ing the verb leaves us in doubt as to the number of the verb, the
subject being already compound :

Her Earnulf dux mid Sumorsaeton and Ealchstan biscop and
Osric dux mid Dorsa?ton gefuhton aet Pedredan mufan wi5
Denisc[n]e here, 845 E.



U — THE MOODS OF THE YERB.

IN THE PRINCIPAL CLAUSE.

§ 61. The indicative is the prevailing mood in the Principal
clause. In it stand without exce]>tion sentences which make an
assertion or ask a question. Examples are not necessary.

§ 62. The Subjunctive in the Principal clause expresses a
wish.

Gif hwa pis tobrekoj) a!ni|>ing. See Petre mid liis sweord him

adylige, 656 E, p. 33 m.

and hwa swa liit tobreceS, Jni wurSe he amansumed, 675 E,
p. 37 1.

Gif liwa hit do(S, ))es ])apa curs of Rome and ealre biscope curs
he habbe, 675 E, p. 37 1.

Ac God him t,'ounne, )>a't his godc da-da swyft'ran wear?San,
})0nnc misdii'da, 959 1'^

§ 6?t. The I iiijK'iative exj»resses a coininaiul or an t'lilreaty.



THE MOODS OF THE VERB. 17

and swa )m ham cume, do into jjiuan mynstre ))[as ylcan]
hadesmenn, 995 F, p. 130 b.

§ 64 In the first and thii-d persons the Subjunctive is used
imperatively.

beo he of Englelande ouSer of hwilc oSer igland beo he, cume
to pset mynstre on Medeshamstede, and haue ppet ilea forgiue-
nesse of Criste and S. Peter. . . . G75 E, p. 36 1.

IN DEPENDENT CLAUSES — SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.
SUBJECT CLAUSES.

§ 65. The Indicative is found in Subject clauses in the
following cases :

and bin geces J)a to faxler and to hlaforde Scotta cyning and
. . . and ealle J)a ]>e on ISTorJjhymbrum bugea]) . . . 924 A.

CuS wees pet wide geond feola ]?eoda ])3et aferan Eadmund[es]
ofer ganetes baS cyningas hine wide wurSodon side bugon to
cyninge swa wses him gecynde, 975 E, p. 121 1.

§ 66. Sometimes the subject is already expressed in the
Principal clause by means of IScet or hit.

]>a tidde hit on an Wodnes dei, pet wses on • iiii • idus lanru
J>et se king rad in his derfold . . . 1123, p. 251 1.

Ac pset ofer com Rome pet ofercumeS eall woruld poet is gold
and seolure, 1123, p. 252 1.

§ 67. The Subjunctive is found in Indirect Discourse.

and he stede pone cyng pfet hit wa^s togeanes riht poet man
scolde setten clerc ofer muneces, 1123, p. 252 h.

OBJECT CLAUSES.

§ 68. The Indicative is used when the Dependent clause
states a fact as real or conceived as real.

§ 69. It is found after verbs of perceiving, thinking, saying,
and like expressions.

ongitan: pa onget se here pa-t hie ne mehton pa scypu
utbrengan, 896 A.



18 VERBS IN Tin: AXGLO-SAXON.

Nu we magoii ongytan pint manna wisdom, and smeagunga,
and lioore radas syndon uahtlice ongeau Godes ge))eaht,
971) E.

ijehyran : J)a on morgen gehyrdon pxt ]>es ciniges pegnas I>e
him bajfton waeron paet se cining olslagen waes . . . 755,
p. 49 h.

secgan : and he soede J>oue cyng J)a?t hit wa^s togeanes riht paet
man scolde setten clerc ofer muueces, 1123, p. 252 h.

witan : and he wolde drifan to 8es cininges tuue J)y he nyste
hwjet hi waeion, 787.

Jivdnn : and se cyng haefde funden J)a^t him mon sa^t wiS on
sup healfe Sa^fern miipan, 918 A.

fand pahidde in J)a ealde wealle writes J)et Headda abb heafde
aer gewriton, hu Wulfhere kyng and ^Elfred liis hroSor hit
heafdeu wroht, and hu . . . 963 E, p. 116 1. (Tlie verb is here
understood.)

§ 70. It is also found after verbs of affection.

tSawctflw .• and se cyng and ealle his leode Gode pancode his
angeancumes, and Jjset he swa geaerndod swatSan ealra leofuste
wes, 995 F, ad fiu.

§ 71. The Subjunctive is used after verbs and expressions
of perceiving, thinking, and saying, when the Dependent clause
contains a statement that is doulttful or impossible, although it
may be certain to the mind of the speaker,

same men cwejjaj) on Euglisc J)8et hit sie feaxede steorrr,
892 A.

and saede JJaet he wolde oSer o85e JJser libban o?J8e |iaer licgau,
901 A.

treowsittn : and ealle wiS trywsodon pa-t hi woldon efen
wy[r]hton beon on saj and on lande, 972 E.

gphnwidn : pa sume dapgo rad se cyng uj) be pa?re fit*, and
gehawade Iiwitt mon mehte pa ua forwyrcan . . . 896 A.

be/iatan: and him pa Anlaf behetswa hchiteac geln»stc. phe
naefre eft to Angelcynne mid unfriSe cumon nolde, 994 E.

§ 72. The Subjunctive is used after verbs of believing,
supposing.



THE MOODS OF THE VERB. 19

ivenan : J^a wencle se here }>a3t his fultuines se majsta dcel waere
on pfEin scipuni, and pset hie niehten faran unbefohtene J?aer
pser hie wolden, 911 A.

ac hi par gefeordon niaran hearm and yfel ponne lii aefre
wendon, pset heom aenig burhwarn gedon sceolde, 994 E.

\)encan: and fuhton on pa burg ealve dseg, and pohton pait hie
hie sceoklen abrecan, 921 A, p. 101 h.
So : p. 101 1 ; p. 102 L

§ 73. The Subjunctive is always used after verbs of willing,
wishing, entreating, commanding, permitting, and like expressions.

biddan: Her baed Burgred Miercna cyniug and his wiotan
^pelwulf cyning pset he him gefultumade peet him Norp
Walas gehiersumade, 853 A.
So : 868. 963 E, p. 115 1.

beodan : pa he Sa eft ]9onan utfaran wolde, pa het he beodan
ofer ealle pa fird pcet hie foron ealle ut setsomne, 905 A.

gehdtan : and him eac gehetou pet heora cyng fulwihte onfon
wolde.

tltSlau (ti/^i(ui) : Ic tySe paet ealle pa ping . . . paet hit stande,
963 E, p. 117 h.

{ge)rmdan : and on pam geare man gersedde paet man geald
serest gafol Deniscan mannum, for pam mycclan brogan pe hi
wrohtan be pam sseriman, 991 E.

p gersedde se cyng and ealle his witan poet man gegaderode pa
scipu pe abtes wseron to Lundenbyrig, 992 E. So : 994 E.

pa rnedde se cyng wiS his witan pset man sceolde mid scipfyrde,
and eac mid laudfyrde him ongean faran, 999 E.

ge-unnan : Ac God him geuune, paet his gode daeda swySran
wearSan, ponne misdaeda, 959 E.

willan : and ic wille ])et pus be gifen se toll, 963 E, p. 116 b.
So: p. 117t; p. 117 h.

§ 74. An object clause sometimes, follows in apposition with
a preceding noun or pronoun (sometimes imderstood) which is
the real object.



20 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

and lie liim aSasswor and gislas sealde, |>et hit liim georo wa?re
swa hwilce du'ge swa hi hit habban woldon, 874. So : 876.
878. 918 A. 921 A, p. 103 m. 946 A (948 E).

Ane misdaeda he dyde ))eah to swiSe, )»aet he ael}>eodige unsida
lufode, 959 E.

RELATIVE CLAUSES.

§ 75. The Indicative is the rule especially after affirmative
Principal Clauses, wlien the relative clause denotes a fact or
reality. Kelative clauses are introduced by 5e ; se, seo, tSwt ; se
tie ; tiwr ; tSonon ; hwcer.

fSe : )>{et wieron }»a erestan scipu Deniscra mauna )»e Angel
cynues land gesohton, 787.

and )>ser |)8et raa?ste wael geslogon on liaeSene here )>e we sefre
gesecgan herdou, 851.

. . . and ciningas jjagnas oft rada on riden J>e man na ne rimde.

871.

So: 792 E. 827. 874. 87G. 878. 883. 885. 886. 887. 891 A.

892 A. 892 E (893 A). 894 A, p. 84 b ; p. 86 t ; p. 86 m ;

p. 87 m ; p. 87 1 ; p. 88 h. 895 A. 896 A. 897 A. 901 A. 904 A.

905 A. 910 E. 912 A. 913 A. 918 A. 919 A. 920 A. 921 A.

922 A. 924 A. 959 E. 963 E (16). 972 E. 975 A. 975 E. 979 E.

991 E. 992 E. 999 E. 1001 A.

se^ seo, tS(ef, tSces, fS"7n, (Snne, ^a .-

and aerest wajs ^Elle SuSseaxna cining se ))us mycel haefde, 827.

and .(ESelswiS cwaen seo waes /Elf redes swustor cyninges, 888.

and py ilcan geare for se here of sigeue to Scandlaudan, pet

is betwix Bryttum and Francum, 890.

and Godrum se norStM-ne cyning forSferde, J>ses fulluht uama
wjes iESelstan, 890.

and waeron geseowene fyrene dracan on J'am lyfte fleogeude.

))am tacnum sona fyligde mycel hunger, 793 E.

faer wjes blis micel, on |iam cadgan da^ge, eallum geworden,

))onne niSa beam ncmnaS and cigaS l\>ntecostenes du>g, 973 A.

and fordiden ealhj ja niynstre )ni hi to comen, 870 E.

So : 789 E. 796 E. 885. 890. 897 A, p. 91 b. 898 A. 909 A.

910 A. 963 E, p. 116 t ; p. 117 b. 792 E. 894 A, p. 88 1. .s27.

870 E. S86. 894 A ad init.; p. 86 1 ; j). 88 h. 895 A. 901 A.

905 A. 917 A. 921 A. p. 102 h. 959 E. 963 E, p. 115 m and b;

p. 116 m audi; p. 117 m. 997 E. 871 E. 937 A, p. 109 h ;

975 A (2); 963 E, p. ll.-.l.



THE MOODS OF THE VERB. 21

se Se ; and be wses se eahtoSa cluing se ])e Brytenwealda waes.
827. So: 984 A.

^CBv : and hi hindan ofridan ne mihte ser hi on J»ani feastene
waeron ))ciei' him man to [ne] mihte, 877. So : 789 E. 894 A.
ad init. 918 A. 921 A, p. 103 1 and m. 943 A. 963 E, p. 115 1.
p. 116 t.

^onon, hivcer : and frie Scottas comon to .^Ifrede cyninge, on
anum bate butan selcum gerej)rum of Hibernia, fonon hi hi
bestrelon, forpon pe hi woldon for Godes lufan on elpiodignesse
beon, hi ne rohtou hwaer (verb omitted), 891 A.

§ 76. The relative is sometimes omitted.

and hi namon mid him |)get hi hgefdun to seofon nihtum mete,
891 A.

]>a fetsaetou Sa Centiscan \>ser beseftan ofer his bebod, and
seofon cereudracan he him htefde to asend, 905 K.

§ 77. The Subjunctive is found in indirect discourse, de-
noting an uncertainty, a possibility.

Ipa. wende se here . . . faet hie mehten faran uubefohtene faer
paer hie wolden, 911 A.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES.

§ 78. The ruling mood in Temporal Clauses is the Indica-
tive.

§ 79. The time-clause denotes an action contemporaneous
with that of the principal clause. The conjunctions are : ^onne,
iSd, (sonci) swd ; S« Ivwile Se.

§ 80. The conjunction ^onne is equivalent to the Latin cum,
when, and is found with the Indicative only.

and swa on mistlice beamas wses gehiwod, |Jonne hit dagian
wolde, ])onne to glad hit, 979 C:

and pone hi to scipon streddon, })onne sceolde fyrd ut eft
ongean Jjaet hi up ■woldon, 1010 E.

§ 81. J>a (= cum) is frequently used, always with the In-
dicative.

and he feng to Karles dohter Francna cining J)a he hamweard
wees, 855 E.



22 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

and J?a men ofblogen, j)a hi j)a Lannveard wteron mid I>iere
herehufte, 885.

So : 894 A, p. 84 b. p. 85. p. HG t. p. 8(5 h. p. 87 t (3), p._87 1.
p. 88 t. 895 A (2). 890 A. 897 A. 9U5 A. 911 A. 9L'l A, p.
103 1. 973 A. 993 E. 999 E.

§ 82. Swit (^sona sw'(2), when, as, is followed by the In-
dicative.

and J)a swiSe rape a?fter pttiu, swa pa opie ham comon, pa
fundon hie opre tiocrade, 917 A.

py ilcan geare saende ^Elfred cyng sciphere of Csent on East
Engle, sona swa lii comon on Sture nuiSan pa geraaetton hi
• xvi • scipa wicinga, 885.
So : 999 E. 894 A, p. 80 b. 998 E. 1001 E.

§ 83. '6a h wile iSe, wliile, takes the Indicative.

pa paes on heerfaeste pa wicode se cyng on neaweste pare byrig,
pa hwile pe hie hira corn gerypon, paet pa Deniscan him, ne
mehton pii-s ripes forwiernan, 890 A. So : 913 A. 921 A, p.
102 b. 923 A. 903 E, p. 117 b. 975 E.

§ 84. <Sa hunle iSc . . . lenyest, so long as, occurs twice, and is
followed by the Indicative.

pa bescet sio fierd hie paer utan pa liwile pe hie par lengest
mete hjefden. 894 A, p. 85. So : 959 E.

§ 85. The dependent clause denotes an action which pre-
cedes that of the principal clause, the latter sometimes following
immediately. The Indicative is tlie only mood. The conjunc-
tions are hces tic, after, and sitiiidn (.s/z&'ff'Ot), since, after that.

iScBs tie :

and ymb • ii • gear pies pe he on Franeum com he gefor.

855 A. So : 874, 894 A,, ad init. ; p. 88 m. 895 A. 89<; A.

941 A.

si^iSfin (si/tifSnn) :

sippan oastan liider Engle and Soaxc njiboooman ofer brad-

brimu lirytene .sohtan wlanco wigsimftas Wceallos ofercoman

eorlas arhwate, card begeatan, 937 A, p. 110 t.

on pes oScr gear .syppon he waps gchalgod, pa makode he feola
mijistra, 903 E, p. 115 m. So: 079 Iv



THE MOODS OF THE VERB. 23

§ 86. The action of the dependent clause follows that of the
principal clause. The dependent clause is introduced by «r,
before.

§ 87. The Indicative is the mood when the action of the
dependent clause is certain, not possible or doubtful.

and hi hindau ofridan ne mihte aer hi on pam feastene waeron
piBr him mau to [ne] niilite, 877.

and pa men wee von inyckun ofslagene and forwundode ser hi
on hand eodan, 882.

and J)a Deniscan haefdon hira wif befsest innan East Engle
aer hie ut of psem geweorce foron, 896 A. So : 887. 891 A.
894 A, p. 88 h.

§ 88. Wlien the action of the dependent clause is unex-
pected, possible, or future, the verb is in the Subjunctive.

and Byrhtrie Waest Ssexna cining aflymde • iii • gear of
Angelcyunes lande on Franc land ter he cining waere, 836.

and het atimbran }>a burg on sup healfe paere eas ser he ponan
fore, 919 A. So : 894 A, p. 84 b. 897 A. 918 A. 920 A.

§ 89. The dependent clause denotes an action, up to which
the action of the principal clause extends. The con j mictions
are : oS, o33c, o'Q^cet, 'Sect.

§ 90. The Indicative is the mood when the action of the
dependent clause is represented as certain. No examples with
the Subjunctive are found in the Chronicle.

and hi peah pa ceastre aweredau oSSet .Alfred cyng com uton
mid fyrde, 885.

. . . hie hergodon ofer Mercnaland oS hie comon to Crecca-
gelade, 905 A.

pa foron forS oppe hie comon to Lundenbyrg, 894 A, p. 86 m.

and pa sseton hie ute on pam iglande apt Bradan Relice, op pone
first pe hie wurdon swipe metclease, 918 A.

and foron anstreces dfpges and nihtes, p»t hie gedydon on
anre westre ceastre on Wirhealum, seo is Lega ceaster gehatcn,
894 A, p. 88 t. So : 894 A, p. 87 ni. 997 E. 1001 A (with oti^a-t).



24 VERBS IX TIIK ANGLO-SAXON.

921 A (4). 937 A. 942 A. 1001 A (2) (with o»).

918 A (with obUe).

896 A (2). 901 A. 918 A. 921 A, p. 101 1. 975 A, p. 120 b.

1001 A (with IScef).

CAUSAL CLAUSES.

§ 91. These are introduced by {1Sij,for^an ^(rt,fortia{e)7n(tSe),


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Online LibraryHugh Mercer BlainSyntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. → online text (page 2 of 4)