I. (Isaac) Slater.

Slater's royal national and commercial directory and topography of the counties of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Oxfordshire, and Suffolk : comprising classi online

. (page 26 of 131)
Online LibraryI. (Isaac) SlaterSlater's royal national and commercial directory and topography of the counties of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Oxfordshire, and Suffolk : comprising classi → online text (page 26 of 131)
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To LON DON, by the Eastern Coantie»
Railwav, from Newmarket

ToCAMBKIOGE, Edward Sonlh, from
Burwell,*: Edward Fordham & Edward
Feaks, from Swaffbam Bnlheck, Wed-
nesday & Saturday, & John Chapman,
from SwalTliani Prior (by Rnil,)^londay,
Wednesday, Friday and Saturday

To NEWMARKET, Edwaid South,
frnra ll^irw ell, Tuesday



CAMBRIDGE,

INCLUDING BARNWELL, WITH THE VILLAGES OF CHESTERTON, TRUMPINGTON, GREAT
AND LHTLE SHELFORD, AND NEIGHBOURHOODS.

Iiostelsi reiiittined as late as tlie reign of Elizabeth,
Theie are at present seventeen colleges, of wliich four
are called hulls — but these, nnlike the halls at Oxford,
differ front tlie colleges in name only. The number of
niciubcrs of the University is 6,906, of whom 3,786
are members of the senate. Each college or hall is a
body corporate, and bound by its own statutes ; but is
likewise contioUed by ilie paratnownt law of the Uui-
versitv, the executive branch of which is committed to
the following ofBcers : — a Chancellor (His Rnyal Higli-
ness Prince Albeit) ; a High Steward, who is allowed
a deputy ; a Vice-Chancellor, who is tlie head of .*ome
college or hall; two Prnctors, who mustbe mastcisof
arts ; two Taxors, api)ointed to regulate the n)arkeis;
two Moderatois, who superintend the exercises ; two
Scrutators, to read the graces and take votes, &c. ;
a Coaiiiiissary, niucli the same as a recorder is to a
mayor or coi porate body ; a Public Oiator, the mouth



(Ca.MRRIDGE, a University, a borough boihcorpo-
rate and parliamentary, and a market town, forming a
liundred of itself, having separate jurisdiction, in tlie
deantry of its name — is 51 miles N. from London (54
by rail), 27 w. by s. from Bury Saint Edmunds, 29 E.
hy N. from Bedford, 36 s.E. from Peterboroueh (45 by
rail), "2 s.w. from Norwich (69 by rail), and 87 s.s.e,
from Lincoln (105 by rail). It is situated in a ft imy
agricultural district, on the Eastern Counties railway,
for which line there is a station in the town. In his-
tory it is called both Catnbridge and Grantbridge, and
derives its name fiom the river Granta, or Cam, atid
its bridge. Much difTerence of opinion has prevailed
with respect to its antiquity: that it was an early
British settlement is highly probable. Many are of
opinion that it was an ancient Roman station, and this
conjecture is strengtliened by the fact of various Ro-
man coins, fraements of urns, and other relics, having



been dug out of the ground at different times. Cam- 1 of the University ; the Caput, a body of six persons,
bridge was burnt to ashes Ity the Danes in 871. and I yearly chostn, who determine what graces are proper



again in 1010. Williatn the Conqueror, soon after his
assumption of the crown, erected a strong and spacious
castle here. Roger de ^lonttnorency, in the reign of
Wdliam Rufus, pillaged and bur t the town, in revenge
of an affront given him by that monarch. Henry I.
incorporated the burgesses. In 1174 the town was
almost wholly consumed by fire : Trinity church and
several other chnrclies, together with most of the
houses, having been reduced to ruins. King John en-
larged ihe franchises of the town, which, in the latter
part of his rtdgn, became the scene of warfare, the
castle having been taken and the town destroyed in
1'J14, but the king's foices retook the castle in the fol-
lowine year. In the reign of Richard II, theiowu'^uien



to be brought before the senate; a Librarian, a Regis-
trar), three Esquire Bedells, &c. : there are also Pro-
fessors in the several faculties, as also of the learned
languages and sciences. The beads of honses — as the
masters of colleges are termed, possess great powers;
but the general government of the University is en-
trusted to the Senate, which is composed of all doctors
of divinity, law and physic, aiid all masters of arts
whose names are on the boards of any college, or who
reside in the town : those bachelors in divinity who
are members of this assembly derive the privilege from
having previously been masters of arts. For certain
purposes the Senate is divided into two house*, viz.,
the Regent or White Hood House, and the Non-Regent



commit'ed threat oiitraKi s on the Univt-rsity, for which ! or Black Hood House. The place of assembly is the
their franchises were .seized into the king's liands.anri j Senate House, a superb structine, built of Portland
a poriioii of them granted to the University. In 1.588 j stone : the foundation was laid on June 22nd, 1722,
the pailiament was holdeii at Barnwell Priory, in this and the edifice was comtdeted at the expense of the



town. The plas;ue, and other epidemical di'-orders,
formerly made friu'litful ravages in Cambridge, espe-
ciillv in the v.-ars l.i4y, 1:589, 1485, 152'J, 15.50, 1610,
1025', U',2'J, 16;i0, 16;}7, \GCii) and 1666; at the present
time, liowevt-r, few places excel ic in salnbiity. To
enter iiiio mitiute descriptive details of the numerous



University, aided by an extensive subsciiption : its ar-
chitecture is of the Corinthian order, uniting chasie-
ness with eleyance. Ti^e other buildiiiRs connected
with the Univer^ity at large are — the Observatory, a
fine edifice in a commanding - ituation, commenced in
1822, and furnished with a number of most valuable as-



stiucMires formed for education and piety, in this an- I tronomical instiumeiits ; the Library, originally erected



tient and venerable seat of learning, would far exceed
the limits necessarily adopted for a work of this na-
ture ; brief uiun be our account of them — referiing
tb»c who may deiiiHiid more elaborate paiticulars to
a perusal of the various Cambridge (Juides; atid for a
ni'ire detai'ed ancount of the history of the University
and town to 'The Annals of (Jambiidge,' by C. H.
Cooper, Esq. ^tlie present town clerk), a work which
has been bioucht down to 18.55, and will sboi tly be
completed. ' The Cainhtidiie Uniiersity Calendar,'
published annually, may also be leferred to, as con-
tiiiiiiig valuable infoiinatiou relating to the studies of
the I'niiersify.

The nriijin of the University is, to a certain extent,
enveloped in obscurity. It is generally staled to have
been founded bv SigcbiTt, a king of the East Angles,
jtboiit the \ ear 6.30 ; but tiiere is good icason foi be-
lievin's"liat ii did not exist before tlie leiKU of Henry I.
jj at fiist Consisted of balls or hostels for the students,
j.j.iited of the townsmen. 'Ihe foundation of the first
j,i, liege was in the reign of Edward I., but some of the



in the rtign of Edward IV'., by Archbishop Rotherain,
to which most imjiortant and extensive additions have
receiitly been made; the Pitt Press, a stately and im-
posing structure, built, from the designs at' Mr. Blore,
at the expense of the Pitt Club in London, by whom
it was prcsent-.-d to the University; the Kit/.william
.Museum, erected from a fine design by the late George
Hassevi, lvi|., in which are deposited the inestimable
works of art bequeathed to the University by the late
I-arl Fitzwilliam in 1816 ; and the AiiatomicalScliocds,
a Imikliiig of uii|)retciiding exterior, but admirably
adapted for the purpose to which it is appropiiated.
In suliinitting an account of the several colleges, &c.,
we ai!ain repeat that conciseness ruust necessarily be
attendant upon description : —

Saint Peiek'.s College, or, as it is more com-
monly called, Peter House, claims early attention from
Its priority. It originally comprised two hostels,
which were purchased by Hugh de Balsham, bishop of
I'^ly, who, in 1281, obtained a charterof incorporation,
.iiid endowed the college with lamls, and at his death



JBixuiov^,



CAMBRIDGE, &c. QtamblitiQtmi't,



bequeathed 300 inaiUs for its further enlargement.
Siucc the demise of the founder, the revenues of this
college have been considerably augmented i)y numerous
benefactions. In the list of benefactors is Lady Mary
Ramsey, who is said to have offered a very large pro-
perty, nearly equal to a new foundation, to this col-
lege; but requiring, as an indispensable condition, the
change of its name into Peter and Mar y^s, was thwarted
in her intentions by the then master. Dr. Soame, who
eaid, ' Peter has been too long a bachelor to think of
a female comrade in his old age' — ' a dear bought jesi
for so good a benefactress,' observes Fuller, who re-
lates the story — ' for Lady Ramsey, disgusted at his
refusal, turned the stream of lier benevolence into
a different channel.' The present college consists of
three courts ; the buildings are neat and commodious,
but presetitfew architectural attractions. Clare Hall
was founded in i;32(), by Dr. Ilichard Badevv, the then
chancellor of the University: sixteen years after its
erection it was consumed by fire, but, through tlie
assistance of I^ady Elizabeth de Burgh, co-heiress of
Gilbert Earl of Clare, it was rebuilt, and denominated
Clare Hall: it is a very handsome structure, of Ketton
stone, and comprises a court with two |)oriicos. In
1763 the chapel was rebuilt: it is a neat and elegant
ediftce ; the hall, combination-room and library are
spacious and handsome. Pembroke College, or
Hall, was founded in 1343, by Mary Countess of Pem-
broke : it is situated on the east side of Trumpington-
street, and comprises two spacious courts of equal
dimeiisiotjs. The chapel was consecrated in Septem-
ber, 1665, and is from a design of Sir Christopher
Wren. From the number of prelates who have been
members of this foundation, it has acquired tlie name
of'Collegium Episcopale;' and it is a singular circum-
stance that three founders of colleges at Oxford were
members of this society, viz., Archbishop Rotheram,
founder of Lincoln collcae. Bishop Smyth, founder of
Brazennose college, and Bishop Fox, founder of Cor-
])us Christ! college. Gonvillr and Caius College
was founded by Edmund Gonville, rector of Terring-
ton, in 1348, and augmented by John Cains, physician
to Queen Mary ; and in consequence took its present
name when incorporated in lo.57. The building is
entered by three gates, impressive from their several
inscriptions — to Virtue, Wisdom, Humility and Ho-
nour. The chapel is handsome, and embellished with
an altar-piece representing the Annunciation. TRrNrTY
Hall was founded in 1351, by William Bateman,
bishop of Norwich. 'I'his colleee is principally fur
students in civil law. Corpus Christi College was
founded in 1351, by two guilds (jf the town, under tiie
protection of the Duke of Lancaster: it comprises a
square court, on the sides of which are the master's
lodge, and apartments for the fellows and students.
In the library is the original manuscript of the ' thirty-
nine articles ;' and here are deposited the itrvaluable
nranuscripts collected by Archbishop Parker, whose
mnniticerice to this coUeue, of which he was sometime
master, well entitles him to the appellation of a second
founder. Tliis college has been rebuilt; and, from the
extent and magnificence of its buildings, ranks very
high amongst the impiovemerils which have contri-
buted so greatly to the splendour of the University.
King's College, the most ntagnificent of the entire,
is situated on the banks of the river, and consists of
several large detached piles — and, as a whole, has a
striking effect. The chapel is three hundred and sixteen
feet lotrg by seventy-eight wide, divided by a curiously
carved wooden screen; the altar is embellislied with a
fine pairrt'.iigof the' Descent from the Cross,' supposed
to be by Raphael : nothing, perhaps, can exceed the
august arrd venerable appearartce of the chapel, with
the lartse and beautifully painted windows, of which
there are no les than twenty-five. This college was
founded by Henry VI, and is intimately connected
with Eton College, also founded by the same motrarch.
Queen's College, founded in 1446, by Margaret of
Anjnu, corrsort of Henry VI, is situated at the back
of Catherine Hall : it is an ancient structure, supported
by a fine brick gateway. It possesses a library of great
value and general utility — Erasmus was some time a



in a neat style, with a commodious hall, chapel, &c.
Jesus' College was founded on tlie site of a Uenerlic-
tine nunnery, at the east end of the town, which was
demolished in conseqitetrce of the licentiousness of the
truns: the pi-esent coUeae was endowed by John Al-
cock, bishop of Ely, in the year 1496 ; the chapel (now
in course of restoration), appears to have lieen the
conventual church. This college is situated a little
distance ft om the town, on the east ; the grand front
looks towards the south, and the entrance is by a fine
ancient gate. Amongst its eminent members it enu-
merates Arciibishop Craumer, Strype the antiquary,
Gilbert Wakefield, Dr-. Clarke the ci lebrated travellei",
and the poet Coleridge. CiiRtsT's College was built
on the site of an hostel, called God's House, wXuch
had originally been settled near Clare Hall, arrd en-
dowed by William Bingharrr, rector of Saint Joltn
Zachary, Londorr, irr 1442 : it was removed here by
Heitry VI, who augmented the endowment; hnt in
1505 it was entirely refounded, under its present appel-
lation, by Margaret Countess of Richmond, rr.otherof
Henry VII. It has a noble entrance and spaciou.s
courts, with a handsome chapel. Milton wasasiudent
of this college ; and in the fellows' garden is a mul-
berry tree, still carefully preserved, said to have been
planted by the illustrious poet. lit 1509 Saint John's
College was founded by the execirturs of the bene-
volent foundress of Christ's College, in pursuance of
her will. It is richly endowed, and is second only to
Trinity College, iit the extent of its buildings and the
rrumber of its members : it consists of four- courts, one
of which is a magnificent structure, erected about
twenty years since, from designs of Rickmanaird Hut-
chinson, and approached by a covered bridge over the
Cam of sirrgular beauty. Magdalene College was
founded in 1542, by Thomas Lord Andley, chancellor
of Errgland. The library corrtains the curious collec-
tion of Samuel Pepys, secretary of the admiralty, whose
Diary is so well knowrr. Trinity College is by far
the^largest in the LTniversity : the master's lodge cou-
tains a suite of apartments where the monar'ch resides
when a royal visit is paid to Cambridge. The great
court has three noble tower gateways, and is of mag-
nificent dimensions ; the hall and chapel are fiire struc-
ttrres. In Neville's coirrl is the library, one of the
finest edifices in the University, erected from the
designs of Sir Christopher Wren, and containing a
valuable and extensive collection of books, and Thor-
waldsen's famous statue of Lord Byron. A third court
is called the King's Court, in honour of Geor-ge IV,
in whose r'eign it was erected from the designs oi
William Wilkins, Es()., r, a. Amongst the countless
number of eminent names connected with this college
may be mentioned Bacon, Newton, Barrow, Coke, Spel-
nran, Cowley, Dryden and Byion. 'J'iiis college was
founded in the year 1546, by Henry VI II. Emanuel
College was fourrded irr 1584, by Sir Walter Mildmay,
chancelhir of the exchequer and privy councillor to
Queen Elizabeth : it is a neat and elegiint structure,
very pleasantly situated. Sidney Sussex College
was founded in 1594, by Frances Sidney, Countess of
Sussex : some years since it received a new front, and
several other improvements have been made — Oliver
Oomwell was a member of this college. Downing
College was founded in pursuance of the will of Sir
George Downing, Bart., dated in 1717. The validity
of the will became the subject of legal enquiry, and,
after protracted litiaation, the foundatiorr was finally
approved by his majesty and the privy couircil, in Sep-
tember, 1800. The ceremony of laying the first stcme
took place on the 18th of May, 1807 ; and the college
has been open for the reception of students during tire
last thirty years.

There are fourteen parishes in this town, and fifteen
churches; but of these Gr-eat Saint Mary's, and the
Holy Sepulchre alone present objects of sufficient
importance for observation. Great Saint Mary's is
situated in the middle of the town, and to this church
the University res.irt on Sundays and holidays to hear
sermons, but it is al>o free to the public: itcnnsists of
a nave, chancel and side ia>les. This edifice was erected
bv contribution, and its completion occupied nearly a



member ofthiscollege. Catherine Hall was founded century ; it is surmounted by a handscime tower and
in 1475, by Robert Woodlark, provost of Kirrg's Col- loftv pinnacles, 'i'he church of the Holy Sepulchre, or
lege: it comprises three sides of a cjuadrangle, buiU I the'round church, is a venerable and singularly con-



CamljiiUfgsDive. CAMBRIDGE, &c.



?later0



Ftrnctcd pile : it is after a model of the church of the
Holy Seiiiilchre in Jerusalem, and is conjectured to
iiavt- bi'tMi erected by the crusaders: it was restored
in 1842-;?, at an expense o( about £3,000 ; several fine
painted windows now light tbe interior. Two new
churches (Christ church and Saint E'aul's) have rxently
been budt by subscr'plion, in tiie pfipnloiis and exten-
sive parish of Saint Andrew tbe Less; and the
j)arishioner3 of Saint Andiew ilie Great have erected
a new and spacious chuich, in lieu of an ancient and
iriconiniodious >ti ucture. There are several places of
worship for di-seiners, including Baptists, Itidcpen-
deiiis, .Muthodi-ts, and the Society of Kriend^.

Of the cliaiital>ie institutions in Cambridge, and
tlu-re aie many, Addt-nbroolie's Hospital stands prc-
cMjinent; it is a handsome editice, situated at the
London entrance to the town: its founder John Ad-
dfiibrooke (an eminent physician, who died upwards
of a century iigo"", endowed it as an hospital for the
indigent di*ased ; the original design, however, has
bt't n changed, and it is now a general hospital: it is
liberally supported by donations and annual suliscrip-
lions — about seien hundred persons are annually ad-
n)itted and relieved. Comfortable retreats for aped
and iniligint inhaliitantsaic afforded in numerous well
maintained almshouses, which reflect a lustre on the
character of the many benevolent fonndi-rs and bene-
factor-. The free grammar school, founded in 1615,
by Stephen Perse, m.d., for one hundred boys of Cam-
bridge, and the villages of Trumpington, Barnwell
and Chesteiton, is another praiseworthy establishment,
and has recently been reorganised mider the satiation
of the court of chancery, There are several other
charity schools in tbe town, and many respectable
private educational estab ishmeiits for pupils of either
sex. Near Corpus Cluisti college is the botanical gar-
den, occu|)ying about four acres of urouiid: it contains
a large greenhouse, furnished with a great variety of
v.iluable exotics; and in the garden are specimens of
almost eveiy plant, the whole an anged according to,
the Linnasan system ; but it is about to be removed to I
a more eliiiible and spacious site, contiguous to the i
lyOndoM enu-ac.ce to the town. There is a p!iiioso|)hi-
cal society in connexion witii the university, atid there !
are seveial hcjok societies. 'J'hree newspapers are i
published weelily — tiieir titles, publishers, &c. may be
seen in the directory. Concerts are occasionally given
in the town-hall, and dramalic cxiiibitions are not
unconniion.

Camhi ill ge has in modern days become a considerable
thorouglifare, particularly since the draining of tbe fens
and the raising of excellent i oarts, towai ds "the east and
iiorth-ea-tcoa-t.over places before deemed impassable,
but beyond these im|)rovemei)ts, its importance of
transit and ieawin, St. Ivi s, Huntinudon, Wi.sbeach, Peterborough,
Stiujfurd, Leicester, Boston, Lincfdn and Hull. A
laige portion of the business carried on here is im-
nie liaicly or remotely connected with the (Jniversiiv;
but hi ing the county town, and advantageously situated
on the bead of the inland navigation from Lynn, it
wcures an extensive trade in coal and corn ; and a
large conveyed weekly
from tiiis iH'iidibourhooil, tlie Isle of Ely and Norfolk,
to liondiMi. where it :ill ol>iaiirs the name ot Cambridge
buttei . I'""r the accommodation of the corn merchants
attending the market here, a new and convcident corn
exch iiige has been recently erected. The corporation
of Canihridgc consists of a mayor, high steward, re-
corder, ten aldermen, a town clerk, coroner, clerk of
tbe peace, thiiiy Cimncillors, a treasurer, antl other
ortleers ; the number of bur:;esses is about 2,r)00. The
town is divided into five wards, each having six coun-
cillor-, namely. East Barnwell, VVe-t Barnwell, M.ir-
l:et, Trinity and St Andrew's. The borough returns
two members to pai liamert, the light of eli'tiion being
visied in about sixty freemen and aliout nineteen bun-
dr-l len-p.und hon>hol(lers ; the mavor is icturning
ofUcer; the present membtrs aie Uobert Alexaiidtr
Sbafto Ad.iir, Esi)., 7 Audley-s(jnare, London, and the
H'pn. William Frederick Campbell, Stratheden Huusc,

G



Knightsbridge, Middlesex. The limits of the parlia-
mentary and municipiil borough are co extensive. The
TJniversity retutns two representatives, elected by the
senate; those at present sitting are the Hon. Charles
Ewaii Law (recorder of London), Eaton place, London,
and the Bight Hon. Henry Goulburn, Montague
square, London, 'i'he assizes and quarter sessions for
the touniy are held in the Shire house, a spacious and
stately strnciuie, erected on thesiic of the castl-. The
borough quarter sessions and the county coui t are held
at the Guildhall — the latter under the new act for the
n covery of debts to any amount not exceeding £50.
'I'here are also consistory courts atid visitations by the
bishop and archdeacon of Ely ; and a court of pleas, with
very extensive powers, is held before the recorder, or his
deputy, every 'i'uesday. Cam bridge was constituted a
separate [Jnion, under the Fo



Online LibraryI. (Isaac) SlaterSlater's royal national and commercial directory and topography of the counties of Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, Norfolk, Oxfordshire, and Suffolk : comprising classi → online text (page 26 of 131)