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I. F. (Isabella Ferguson) Henderson.

A dictionary of scientific terms : pronunciation, derivation, and definition of terms in biology, botany, zoology, anatomy, cytology, embryology, physiology online

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Online LibraryI. F. (Isabella Ferguson) HendersonA dictionary of scientific terms : pronunciation, derivation, and definition of terms in biology, botany, zoology, anatomy, cytology, embryology, physiology → online text (page 8 of 54)
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centrosphere (sgn'trosfer) n. [Gk.
kentron, a centre ; sphaira, a ball.]
The central mass of the aster and
centrosome ; the astrosphere ; the
attraction sphere (cyt.).

centrum (sen'trum) n. [L. centrum,
a centre.] The main body of a
vertebra, from which the neural and
haemal arches arise (zool.).

cephalanthium (ket'alan'thium, sef-)
n. [Gk. kephale, a head ; anthos,
a flower.] The capitulum in com-
posite plants (&?/.).

cephaletron (kgf'aletron, sfif-) n. [Gk.
kephale, the head ; etron, the belly.]
The anterior region of a Limulid
(zool.).

cephalic (kefal'ik, sgf-) a. [Gk. kephale,
the head.] Pert, the head ; in the
head region.

cephalia (kgf'alis, sgf-) . [Gk.



CEP-

kephale, the head.] The upper-
most chamber of monaxonic Radio-
larian shells (zool.).
cephalization (kef'aliza'shun, s6f-) n.
[Gk. kephale, the head.] Increasing
importance of the anterior end in
animal development (zool.).

cephalont (kgf'alont, s6f-) n. [Gk.
kephale, the head.] A sporozoan
about to proceed to spore-formation
(zool.).

cephalopoda (kgf'alopodz, sef-) n. plu.
[Gk. kephale, the head ; pous, the
foot.] Animals with muscular,
sucker-bearing arms on the head
region (zool.).

cephalostegite (kef'alosteg'it, s6f-) n.
[Gk. kephale, head ; siege, roof.]
The anterior part of the cephalo-
thoracic shield (zool.).

cephalostyle (kefalostll, s6f-) n. [Gk.
kephale, head ; stylos, a pillar.]
The anterior end of the notochord
enclosed in its sheath, in chondro-
crania (zool.).

cephalotheca (kgf'alothe'ka, sef-) n.
[Gk. kephale, head ; theke, a case.]
The head integument in the pupa
of insects (zool.).

cephalothorax (kef'alotho'raks, s6f-)
n. [Gk. kephale, head ; thorax,
breast.] The body-region formed
by the fusion of head and thorax in
Arachnids and Crustaceans (zool.).

cephalotrocha (ket'alotrS'ka, sSf-) n.
[Gk. kephale, head ; trochos, a
wheel.] A Turbellarian larva with
eight processes arranged round
the mouth (zool.).

cerata (keYata, sera'ta) n. plu. [Gk.
keras, horn.] Lobes or leaf-like
processes acting as gills on the
back of nudibranch molluscs (zool.).

ceratlum (sera'shium, sera'tium) n.
[Gk. keration, little horn.] A siliqua
without the replum (bot.).

ceratohyal (keYatohi'al, ser-) n. [Gk.
keras, horn ; hyoeides, Y-shaped.]
The component of the hyoid arch
next below the epihyal (zool.).

cereal (seYkal) a. [Gk. kerkos, tail.]
Pert, the tail (zool.).

cercarla (sgrka'ria) n. [Gk. kerkos,
tail.] A trematode larva with a
slightly heart-shaped body and
long tail (zool.).

cercl (ser'ke, seYsl) n. plu. [Gk.



46 CER-

kerkos, tail.] Jointed appendages
at the end of the abdomen in many
Arthropods (zool.).

cere (ser) n. [L. cera, wax.] A
swollen fleshy patch at the proximal
end of the bill in birds, on which
the nostrils open.

cerebellar (ser'ebeTar)a. [L. cerebrum,
the brain.] Pert, the hind-brain
(anat.).

cerebellum (ser'ebeTum) n. [L.
cerebrum, the brain.] The fourth
division of the brain arising from
the differentiation of the anterior
part of the third primary vesicle
(anat.).

cerebral (ser'ebral) a. [L. cerebrum,
the brain.] Pert, the brain ; pert.
the anterior part of the brain or
cerebral hemispheres.

cerebrifugal (ser'ebrifu'gal) a. [L.
cerebrum, the brain ; fugere, to
flee.] Appl. nerve fibres which
pass from brain to spinal cord
(Phys.).

cerebroganglion (ser'ebrogang'glion)
n. [L. cerebrum, the brain ; Gk.
ganglion, a swelling.] The brain,
or supra-oesophageal ganglia of
invertebrates (zool.).

cerebropedal (ser'gbrope'dal) a. [L.
cerebrum, the brain ; pes, a foot.]
Appl. nerve strands connecting the
cerebral and pedal ganglia in
Molluscs (zool.).

cerebrospinal (ser'ebrbspl'nal) a. [L.
cerebrum, the brain ; spina, the
spine.] Pert, brain and spinal
cord (anat.}.

cerebrovisceral (ser'ebrovis'eral) a.
[L. cerebrum, the brain ; viscera,
viscera.] Appl. the connective
joining the cerebral and visceral
ganglia in Molluscs (zool.).

cerebrum (ser'ebrum) n. [L. cerebrum,
the brain.] The fore-brain, or
hemispheres, arising from the
differentiation of the first primary
vesicle (zool.).

ceriferous (serlferus) a. [L. cera,
wax ; ferre, to carry.] Appl. wax-
producing organs (btol.).

cernuous (seYnuus) a. [L. cernuus,
with face turned downwards.]
Drooping ; pendulous (bot.).

ceroma (sero'ma) n. [Gk. keroma,
ointment.] The cere of birds (zool.).




CER-

cerous (se'nis) a. [L. cera, wax.]
Appl. a structure resembling a
cere (zool.).

cerumen (sgroo'mgn) . [L. cera,
wax.] The wax-like secretion
from the ceruminous glands of
the ear (phys.).

cervical (servl'kal) a. [L. cervix, the
neck.] Appl. structures connected
with the neck, as nerves, bones,
blood-vessels, also to the cervix or
neck of an organ (anat., zool.).

cervix (seYviks) n. [L. cervix, a
neck.] The neck or narrow mouth
of an organ, as cervix uteri (anat.).

chaeta (ke'ta) n. [Gk. chaite, hair.]
A seta or bristle of certain worms
(zool.).

chaetiferous (ketlffirus) a. [Gk.
chaite, hair ; L. ferre, to bear.]
Bristle-bearing ; chaetigerous.

chaetophorous (ketof'orus) a. [Gk.
chaite, hair ; pherein, to bear.]
Bristle-bearing ; appl. worms and
certain insects (zool.).

chaetotaxy (ke'totak'sl) n. [Gk.
chaite, hair ; taxis, arrangement.]
The bristle-patterns on an insect
(zool.).

chalaza (kala'za) n. [Gk. chalaza,
hail, tubercle.] One of the two
spiral bands attaching the yolk to
the membrane of a bird's egg
(zool.) ; the base of the nucellus of
an ovule from which the integu-
ments arise (bot.).

chalazogamy (kalazog'ami) n. [Gk.
chalaza, hail, tubercle ; gamos,
marriage.] Fertilization in which
the pollen- tube pierces the chalaza
of the ovule, instead of entering by
the micropyle ; cf. porosramy (bot.).

chalice (chal'is) n. [L. calix, calyx.]
Appl. simple gland cells in the
epithelia of the frog (zool.) ; any
modified columnar epithelial gland
cell (anat.).

chalones (kal'onz) n. plu. [Gk. chali-
nos, curb.] Substances which
depress activity (phys.).

channelled (chan'gld) a. [L. canalis,
a canal.] Having grooves ; canal-
iculate (bot.).

chasmogamy (kazmog'amT) n. [Gk.
chasma, opening ; gamos, marriage.]
The opening of a mature flower to
ensure fertilization (bot.).



CHE-

chasmophyte (kaz'mofit) n. [Gk.
chasma, opening ; phyton, a plant.]
A plant which grows in nooks and
crannies of rocks (bot.).

cheek (chek) n. [A.S. ce'oce, the
cheek.] The fleshy wall of the
mouth in mammals ; the side of
the face ; in invertebrates the
lateral portions of the head, as the
fixed and free cheeks of Trilobites
(zool., anat.).

cheiropterygiuin (klrSptSrlj'Ium) n.
[Gk. cheir, hand; pteryx, wing.]
The pentadactyloid typical limb of
higher vertebrates.

chela (ke'la) n. [Gk. chele, claw.]
The claw borne on certain limbs of
Crustaceans and Arachnids (zool.).

chelicerae (kelis'gre, -ra) n. plu. [Gk.
chele, claw ; keras, horn.] Anterior
chelate or sub-chelate appendages
of Arachnids (zool.).

cheliferous (kelif'erus) a. [Gk. chele,
claw ; L. ferre, to bear.] Supplied
with chelae or claws (zool.).

cheliforin (ke'liform) a. [Gk. chele,
claw ; L. forma, shape.] Claw-like ;
appl. appendages (zool.).

chelophores (keUforz) n. plu. [Gk.
chele, claw ; pherein, to bear.] The
first pair of appendages in the
Pycnogons (zool.).

chemoreflex (kgm'ore'flgks) n. [Gk.
chemos, juice ; L. reflectere, to bend
back.] A reflex caused by chemical
stimulus (phys.).

chemosynthesis (kSm'osin'thgsis) n.
[Gk. chemos, juice ; syn, with ;
tithenai, to place.] The building
up of chemical compounds in plants
by means of chemical reactions
(bot.).

chemotaxis (kgm'otak'sis) . [Gk.
chemos, juice ; taxis, arrangement.]
The sensitiveness of cells or micro-
organisms to chemical stimulus,
which is either attractive or repel-
lent, exhibiting respectively positive
or negative chemotaxis (biol.).

cheniotropism (ke'mot'ropizm) n. [Gk.
chemos, juice ; trope, a turning.]
Curvature of a plant towards or
away from chemical stimuli (bot.) ;
response to chemical stimulus (biol.).

chevron (sheVron) a. [L. caper,
a goat.] Appl. V-shaped bones
articulating with the ventral surface



CHI-



48



CHO-



of the spinal column in the caudal
region of many vertebrates (zoo/.).

chiasma (klaz'ma) n. [Gk. chiazein,
to mark with a cross.] A decussa-
tion, as optic chiasma (anat.).

chlastoneural (klas'tonu'ral) a. [Gk.
chiastos, diagonally arranged ; neu-
ron, a nerve.] Appl. certain Gastro-
pods in which the visceral nerve
cords cross and form a figure 8
(zool.).

chilaria (klla'ria) n. plu. [Gk. cheilos,
lip.] A pair of processes between
the sixth pair of appendages in
Limulus (zool.).

chilidium (killd'lum) n. [Gk. cheilos,
lip.] A shelly plate covering the
deltidial fissure in the dorsal valve
of certain Brachiopods (zool.).

chitln (kl'tln) n. [Gk. chiton, a tunic.]
A carbohydrate derivative forming
the skeletal substance in Arthropods
(zool.).

chlamydate (klam'idat) a. [Gk. chla-
mys, a cloak.] Supplied with a
mantle (zool.).

chlamydeous (klamid'eus) a. [Gk.
chlamys, a cloak.] Pert, flower and
envelope (bot.).

chlamydospore (klam'idospor) n. [Gk.
chlamys, cloak ; sporos, seed.] A
thick-walled resting spore found in
many Fungi, as yeast (bof.).

chloragen (klo'rajen) a. [Gk. chloros,
grass green ; genos, descent.] Appl.
yellow cells found in connection
with the alimentary canal of the
earthworm, and other Annelids ;
also chloragogen (zool.).

chloranthy (kloran'thi) n. \G\a.chloros,
grass green ; anthos, flower.] Re-
version of floral leaves back to
ordinary green leaves (bot.).

chlorophyll (klo'rofil) n. [Gk. chloros,
grass green ; phyllon, a leaf.] The
green colouring matter found in
plants and in some animals (biol.).

chloroplast (klo'roplast) n. [Gk.
chloros, grass green ; plastos,
moulded.] A chlorophyll-carrying
plastid (bot.).

chloroplastid (klo'roplas'tid) n. [Gk.
chloros, grass green ; plastos,
moulded.] A minute granule or
plastid containing chlorophyll,
found in plant-cells exposed to light
(biol.).



chlorosis (kloro'sls) ;/. [Gk. chloros,
grass green.] A diseased condition
in plants owing to lack of certain
minerals, due mainly to want of
light (bot.).

chlorotic (klorot'ik) a. [Gk. chloros,
grass green.] Appl. plants or
organs of plants devoid of chloro-
phyll (bot.).

choana (ko'ana) n. [Gk. choane,
funnel.] Any funnel-shaped open-
ing (anat.).

choanocyte (ko'anoslt) n. [Gk choane,
funnel ; kytos, hollow.] A cell with
a funnel-shaped rim or collar round
the base of the flagellum (zool.).

choanoid (ko'anoid) a. [Gk. choane,
funnel ; eidos, like.] Funnel-
shaped; appi.eye. muscle in Reptiles
(zool.).

choanosome (ko'anosom) n. [Gk.
choane, funnel ; soma, body.] In
sponges, the inner layer with flagel-
late cells (zool.).

choledoch (kol'edok) a. [Gk. chole,
bile ; dochos, containing.] Appl.
common bile duct.

choleic (kole'ik) a. [Gk. chole, bile.]
Pert, acid contained in ox bile
(Phys.).

cholesterin (koles'terln) n. [Gk. chole,
bile ; stereos, solid.] A white fatty
alcohol found in nerve tissue, bile,
yolk, and other animal substances
(phys.). ^

choline (ko'lm, -en) n. [Gk. chole,
bile.] A crystalline base found in
plants and animals with composi-
tion C 6 H 16 O 2 N (phys.).

cholochrome (ko'lokrom) . [Gk.
chole, bile ; chroma, colour.] A bile
pigment (phys.).

cholohaematin (ko'lohe'matm) n. [Gk.
chole, bile ; haima, blood.] A pig-
ment developed in the bile of
ruminants after exposure to the air
(Phys.).

chondral (kon'dral) a. [Gk. chondros,
cartilage.] Pert, cartilage (anat.).

chondrification (kon'driflka'shun) n.
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; L. facere,
to make.] Conversion into cartil-
age (phys.).

chondrigen (kon'drijen) n. [Gk.
chondros, cartilage ; genos, descent.]
The base matrix of all cartilaginous
substance, a collagen (phys.).



CHO-



49



CHO-



chondrin (kon'drin) n. [Gk. chondros,
cartilage.] A gelatinous substance
obtained from cartilage (phys.}.

chondriosomes (kondrlosomz ) n. plu,
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; soma,
body.] Permanent feebly refractive
bodies found in cell protoplasm,
which are probably combinations
of fatty acids or of phosphate of
albumen (biol.}.

chondroblast (kon'droblast) n. [Gk.
chondros, cartilage ; blastos, bud.]
A cartilage-producing cell (phys.}.

chondroclast (kon'droklast) n. [Gk.
chondros, cartilage ; klastos, broken
down.] A cell which breaks up or
destroys cartilage cells (phys.}.

chondrocranium (kon'drokra'nium) n,
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; kranion,
skull.] The skull when in a car-
tilaginous condition, either tem-
porarily as in embryos, or per-
manently as in some fishes (zoo!.,
anat.).

chondrogenesis (kon'drojgn'esis) n.
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; genesis,
descent.] The production or forma-
tion of cartilage (phys.}.

chondromucoid (kon'dromu'koid) n.
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; L. mucus,
mucus ; Gk. eidos, form.] A whitish
amorphous powder found in cartil-
age (phys.}.

chondrophore (kon'drofor) n. [Gk.
chondros, cartilage ; pherein, to
bear.] A structure which supports
the inner hinge cartilage in a
bivalve shell (zoo/.).

chondroskeleton (kon'droskel'e'ton) n.
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; skeleton,
a dried body.] A cartilaginous
skeleton (zool.}.

chondrosteous (kondros'teiis) a. [Gk.
chondros, cartilage ; osteon, bone.]
Having a cartilaginous skeleton
(zool.}.

chondrosteriial (kon'drosteYnal) a.
[Gk. chondros, cartilage ; sternon,
the breast.] Pert, rib cartilages
and sternum (anat.}.

chone (kon) n. [Gk. choane, a funnel.]
A passage through the cortex of
sponges with one or more external
openings, and one internal open-
ing provided with a sphincter
(zool.}.

chorda (kor'da) n. [Gk. chorde^ a



string.] The notochord ; in plural,
tendinous cords attached to the
valves of the heart (anat.}.

chordacentra (kor'dasgn'tra) n. plu.
[Gk. chorde, a string ; L. centrum,
centre.] Centra formed by the
conversion of the chordal sheath
into a number of rings (zool.}.

chordate (kor'dat) a. [Gk. chorde,
a string.] Having a notochord
(zool.}.

chordotonal (kor'doto'nal) a. [Gk.
chorde, a string ; tonos, a tone.]
Appl. rod-like or bristle-like struc-
tures, auditory in nature, in various
parts of the body of insects (zool.}.

choriocapillaris (ko'riokapiraris, -kap'-
ila'rls) n. [Gk. chorion, chorion ; L.
capillaris, a capillary.] The inner-
most vascular layer of the choroid
coat of the eye (anat.}.

chorioid, choroid.

chorion (ko'rlon) n. [Gk. chorion, a
skin.] An embryonic membrane
external to and enclosing the
amnion (emb.}.

chorionlc (korion'ik) a. [Gk. chorion,
a skin.] Pert, the chorion (emb.}.

chorioretinal (ko'rioreYinal) a. [Gk.
chorion, a skin ; L. retina, the
retina.] Pert, choroid and reli ia
(anat.}.

choripetalous (ko'ripeYalus) a. [Gk.
choris, separate ; petalon, a leaf.]
Having separate petals (dot.}.

choriphyllous (ko'rifil'us) a. [Gk.
choris, separate ; phyllon, a leaf.]
Having the perianth parts distinct
(bot.}.

chorisepalous (ko'risep'alus) a. [Gk.
choris, separate ; sepalon, a sepal.]
Having the sepals separate (hot.}.

chorisis (ko'rlsts) . [Gk. choris,
separate.] Increase in number of
parts of a floral whorl due to
division of its primary members ;
duplication (bot.}.

chorpid (ko'roid) a. [Gk. chorion,
skin ; eidos, form.] Appl. delicate
and highly vascular membranes ;
n. the layer of the eye between
retina and sclerotic (anat.}.

choroidal (koroid'al) a. [Gk. chorion,
skin ; eidos, form.] Pert, the
choroid (anat.}.

chorology (korol'qjl) n. [Gk. choros,
place ; logos, discourse.] The
D



CHR-



50



CHR-



science which deals with the dis-
tribution of organs (biol.).

chromaffln (kromafin) a. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; L. affinis, re-
lated.] AppL cells forming the
medullary parts of the suprarenal
bodies, on account of their yellow
colour after treatment with chromic
salts ; chromophil (phys.).

chromatic (kromat'lk). [Gk. chroma,
colour.] Colourable by means of
staining reagents (biol.).

chromatic sphere, the sphere formed
by coalescence of chromosomes after
the anaphase in mitosis (bot.).

chromatin (kro'matln) n. [Gk. chroma,
colour.] A substance in the nucleus
which contains nucleic acid proteids
and stains with basic dyes (biol?).

chromatogen organ, a brownish
lobed body, the axial organ of
certain Echinoderms (zool.).

chromatoid grains, readily stainable
grains in cell-protoplasm, probably
of an albuminous nature (cyt.).

chromatolysis (kro'matol'Ms) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; lyein, to break up.]
Disintegration and final disappear-
ance of the chromatin in injured
nerve-cells (phys.).

chromatophore (kro'matofor) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; pherein, to bear.]
The general term appl. coloured
plastids of plants and animals
(cyt.) ; a pigment cell, which under
control of the sympathetic nervous
system can be altered in shape to
produce a colour change (zoo!.).

chromatoplasm (kro'matd'plazm) n.
[Gk. chroma, colour ; plasma, some-
thing moulded.] The colour or
pigment matter in cells (cyt.}.

chromatospherite (kro'matdsfer'lt) n.
[Gk. chroma, colour ; sphaira, a
globe.] A nucleolus, which see (cyt.).

chromidia (kro'mld'ia) n. plu. [Gk.
chroma^ colour.] Extra - nuclear
particles of chromatin (cyt.).

chromidiosomes (kromid'fosomz') n.
plu. [Gk. chroma, colour ; soma,
body.] The smallest chromatin
particles of which the chromidial
mass is made up (cyt.).

chromoblast (kro'moblast) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; blastos, a bud.]
An embryonic cell giving rise to a
pigment cell (biol.}.



chromogen (kro'mojfin) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour; genos, birth.] The
material in plants which will de-
velop into colouring matter (bot.).

chromogenic (kro'mojgn'ik) a. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; genos, birth.]
Colour - producing ; appl. organ-
isms, as bacteria (bot.).

chromomere (kro'momer) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; meros, part.] One
of the chromatin granules of which
a chromosome is formed, and which
corresponds to an id (cyt.).

chromophanes (kro'mofanz) n. plu.
[Gk. chroma, colour ; phainein, to
show.] Red, yellow, and green oil
globules found in the retina of
birds, reptiles, fishes, and mar-
supials (zool.).

chromophil (kro'mofil) a. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; philein, to love.]
Chromaffin, which see.

chromophilous (kromof iltis) a. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; philos, loving.]
Staining readily (biol.).

chromophore (kro'mofor) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; pherein, to bear.]
Any substance to whose presence
colour in a compound is due
(Phys.).

chromoplast (kro'moplast) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; plastos, moulded],
also chromoplastid. A coloured
plastid or pigment body other than
a chloroplast (biol.).

chromoproteid (kro'mopro'teid) n.
[Gk. chroma, colour ; protos, first.]
Substance formed by combination
of a proteid and a pigment (phys.).

chromosome (kro'mosom) n. [Gk.
chroma, colour ; soma, body.] One
of the deeply staining bodies, the
number of which is definite for the
cells of a species, into which the
chromatin resolves itself during
karyokinesis (cyt.).

chrysalis (kris'alis) n. [Gk. chrysos,
gold.] The pupa stage of certain
insects (zool.).

chrysocarpous (kris'okar'pus) a. [Gk.
chrysos, gold ; karpos, fruit.] With
golden fruit (bot.).

chrysophyll (krls'of il) n. [Gk. chrysos,
gold ; phyllon, a leaf.] A yellow
colouring matter in plants, a de-
composition product of chlorophyll
(bot.).



CHY-



51



CIN-



chylaceous (kila'shus) a. [Gk. chylos,
juice.] Of a chyle-like nature ; pert,
chyle (phys.).

chyle (kil) n. [Gk. chylos, juice.]
Lymph containing globules of
emulsified fat found in the lacteals
during digestion (phys.).

chylifaction (kl'lifak'shun) n. [Gk.
chylos, juice ; L. facere, to make],
also chylification. The formation of
chyle (Phys.).

chyliferous (kllif'erus) a. [Gk. chylos,
juice ; L. ferre, to carry.] Chyle-
conducting ; appl. tubes or vessels
(phys.).

chyliflc (klllf'ik) a. [Gk. chylos, juice ;
L. facere, to make.] Chyle-pro-
ducing ; appl. the true stomach of
insects (zool.).

chylocaulous (klldcol'us) a. [Gk.
chylos, juice ; L. caulis, a stem.]
With fleshy stems (bot.).

chylocyst (kl'losist) n. [Gk. chylos,
juice ; kystis, a bladder.] The
chyle receptacle (anat.).

chylophyllous (kl'lofil'us) a. [Gk.
chylos, juice ; phyllon, a leaf.]
With fleshy leaves ; appl. certain
desert plants (bot.).

chylopoiesis (kl'lopoie'sis) n. [Gk.
chylos, juice ; poiein, to produce.]
The production of chyle (phys.).

chyme (kim) n. [Gk. chymos, juice.]
The partially digested food after
leaving the stomach (phys.).

chymification (ki'miflka'shun) n.
[Gk. chymos, juice ; L. facere, to
make.] The process of converting
food into chyme (phys.).

cicatricial tissue, newly - formed
fibrillar connective tissue which
closes and draws together wounds
(anat.).

cicatrlcle (sik'atrik'l), cicatricula
(sik'atrik'ula) n. [L. cicatrix, a
wound.] The blastoderm in bird
and reptile eggs (emb.) ; a small
scar in the place of previous attach-
ment of an organ (zoo/.} ; the ^mark
left after the healing up of a wound
in plants (bot.).

cicatrix (sik'atriks, slka'triks) n. [L.
cicatrix, a wound.] Cicatricle,
which see.

ciclnnal (slsm'al) a. [Gk. kikinnos,
a curled lock.] Appl. uniparous
cymose branching in which the



daughter axes are developed right
and left alternately (bot.).

cilia (sil'ia) n. plu. [L. cilium, an
eyelid.] Hairlike vibratile out-
growths of the ectoderm or pro-
cesses found in many cells (biol.) ;
barbicels of a feather (zool.) ;
marginal hairlike processes (bot.} ;
eyelashes (anaf.).

ciliary (sil'lari) a. [L. cilium, an
eyelid.] Pert, cilia ; appl. certain
structures in the eyeball (anaf.,
zoo/.}.

ciliate (sil'iat) a. [L. cilium, an eye-
lid.] Provided with cilia (biol.}.

ciliated epithelium, an epithelium
found lining various passages,
usually with columnar cells, the
free edge of each of which has a
bunch of fine tapering vibratile
hairlike outgrowths (zool., phys.~).

ciliograde (sil'iograd) a. [L. cilium,
an eyelid ; gradus, a step.] Pro-
gressing by ciliary movement (zool.).

ciliospore (sil'iospor) n. [L. cilium,
an eyelid ; Gk. sporos, a seed.] A
protozoan swarm-spore with a coat
of cilia (zool.).

cilium (sil'mm) n. [L. cilium, an
eyelid.] Sing, of cilia, which see.

cinchonin (sm'konin) n. [Named after
a Countess Chinchon.] A white
alkaloid found in various types of
Rubiaceae (bot.).

cincinnus (sinsin'us) n. [Gk. kikinnos,
a curled lock.] A scorpioid cyme
(bot.).

cinclides (sing'klldez) n. plu. [Gk.
kingklis, a latticed gate.] Perfora-
tions in the body wall of certain
Anthozoa for the extrusion of acontia
(zool.).

cinclis (sing'klis) n. [Gk. kingklis, a
latticed gate.] Sing, of cinclides,
which see.

cingulate (sing'gulat) a. [L. cin-
gulum, a girdle.] Having a girdle
or cingulum (biol.).

cingulum (smg'gulum) n. [L. tin*
gulum, a girdle.] Any structure
which is like a girdle ; a ridge
round the base of the crown of a
tooth ; a tract of fibres connecting
the callosal and hippocampal con-
volutions of the brain ; the outer
ciliary zone on the disc of rotifers
(anat., zool.).



CIU-



52



CLA-



circinate (seVsmat) a. [Gk. kirkinos,
a circle.] Rolled on the axis, so
that the apex is the centre (bot.).
circulation (seVkula'shun) n. [L.
circulatio^ act of circulating.] The
regular movement of any fluid
within definite channels in the
body (anat., phys.) ; the streaming
movement of the protoplasm of
plant cells (bot.).

circulus (ser'kulus) n. [L. circulus, a
circle.] Any ringlike arrangement
of blood-vessels caused by branch-
ing or connection with one another,
as circulus major of iris (anat.).
circumduction (ser'kumduk'shun) n.
[L. circum, around ; ductus, led.]
The form of motion exhibited by
a bone describing a conical space
with the articular cavity as apex
(artaf., phys).

circumferential (ser'kiimf eren'shal) a.
[L. circum, around ; ferre, to bear.]
Appl. cartilages which surround
certain articulatory fossae (anat.).
circumflex (seYkumfleks) a. [L.
circum, around ; flectere, to bend.]
Bending round ; appl. certain
arteries, veins, nerves (anat.).
circumfluence (serkum'flooens) n.
[L. circum, around ; fluens, flowing.]
In Protozoa, the engulfing of food
by the protoplasm flowing round
and enveloping it after contact
(zool.).

circumnutation (ser'kumnuta'shun) n.
[L. circum, around ; nutare, to
swim.] The irregular elliptical or
spiral movement exhibited by the
apex of a growing stem or shoot
(bot.).

circumoesophageal (ser'kumesof-
aje'al) a. [L. circum, around ; Gk.



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