Hugh Mercer Blain.

Syntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. online

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fort5o}i{tie), fo7't5i tSet,foriii/ 8e, mid tScem ^cct. The Judicative is
always used when a real reason is to be given.

and hi cwaGSou ))aBt hi hira )»et to haiida heahlan scoldan,
forSaii |)et heora nau nres of faedren halfe geboren butan him
anum, 887.

and hie wohle drifan to )'{es cyninges tune |>y he nyste hwaet
hie waeroii, 787.

ac wala fast hi to hraSe bugon and flugon, for))am })e hi nsef Jon
fultum )>e hi habban sceoldan, 999 E.

same men cwe])a)) on Englisc ]>xt liit sie feaxede steorra, for-
|)gem )>aer stent lang leoma of, 892 A.

bed him \>Qt he scolde him giuen ealle ))a miustre )»a hteSene
men hrefden aer tobrocon, forSi ))et he hit wolde geeadnewion,
9G3 E, p. 115 L

fset wses forSy )je hie waeron benumene aegSer ge ))8es ceapes,
ge paes corues, Se hie gehergod haefdon, 895 A.

Ac hie wffiron micle swij)or gebrocede on ]\nem ))rim gearura
mid ceapes cwikle and monua, ealles swi))ost mid paem |)»t
manige )>ara selestena cynges )>ena ))e paer on londe waerou forS-
ferdon on ))aem |)rim gearum, 897 A, p. 90 t.
So : Sy .• 823. 830 A. Jor1i„n iSat : 9G3 E, ji. 115 m. for^am
»e.- 959 E. 1001 A. 1001 E. for^onlSe: 891 A. 901 A. forlion:
918 A. for^cem : 894 A, p. 80 t. 895 A. for^em Se .• 894 A,
p. 86 b. for^ij «e .• 897 A.

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.

§ 02. The Indicative is the mood, if the condition is repre-
sented as certain and real, or if the relation of cause and result
is to be expressed without reference to the certainty of it.



THE ]\IOODS OF THE VERB. 25

We witan ofer egland her be easton, ))er ge magon eardian gif
ge vvillaS, and gif hwa eow wiS stent, we eow fultumiaS, fset
ge hit magon gegangan, p. 3 E.

Gif hwa hit doS, fes papa curs of Rome and eahe biscope curs
he habbe, and here ealre \>e her be gewitnesse, 675 E, p. 37 1.

§ 93. The Subjunctive is used when the condition is rei)re-
sented as merely conceived, supposed, or possilile — Ideal.

]ia gegaderade ^Elfred cyning his fierd, and for pset he gewicode
betwuh ))?em twam hergum, J)a?r ))a?r he niehst rymet hoefde
for wudu faesteune, ond for wseterfaestenne, swa faet he mehte
segjierne geraecan gif hie senigne feld seca'n wolden, 894 A,
p. 84 1.

and sceoldan ('they were to') cunnian gif hi muhton ])one
here ahweer utene betrseppen, 992 E.

Her on j)is tima leot Ceolred abb of Medeshamstede and j)a
munecas Wulfrede to hande ))et land of Sempigaham, to ))3et
forewearde ]>set sefter his dcei scolde j'set land into J'e minstre,
852 E.

Her Eadmund cyning oferhergode eal Cumbra land, and hit
let to eal Malculme scotta cyninge, on jiaet gerad pvet he wtere
his midwyrlita 8egJ>er ge on sae ge on lande, 945 A.

J)a geraedde se cyng and his witan pcet him man to sende and
him gafol behete and metsunge wi3 pon pe hi peeve hergunge
geswicon, 994 E.

§ 94. The Subjunctive is the mood also when the condi-
tional clause contains a limitation of the statement through an
exception.

J)a gife ic him Godes curs and ealra halgan and eallre hadede
heafde and min, buton he cume to dajdbote, 963 E, p. 117 h.
So : p. 117 m.

CONCESSIVE CLAUSES.

§ 95. The Indicative is used in Concessive clauses, when
the concession is real, not supposed.

and pa3r wearS Sigulf ealdormon ofslregen, and . . ., and
monige eac him, peh ic (Sa geSangnestan nemde, 905 A. So :
897 A, p. 90 1.



26 VERBS IX THE ANGLO-SAXON.

aiul J>ara Denisceiia J)a'r wearS ma ofslaegen, peh hie waelstowe
gewald ahtou, 905 A. So : 1001 A.

§ 9(). The Subjunctive is used similarly.

and peah fe ic hit la'iig yhle, eall \>et J)e Gode waes la5 and
rihttuUan mannan, eall |)cet wa;s gewuuelic on pisan laude on
his tynian, 1100, p. 235 b.

§ 97. The Subjunctive is the rule when a merely supposed
concession is to be expressed.

We find no examples of this use.

CONSECUTIVE CLAUSES.

§ 98. Dependent clauses of Result stand in the Indicative,
if they state an actual result.

and hi late on geave to pani gecyrdon Jja^t hi wicS J)one here
winnende w£pron, 867.

Her for se myccla here pe we gefyrn aer ymbspraecon eft of
]>am east rice weastward to Bunan, and J)ier wurdon gescipode
swa JJ3et hi asa-ttou hi on a^nne si3 ofer mid horsum mid ealle,
892 E (893 A).

waes pier swa lange pa^t man sette him to biscop on Wintan
ceastre, 9G3 E, p. 117 1.

So : 894 A, ad init. (2). 894 A, p. 86 t. 897 A, p. 91 1. and m.
905 A. 918 A. 037 A. 950 E. 963 E, p. 117 1. 1001 A (2).

§ 99. In some cases tlie consecutive meaning of the jironoun
developed into a purely temporal meaning (= until). For ex-
amples, see § 90.

§ 100. If the result is merely conceived and uncertain, the
Subjunctive is used. Tliis is the case after so-called " rhetorical
questions," after negative sentences, and after imperatives. Our
investigation shows no examples in the Chronicle.

FINAL CLAUSES.

§ 101. Dependent clauses of Purpose .stand in tlu' Subjunc-
tive. Till' conjunctions arc fiaf and sira f{(/7.



THE MOODS OF THE VERB. 27

Her baed Burgred Miercna cyning aud his wiotan JEpelwuU
cyning 'pxt he him gefultumade psct him nor]? Walas gehier-
sumade, 853 A. So : 896 A (2). 897 A.

and for paet he gewicode betwuh psem twani hergum, Jjser pmv
he niehst rymet hsefde for wudufsestenne, ond for wseter ftes-
tenne, swa pxt he mehte aegperne gersecan gif hie senigne feld
secan wolden, 894 A, ad init. So : 963 E, p. 1 16 m (2).

MODAL CLAUSES.

§ 102. The prevailing mood in these clauses is the Indica-
tive.

§ 103. The dependent clause expresses the relation of re-
semblance, similarity, to the principal clause. It is introduced
by sivd, sometimes with, sometimes without a correlative (swd
. . . swd) in the principal clause.

and eft wses papa swa he ser wees, 797.

pa se cyning hine pa west wende mid paere fierde wit5 Exan-
cestres, swa ic ser ssede, and se here pa burg beseten hsefde,
894 A, p. 87 1.

naeron nawSer ne on Fresisc gescaepene ne on Denisc, bute swa
him selfum Suhte paet hie nytwyrSoste beon meahten, 897 A,
p. 90 m.

and on prem ilcan gere raon fsestnode pond friS set Yttinga
forda, swa swa Eadweard cyng gersedde, segSer wi5 East
Engle ge wiS norShymbre, 906 A.

and swa swa paet wseter reonneS to Crulande, and fra Crulande
to Must, 963 E, p. 117 1.

and paer hira ferdon onbuton swa swa hi sylf woldon, 1001 E.
So : 905 A. 921 A, p. 103 1. 937 A. 942 A. 959 E. 973 A.
975 E. 994 E.

and hi him par foregislas sealdon swa feala swa he habban
wolde, 877.

and East Engle hsefdon .^Ifrede cyninge apas geseald, . . .
and pell ofer pa treowa, swa oft swa pa opre hergas mid ealle
herige utforon. 894 A, ad init.
So: 994 E. 997 E. 999 E. 1001 E.



28 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

§ 104. The dependent clauses with Sees tie, although referring
to the same principle, more frequently serve to limit a statement
or to add an explanatory' remark (see Matzuer, III. j». 517).



K — THE INFINITIVE.

§ 105. The Simple Infinitive is found after the auxiliary
verbs cunnan, durran, latan, magan, motan, sculan, tSurfan,
willan and witan.

Examples will be found under the treatment of the Auxiliary
Verbs.

§ 106. The Infinitive is sometimes omitted after an auxiliary
verb.

and J>a sealde se here him gislas, and mycele aSas, pet hi of
his rice woldon, and him eac geheton ]?et heora cyng fulwihte
onfon wolde, 878.

to JJaet forewearde paet sefter his daei scolde paet land into pe
minstre, 852 E.

§ 107. After a numl)er of Transitive verbs the Infinitive is
used, sometimes alone, but more frequently witli an (•])ject of its
own.

aginnan : Marcus se godspellere in Egipta agin]? writau poet
godspell, 47 F.

onginnan: Her ongan Ceolwulf rixiau on \yeast Seaxum,
597 E.

hdtun : Iler offa Myrcena cining het /ESelbrihte pa-t heafod
ofslean, 792. So : 807 A (3). 901 A. 905 A. 913 A. 919 A.
921 A (2). 922 A. 923 A. 924 A. 909 E. 975 E. 992 E. 993 E.

liyran : and J'ar p;et inu'ste wal geslogon on hajSene here J>e
we aefre gesecgan herdon, 851.

§ 108. Besides the Infinitive the jn-edicaio verb may have
another ()])ject, which is the subject (tf the action cxjHesscd by
the Infinitive. The Infinitive may also have another object of
its own. The Accusative and the Inliiiitivc depend u]>on tlie
verb, the former as pcrstuuil, the Iiidi-i- as impersonal object.



THE INFINITIVE. 29

hdtan : and het opve fierd eac of Miercna ]>eode J?a hwile pe
he JJser sset gefaran Mame ceaster on norp hymbrum, and hie
gebetan and gemannian, 923 A.

§ 109. The pure Infinitive is found after Intransitive verbs,
especially after verbs of motion.

§ 110. This Infinitive may denote the manner or method of
motion, or an accompanying action. In the latter case it ap-
proaches the use of a participle.

. . . smicere on gearvvum, wudum and wyrtum cymeS vvlitig
scriSan, prymlice on tun J»earfe briugeS. M. 77, p. 276 t,

§ 111. Or it may give the aim of the motion.

Gewitan him pa norpmen- naegled cnearrum, dreorig daraSa laf-
on dinges mere- ofer deop wseter. Difelin secan- and eft hira
land- sewisc mode, 937 A, p. 109 m.

§ 112. The Infinitive with to is used depending upon
Adjectives which denote readiness, ease, difficulty, and the like.

nis eaSe to asecgenne pises landes earmSa pe hit to pysan
timau dreogende wses, 1104 E.

§ 113. It is also found with Substantives and Verbs in
various relations.

and py ilcan geare hi sealdon Ceolwulfe anum unwisum cyuges
pegne Myrcena rice to healdenne, 874. So : 886.

and se cyng pa bettehte pa fyrde to hiedene Ealfrice ealdor-
man, 992 E.

. . , and gif he leng moste linen, alse he mint to don of pe bor-
der wy can, 1137 E, p. 265 1.

and saette peer munecas Gode to pewian (purpose), 963 E, p.
115 b. Sop. 117 m.

pa forsoc he, and ssede poet he hit nahte to donne, 107U A,
p. 206 t.



30 VERBS IX THE ANGLO-SAXON.



F. — THE PAETICIPLES.

PRESENT PARTICIPLE.

§ 114. The Present Participle is used as an adjective both
attributively and predicatively, as a Substantive, and as a Par-
ticiple proper.

§ 115. It stands attributively with a Substantive, and has
the strong inflection without the article.

Jjaet w£eron ormete ligraescas, aud woeron geseowene fyrene
dracau on )>ani lyfte fleogende, 793 E.

and utla?ndisce hider in tihte, and deoriende leoda bespeon to
jjysan earde, 959 E.

]?8et waes gnornung micel J^am pe on breostum waeg byrnende
lufan Metodes on mode, 975 A.

§ 116. It is also sometimes found with the article aud con-
sequently the weak inflection.

Her forSferde se wellwillenda bisceop AtJelwold, and seo
halgung ))fes gefterfilgendan biseeopes iElfheages, 984 A.

§ 117. The Present Participle is used predicativel}- in con-
nection with the verbs icesaii and iceortSan. For examples, see
§§2, .3, aud 4.

§ 118. It is also used predicatively with Intransitive verbs.

Gif twa men oper • iii • coman ridend to an tun, al )>e tunseipe
flugaen for heom, wenden <S hi waeron rteueres, 1137 E, p. 265 h.

§ 11 9. The Present Participle is used substantively to de-
note persons. Tlie Partici])le in this case has lost its original
character and become a noun.

Her Eadgar wars, Engla waldend, corSre micelre, to cyninge
gehalgod on Saere ealdan byrig, Acemannes oeastre, eac hi
igbuend oSre worde beonias liaSan nt'nnia)), 973 A.

PERFECT I'AHTICIPLK.

§ 120. The Perfect Participle is used as attribute, as predi-
cate in connection with verbs of ' lioiufj ' and ' bocominu;,' as well



THE PARTICIPLES. 31

as with intransitive verbs, as substantive, and as participle proper
instead of dependent clauses.

§ 121. The Perfect Participle is used attributively without
the article, and with strong inflection.

and ]>y ilcan gears Ceolwulf Myrcena cining oferhergode Cant-
ware and Merscware, and gefengon Prsen heora cining, and
gebundenne liine Iseddon on Myrce, 796.

fa se cyng fset hierde, pa wende he Line west wi3 Exan-
ceastres mid ealre paere fierde, buton swife gewaldenum daele
easte weardes })8es folces, 894 A, p. 86 h.

fand ])a hidde in pa ealde wealle writes pet Headda al515 heafde
ser gewriton, 963 E, p. 115 b.
So: 937 A (5). 975 A. 992 E.

§ 122. This participle is also found attributively with the
article, and in this case with weak inflection.

and hie pa under pam hie mihtes bestselon paere fierde se gehor-
soda here into Escan ceaster, 876.

and se cing Alfred aefter pam gehorsedum here mid fyrde rad
ot5 Exanceastre, 877.

Her todselde se forsprecena here on twa, 885. So : 896 A.

§ 123. The Perfect Participle is used predicatively with the
verbs wesan (heoTi), iveor^an, and hahban, in the formation of the
passive and of the compound tenses. With the verbs of ' being,'
'becoming,' it agrees with the noun or pronoun belonging to it.
For examples, see §§ 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31.

§ 124. The Perfect Participle is used predicatively with
some Intransitive verbs.

pa wende se here paet bis fultumes se maesta dael waere on paem
scipum, and paet hie mehten faran unbefohtene paer peer hie
wolden, 911 A.

§ 125. The Participle is often attracted into the genitive
after numerals and adverbs of quantity.

and pa hergas begen geflyrade [waeron], and feala pusenda
ofslagenra, 871.



32 VERBS IX THE ANGLO-SAXON.

I
and ]>xv wearS }>ara Denescra luicle ma ofslegeura, 1001 A.

and \>xr wearS fela ofslegenra, 1001 A. i

§ 126. In the cuinpouud tenses of transitive veil»s it is
sometimes attracted into the case of the object.

and liie alle on j'oue Cyuiug waerun feohtende o|> |)aet hie bine j

ofslcTegenne haefdon, 755 A. E has otS tiet hiij li'ine ofslceyen

hcefdon. j

Her Ecgbriht cining forSferde, and hine tor haefde Ofla Myr-
ceua cining, and Byrhtric Wtest Saexna cining aiiymde • iii •
gear of Angel cynnes lande on Franc land aer he cining waere,
836 E. A has afllemed. '

§ 127. The Perfect Participle is used substantively to denote

persons. ;

and manige eac him peh ic Sa geSungnestan nemde, 896 A, !

p. 90 h. So : 905 A. ;

§ 128. The Perfect Participle is used as a pure participle, ;

taking the place of a dependent clause, and denotes various
relations.

and ))a sona eft Gode gefultumiendum (Dat. Abs.) he niihte
geseon and sprecan, 797. ;

and Osrod pe wses Norj'anhyrabra cining refter wrsecsifte ham
cumenum geheht waes, 792 E.

THE VERBAL SUBSTANTIVE. ',

§ 129. In the Chronicle we find several verbal substan- !

tives, — formed from verb stems with suffix -ung. Examples are : '

hergung, 793 E, dagung, 795 E, passim. j



G. — THE AUXILIARY YETIBS.

WESAN (nftoN), weohSax (okweorSan), iiahban.

§ 130. Examjtk^s showing the auxiliary use of ?rfsrtn, 5?on,
hnhhan, and ivcorMn {gewcortidn), can be foiuul under the treat-
ment of the Passive ami of the Tenses,



THE AUXILIARY VERBS. 33

§ 131. As a uotioual verb ivcor^an is found with several
meauings : to become, happen, enter.

and hi sume inue wurdou (entered), 867.

rtiacedou hit pa pget aer vvses ful rice, pa hit wearS to nan bin?
870 E.

Her Eadmuud cing S. Duustane Glaestingeberig betsehte Sser
he sySSan serest abbud wearS, 943 A.

Ac God him geumie, ])a3t his gode dseda swySran wearSan,
|)onne misdseda, 959 E.

paer wses blis micel, on pam eadgan daege ealhnn geworden.
j)onne uiSa beam nemnaS and cigaS Pentecostenes daeg, 973 A.

])is geworden wees and pa on Sam xxx wses Seoden gehalgod,
973 A.

Ne wearS wsel mare on pis eiglande aefer gieta folces gefylled,
beforan pissum sweordes ecgum, 937 A, p. 109 b.

§ 132. Hcibhan as a notional verb means, to have, possess,
tahe possession of, to cause to he,

and merest waes ^lle SuSseaxna cining se pus mycel haefde,
827. So: 867.

and pone cining Burgred ofer sae adrefdou ymb • xxii • win-
tra pses J>e he rice hsefde.

and ^Selwald saet binnan psem ham mid poem monnum pe
him togebugon, and hsefde ealle pa geatu forworht into him,
and ssede Jjset he wolde oSer oSSe pter libban oSSe ])ter licgau,
901 A.

Don,

§ 133. The use of don as an auxiliary verb is seldom found
in the Chronicle, and only to avoid the repetition of the verb.

He pa swa dyde, and mid fierde for ofer Mierce on Korp
Walas, and hie him alle gehiersume dydon, 853 A.

CUNNAN.

§ 134. As an auxiliary verb cunnan generally denotes an

intellectual ability.

3



34 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

and forbcerndon Tegntun, and eac fela o8ra godra hama "pe
we genemnan ne cunnan, 1001 A (2).

DUKRAN,

§ 135. The only meaning of this verb iu the Chrouicle is,
to dare.

and se cyng hsefde funden J)aet him mon ScTt wip on su)> healfe
8{vfei'nmuJ)an, westan from Weahim, east oj) Afeneniupan,
pii't hie ne dorston J)«t land nawer gesecan on pa healte,

918 A.

MAGAN.

§ 136. As an auxiliary, magan expresses both physical and
intellectual possibility, meaning to he able, to he in condition.

and pa sona eft Gode gefultumiendum he mihte geseon and
sprecan, 797.

Nu we magon ongytau pset manna wisdom, and sraeagunga,
and heore raedas syndon nahtlice ongean Godes gepeaht, 979 E.
So : 877. 894 A, p. 86 t, p. 88 h. 896 A. 897 A, p. 91 m.
905 A. (2). 918 A. 994 E. 1000 E. 1001 A (2).

§ 137. The meanmg is often that of a simple subjunctive,
especially in final dependent clauses.

pa gegaderade Alfred cyning his fierd, and for pKt he gewi-
code betwuh pjcm twam hergum, pser paer he niehst rymet
hrefde for wudii faestenne, ond for wreterfjestenne, swa piet he
mehte jegperne geraecan gif hie aMiigne feld secan wolden,
894 A, p. 84 1. So : 896 A. 897 A.

pUKFAX.
§ 138. This verb means : to want, hare need of.
hreman ne porfte maecan gemanan, 937 A, p. 108 b.
hlehhan ne porftuu, 937 A, p. 109 h.



THE AUXILIARY VERBS. 35

WILLAN.

§ 139. This verb expresses the will or desire in various ways.

aud pa se gerefa fan-to rad, and he wolde drifan to pxs
cininges tune J)y he nyste hw£et hi wieron, 787. Here ivolde
= ' attempted.'

and he him aSas swor and gislas seakle J>et . . . he geare
wsere mid him sylfum, and mid eallum pam pe him gela?stan
wolden to 'pses heres pterfe, 874. Wolden = ' were willing.'
So : 877. 891 A. 894 A, p. 85. 920 A. 921 A, p. 102. 94G A.
948 E. 959 E. 963 E, p. 115 m. and 1. 979 E (2). 994 E.

pa sefter pam for se here eall up, and wolde faran pa giet on
hergap wiS Ircinga feldes, 918 A. Wolde here has the mean-
ing of ' planned,' ' purposed.'

§ 140. It sometimes expresses almost pure futurity, and is
used with infinitives like the modern conditional as a substitute
for the preterit subjunctive. See § 144.

and ealle wiS trywsodon paet hi woldon efenwyrhton beon on
S£E and on lande, 972 E.

and eal se here on East Englum him swor annesse, p?et hie
eal pcet woldon pset he wolde, and eall past fripian woldon paet
se cyng fripian wolde, 921 A, p. 103 m.

and him pa Anlaf behet swa he hit eac gelseste, "P he ntefre
eft to Angel cynne mid unfriSe cumon nolde, 994 E.

§ 141. For willan expressing futurity with a suggestion of
determination, see §§19 and 30.

§ 142. As a notional verb willan means : to wish, be willing,
desire.

pa he 8a eft ponan ut faran wolde, pa het he beodan ofer ealle
pa fird paet hie foron ealle ut set somne, 905 A. So : 874.
911 A. 921 A, p. 103 m. {wolde). 963 E, p. 116 b (2) ; p. 117 t.

SCULAX.

§ 143. As auxiliary verb sculan serves to express necessity,
obligation, command.



36 VERBS IN THE ANGLO-SAXON.

Her on |>is tiina leot Ceolred attt> of Medeshamstede and J'a
munecas Wulfrede to liande pot land of Seinpigaham, to paet
foiewearde J>aet aefter'liis daei scolde paet land into pe niinstre,
and Wulfred scolde gifen ]>aet land of Sliowa forda into
Medeshamstede, 852 E.

haefde se cyning his fierd on tu tonnmen, swa pxt hie wa?ron
siiule liealfe aet ham, healfe ute, butan J)aMn monuum pe pa
burga healdan scoldeu (= had to), 894 A, p. 84 b.

Sy53an pa com he to se cyng Eadgar, bed him pet he scolde
him giuen ealle pa minstre pa hseSeue men hiefden jer tobrocon,
963 E, p. 115 m.

and se cyng pa betsehte pa fyrde to la?dene Ealfrice ealdor-
man, and porode eorl, and uiElfstane bisoop, and ^scwige
biscop, and sceoldan cunnian gif hi nuihton pone here ah\va?r
utene betraeppen, 992 E. (Here the idea of command may be
understood, or we may translate ' were to.')

ac wala pjrt hi to hvaSe bugon, and flugon, for pam pe hi
nsefdon fultum pe hi liabban sceoldan (= ought to have had),
999 E.

pa rsedde se cyng wiS his witan pa?t man sceolde mid scip-
fyrde and eac mid landfyrde him on'gean faran, 999 E.

and swencte paet earme folc pe on Sam scipon lagon, and a swa
hit forSwearde beon scolde, swa hit Lnetre waes fram anre tyde
to oSre, 999 E.

§ 144. The combination of the preterit of scninn with in-
finitives is frequently used like the modern conditional as a
substitute for the preterit subjunctive, sometimes expressing
almost pure futurity. See Sweet, N. E. G., § 2198. Wolde is
generally used when the future action is dej)endent upon tlie will
of another, sceolde when dependent u])()n the will of the s]»eaker
or actor. Our examples sliow exceptions to this general luU',
however, from which we concdude tliat these auxiliaries were
confused at this period of O. E. as in Modern English. See
§ 140.

and hi cwaetJon pajt hi him pet to handa healdan scoldan, for-
?J:in pet heora nan naes of faidren halfc geboren butan him
anum, 887.



GOVERNMENT OF VERBS.



37



and fuhton on jja burg ealne dseg, and J>ohton pa-t hie hie
sceolden abrecan, 921 A, p. 101 h.

and Jjohton Jjget hie sceoldon jjanon of mid gewinue, 921 A
p. 101 1. So : p. 102 1. 994 E, p. 129 1. '



§ 145. The use of sculan in the following examples is to be



noted



and pa on Jjere nihte tSe hi on Soiie daei togaedere cumon sceol-
don, f»a sceoc he on niht fram psere fyrde him sylfum to myc-
clum bismore, 992 E. sceoldon = ' were to.'

and pa hi togsedere gan sceoldan, pa onsteaklon pa heretogan
aerest pone fleam, 993 E. sceoldan = were to, were about to,
were on the point of. So : 998 E.

ac sona swa hie to Bleamfleote comon . . . swa hergode he
(on) his rice pone ilcan ende pe ^pered his cump?eder healdan
sceolde. sceolde healdan = was said to have held (?).



H. — GOVERNMENT OF ATERBS.

§ 146. In the following lists I have collected the verbs
according to the case ot cases governed by them, placing them in
strict alphabetical order.



147. Verbs with the Accusative.



a-began

acsian

a-cuman

Srcwellan

a-cwencan

d-cwjdman

a-dil(i)gian

a-don

^-dr^fan

a-drenean

a-drifan

aefter-cweSan

set-ywian

§,-f§dan

§,-findan

§,-flyman



a-fyllan

^gan

a-hebban

a-hon

a-hreddan

a-hedan

a-lecgean

a-lysan

a-m§,nsumian

a-myrran

an-ginnan

S-rsecan

d-rsedan

^-rseran

S,-reccan

§,r-weor5iau



a-scunian

§.-secgan

a-smeagan

^-spanan

a-stellan

a-stingan

a-swebban

a-tendan

a-tellan

a-teon

a-tirabr(i)an

a-werian

a-westan

S-wrecan

a-writan

bsernan



38



VERBS IX THE ANGLO-SAXON.



baunan


erian


ge-fetian


be-byr(i)gian


faestnian


ge-Hndan


be-ceoriau


feccan


ge-ttyman


be-(lieian


fedan


ge-fon


be-(li1fan


f erian


ge-freoii


be-farau


fetian


ge-fultuinian


be-gau


fiudan


ge-gad(e)rian


be-gitan


fleon


ge-gangan


be-hidau


Hynian


ge-liadian


be-landian


f6n


ge-halgian


be-lendaa


for-bternan


ge-hawian


be-lisnian


for-ceoifau


ge-healdan


be-lucan


for-don


ge-hentan


be-niman


for-drifan


ge-hergian


beodan


for-faran


ge-horsi;iu


be-paecan


for-gifan


ge-hwyrfan


be-rsedan


for-helan


ge-hyran


berau


for-liergian


ge-lseccan


be-reafian


for-ltetan


ge-la-dan


be-ridan


for-seon


ge-l»stan


be-iowan


for-slean


ge-mannian


be-sittan


forSian


ge-metan


be-swicau


for-wundian


ge-munan


be-syrwan


for-wyrcan


ge-nemnan


betan


fretan


ge-nerian


be-teon


fripian


ge-niman


brecan


fultuniian


ge-notian


bregan


ge-uscian


ge-rtucan


brengan


ge-betan


ge-vidan


bugean


ge-bindan


ge-iipan


bycgan


ge-bociau


ge-sainniau


bytlian


ge-brengan


ge-srugiau


ceosaii


ge-bygan


ge-scipian


cleofan


ge-eeosan


ge-scyppan


cwcSaii


ge-cyrvan


ge-secan


djelau


ge-cySan


ge-secgan


derian


ge-d&lan


ge-sendan


don


ge-don


ge-seon


dree fan


ge-dygan


ge-settan


dreccan


ge-ed-n6o\vian


ge-sittau


drifan


ge-faistnian


ge-slOan


drohtnian


ge-faran


ge-spanan


calgian


go- ft"' ran


go-st:i?Ji'lian


6cau


gi'-ft'iiun


go-swican



GOVERNINIENT OF VERBS.



39



ge-tellan

ge-timbrau

ge-utian

ge-wsedian


1 3

Online LibraryHugh Mercer BlainSyntax of the verb in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle from 787 A.D. to 1001 A.D. .. → online text (page 3 of 4)