Cultivated Timber Continued.
Hop Tree .
Burr or Over-cup Oak. .
Swamp White Oak
prinus palustris ..
American Chestnut ....
Ky. Coffee Tree
Robinia pseudacacia .
Gleditschia aquatica ..
' ' Americana
' ' quadrangulata . .
Platanus occidentalis . .
Sycamore. . .
Cultivated Timber Concluded.
Amelanchier Canadensis . . .
White Thorn Eed Haw.
Prunus serotina ....
Wild Black Cherry
Wild Crab Apple
Cotton- wood. ....
Populus grandidentata ....
Poplar . . ...
Populus balsamifera.. .
Balm of Gilead ....
Silver Poplar . .
Acer dasy car puna...
Acer saccharinum .
Rock or Sugar Maple
Acer nibrum ....
Iron Wood . .
Maclura aurantiaca .
Ulmus fulva . .
The material for this exhibit was chiefly collected by
Commissioner Samuel Dysart, with A. R. "Whitney, the
veteran nurseryman, as his able assistant. The data as
to age and dimensions of each tree were also supplied
by those old settlers, which go far towards establishing
the results of timber culture on open prairies.
To amplify the products of cultivated timber, a com-
plete farm wagon was exhibited, constructed of twenty-
five kinds of wood, all of which were grown from the
seed, on a prairie farm in Lee county. This highly fin-
ished collective showing of what can be produced on a
single farm, served as a center piece to the general ex-
hibit, and being so far as known the first vehicle on
this continent made of cultivated timber, proved the
leading attraction of the entire department.
Aside from this wagon the display consisted of seventy-
three specimens, which could have been greatly aug-
mented in number had time permitted to canvass the
State. The difficulty seemed to be that the dweller of
the prairie planted the rarer specimens for shade and
ornamentation, and hence could hardly be expected to
part with such trees just as the object and reward were
developing into beautiful perfection. It is a pleasure,
however, to record the fact that wherever duplicates
could possibly be spared, not a single owner was in the
least disposed to take advantage of the situation, but
invariably made personal sacrifices to further the aims
and purposes of the Commission in making a forestry
display worthy of the greatest agricultural State of the
The history of forests and forestry in Illinois is thus
briefly brought down to the Columbian year, and after
striking the balance between the present and the past, we
find, upon adding all other aborescent growth, that the
leaf surface of the State has suffered no loss, and being
evenly distributed, its beneficial influences upon climate,
water supply and soil, are thereby greatly augmented.
The loss is in forest area, quality and financial results,
and to retrieve this deficiency in the shortest possible
time, tree planting should be confined to fruit-bearing
timber trees, which would restore the income without
loss of area, and yet more than double the commercial
value of trees ordinarily cultivated .
Of the trees indigenous to the State, will be found the
black walnut, pecan, butternut and hickory, all of which,
when once established, will thrive without care, will grow
rapidly, and are naturally free from insects enemies; the
product, therefore, must be nearer a clear gain than any-
thing else raised on the farm. That little or no atten-
tion has been paid to this promising branch of arbori-
culture is a most singular and surprising fact, especially
since it opens an entirely new field, in which the propaga-
tion, improvement and origination of new varieties of
fruit by engrafting or budding, may be practiced with
unquestioned success and with the absolute certainty of
remunerative results. The product is a delicacy equal to
the fruit of the orchard, commanding a price at all times
so liberal as to justify unusual care in its cultivation ;
and the timber of the tree itself is invariably the most
valuable and costly in our market.
In conclusion, we can only dedicate the important task
of re-afforestation to the farming community. Others
may suggest, but upon the tillers of the soil devolves
the duty of conserving by practical means the forestal
interests of the great State of Illinois. With unbounded
faith in their devotion to this work, we behold with pro-
phetic vision, future generations blessing the memory of
those who rebuilded "God's first temples."
THE CLAY EXHIBIT.
BY A. O. LOY.
[ ; HE Illinois Clay Exhibit, as shown by the illustra-
$j& tion, consisted of a space 21x21 feet. The space was
enclosed with a rustic fence made from tile and terra
cotta, covered with ferns, vines and flowers. The pyra-
mid, which stands in the center of the space, is sixteen
feet in diameter, octagon in shape, veneered with fine
pressed brick of many colors, shapes and sizes, and deco-
rated with tile, terra cotta, lawn vases, window boxes,
flower pots, rustic statuary, etc., with growing plants,
vines and flowers.
A rule of the National Commission provided that no
manufactured goods should be shown in State buildings.
This exhibit was not intended for a display of manufac-
tured goods, but a place built from manufactured clay
goods on which to show Illinois clays. Claysof many kinds
and qualities, in glass jars, are placed on the shelves of
Among the collection are clays suitable for the manu-
facture of paving, common, pressed, ornamental and
fire-brick; terra cotta of many colors; sewer pipe, fire-
proofing, drain tile, pottery, flower pots, rustic statuary,
white granite and encaustic tiles.
Over 80,000 persons are employed yearly in the fac-
tories of this State. Seven hundred million brick were
manufactured in the vicinity of Chicago in 1892, while
in other cities in the State, millions of building and
paving brick of the finest quality were made. We have
large terra cotta works in the State; also sewer pipe
and fire-brick factories. We have five hundred drain tile
factories, many of which are run twelve months each
year, and are even then unable to supply the demand.
There is an unlimited quantity of clay in our State,
which, for quality, will compare favorably with the clays
of anv State in the Union.
STATE LABORATORY OF NATURAL HISTORY.
BY S. A. FORBES.
[HE exhibit of the zoology of the State of Illinois
< was made at the Exposition by the aid of the Illi-
nois State Laboratory of Natural History, an institu-
tion devoted to a survey of the zoology and crypto-
gainic botany of Illinois with special reference to educa-
tional and economic ends. With this establishment the
office of the Illinois State Entomologist is no\v closely
associated, the Director of the Laboratory being, in fact,
the official Entomologist also, and the exhibit of this
office was consequently made as a feature of the Labora-
The Natural History Exhibit was selected and arranged
with a view to displaying the results and methods of
investigation actually accomplished and in progress
under State authority, due regard being had to a popu-
lar attractiveness of the material and its effectiveness
for display. The exhibit was thus limited to specimens
of the birds, fishes and insects of the State.
The entomological exhibit was made in connection
with a model entomologist's office, which contained five
hundred and forty square feet in one room, with an
annex twenty feet long by eleven feet wide for an in-
sectary. Into these rooms was put a select and care-
fully arranged equipment for first class work in all de-
partments of technical and economic entomology, includ-
ing furniture, a section of the laboratory library and of
the library catalogue, record books with examples of the
records, specimens prepared and arranged in the various
ways useful for reference, apparatus for collecting and
experiment, microscopes, a drawing equipment and the
like, making of the whole a model establishment which,
it was believed, might be profitably studied by any eco-
nomic entomologist, foreign or American. In the insect-
ary, apparatus for the breeding and rearing of insects
of injurious habit was placed, as well as for the culti-
vation of the plants subject to insect injuries upon which
experimental methods might be demonstrated.
The special exhibits made in this department included
a collection of sixteen hundred species of common Illinois
insects, so selected as to present a correct general idea
of the insect life of the State; separate collections of in-
sects injurious to corn, to wheat, to the apple, and to
the strawberry in Illinois; a special exhibit of the food
of one robin for one year; a set of insects ascertained
to have been eaten by birds; a similar series eaten by
fishes; a set of butterflies arranged with a view to illus-
trating the geographical distribution of insect species in
Illinois; and a set of Illinois insects illustrating the
work of the laboratory in supplying entomological
material to the high schools of the State.
The ornithological exhibit was made in four series:
(1) A collection of the game birds of the State mounted
as dead game; (2) a series of biological groups mounted
in various naturalistic attitudes, with natural accessor-
ies indicating haunts, habits and the like; (3) a general
collection of all the birds of the State grouped according
to their distribution within the State at different seasons
of the year, and (4) a set of the eggs of birds breeding in
Our ichthyology was illustrated by one hundred and
fifteen species of fish from various parts of the State,
collected by the laboratory force and exhibited in alcohol.
To this general account the following detailed state-
ment may be added.
Winter Residents of Southern Illinois 108 sp^cimons.
throughout Illinois 141 ' '
Stragglers in Illinois 24 "
Summer Residents throughout Illinois 207 ' '
Winter Residents of Northern Illinois 44 "
Summer " " " 59
Southern Illinois 38 "
Migrants passing through Illinois 77 "
Common Game Birds of Illinois mounted as dead game .... 53 "
A Group of Wild Turkeys mounted with natural acces-
A Group of Prairie Chickens mounted with natural acces-
A Group of Crossbills mounted with natural accessories. . . 8 "
A Group of Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers, with nest and eggs. 4
' ' Little Green Herons, with nest and eggs 2 "
Total number of birds exhibited 775 "
One hundred and twenty-five clutches of birds' eggs,
representing as many species of birds nesting in Illinois,
were also shown, the total number of eggs in these
clutches being five hundred and twenty-five.
Illinois Iiisocts injurious to Apple
' ' Corn
" " Wheat
" " Strawberry
Insects in food of birds
' ' ' ' fishes
Geographic distribution of Illinois Butterflies.
Illinois Insects as furnished to High Schools
Common Insects of Illinois :
Orthoptera... . ...
In addition to the above there were exhibited about
3,000 specimens of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, twenty
boxes each, from the standard collection of the State
Laboratory. Twenty-four racks of vials of alcoholic
specimens were shown with these.
The special exhibit of the food of the robin for one
year consisted of 5,481 pinned specimens of insects, 80
tubes, each fifteen inches in length, containing alcoholic
specimens, and 38 shorter tubes and vials of alcoholic
specimens, besides vials and tubes containing fruits and
The furniture of the Entomologist's office, comprised
two office desks, four plain work tables, three tables with
specimens cases, a table for reference books and record
books, two wall cases for specimens, a large book case,
two reagent cases, one typewriting machine and desk,
one letter press and stand, a small printing press and
case of type, a sink, and four chairs.
In the book case was displayed a section of the library
of the State Laboratory of Natural History, the books
selected being entomological, and including serial publi-
cations, periodicals, monographs, reference books, pam-
phlets, etc., to the number of about five hundred volumes.
A complete set of the publications of the Laboratory and
of the State Entomological Eeports was also furnished.
Under the head of working apparatus, there were ex-
hibited in this room one compound microscope and ac-
cessories, two dissecting microscopes and accessories, two
large microtomes, a complete outfit for collecting insects,
sets of bottles, vials and reagents for preserving insects,
apparatus for inflating larva?, and that used in mounting
and preserving insects.
In the insectary, adjoining the office room, were sixty
large and small breeding cages, with glass fronts and
gauze sides; forty glass ja.rs of various sizes and shapes to
be used as breeding cages, and two gauze-covered cages
suitable for outdoor use. These were arranged on shelves,
and on a table covered with sand. There were also in this
room a work table with an Arnold steam sterilizer, large
culture jars, funnels, and other apparatus used in the
culture of fungi causing insect disease.
The zoological display was made in accordance with
detailed plans prepared by Professor S. A. Forbes, Di-
rector of the State Laboratory of Natural History, and
approved by the Illinois Board of World's Fair Com-
missioners. The execution of these plans was confided,
under the general supervision of the Director of the La-
boratory, to Mr. C. F. Adams, of the University of Illi-
nois, for the birds, and to Mr. H. E. Summers, for the
The material for the ornithological exhibit was chiefly
obtained by special collections made for this purpose
during the winter of 1891 and the spring and summer
of 1892, by parties sent out by the Laboratory, and
mounted by Mr. Adams himself. As it was quite impos-
sible to make a complete collection of the birds of the
State within so short a time, the deficiencies remaining
were supplied by selections made from the museums of
the University of Illinois, at Champaign, and of the State
Board of Agriculture, at Springfield, and by purchase of
skins from taxidermists.
The entomological exhibit was likewise provided in
part from special collections made by Laboratory em-
ployes, and by assistants especially engaged for the
purpose, and in still greater part from the cabinets of
the State Laboratory of Natural History and of the
University of Illinois.
The beautiful colored drawings distributed through
the entomological exhibit, to illustrate species too small
to be well seen by the naked eye, were made at the State
Laboratory for the purpose by Miss Lydia M. Hart, the
special artist of the establishment.
The ichthyological collections were all made during the
season of 1892, by assistants sent from the Laboratory,
Mr. J. E. Hallinen, a student of the University, doing the
greater part of the field and laboratory work.
BY S. P. BARTLETT.
flSH culture and fish protection are, like a number
of other interests fostered by the State, the out-
growth of the needs of the people, and only when the
waters were found to be gradually but surely becoming
depleted, was the attention of our law makers attracted
in that direction. Previous to 1878, fish laws were prac-
tically unknown in our State and fish were taken by
anybody in any way. The demands of the various mar-
kets for that character of food increasing, induced hun-
dreds along the rivers and lakes to embark in market
fishing as a business, and the result was, that, without
thought for the morrow, the product of the waters was
taken, regardless of season or condition, and as the fish
were most easily taken during the spawning season,
millions found there way to our own and foreign mar-
kets at that season. This continuing from year to year
made a marked decrease in the supply of fish, particu-
larly in the inland lakes and streams, until about the
time mentioned above (1878-9), people began to realize
that a few years of such wholesale destruction would en-
tirely deplete our waters of the better varieties of our
native food fishes.
As an illustration of the condition of the waters at
that time one case in point might briefly be cited. The
Fox and Rock rivers once produced plentifully the chan-
nel cat fish. In 1878, few if any specimens of this par-
ticular fish were ever taken in these rivers. The black
croppie, or strawberry bass, also, was almost extinct,
and all varieties of fish scarce, and had it not been for
the magnificent breeding grounds in which those rivers
head, there is but little doubt but that they would ulti-
mately have been utterly depleted. It is but fair to add,
however, that the dams along both of these rivers for
years unprovided with fishways, had much to do with
the scarcity of fish, the rivers being entirely dependent
on the resources of the spawning grounds, and cut off by
these dams from the natural supply from the greater
rivers into which they emptied. This has since been
corrected by the enactment of the Fish way law.
In 1878-9 the Legislature undertook to make the first
fish laws for the protection of fish. Hon. L. B. Crocker,
of Mendota, championed the cause, making a very hard-
fight to obtain even a recognition in the way of an at-
tempt at protection, and the whole interest was fought
from every section of the State, the majority of the
people holding that it was an interference with the
vested rights of the people to take fish when and where
they pleased. The Fish Commission originated during
the same session, and with an entirely new field to de-
velop, took up their work. Each successive legislature
gave additional encouragement, in the way of better
laws and better appropriations for the Commission, in
its work of distribution and protection, until almost
every stream in the State has reached its normal con-
dition as to supply of native food fishes, with an addi-
tion of other varieties.
Perhaps the extent and value of the work of the Fish
Commission was not fully appreciated by the majority
of the people of the State who were not personally cogni-
zant of its practical results. An opportunity of demon-
strating these results publicly was offered when the bill
which made the appropriation for State exhibits at the
World's Fair was passed. It contained among its pro-
visions a clause which made it obligatory on the part of
the Board of Fish Commissioners to make an exhibit of
live fish under the supervision of the Illinois Board of
World's Fair Commissioners, which was a recognition of
the interest gratifying in the extreme to the Board of
Commissioners. The greatest latitude was given the Fish
Commission by the World's Fair Board through its Com-
mittee on Natural History, and the result was an ex-
hibit of live fish under conditions that, so far, has never
been equaled. The use of the ordinary aquarium was
proposed, but upon figuring the expense necessary to
handle and 'care for them in that way. and the unsatis-
factory results heretofore obtained by that method of
exhibit, it was thought desirable to introduce newer
features and put the fish under as nearly natural condi-
tions as possible. In order to accomplish this, experi-
ments were made in the keeping and care of fish in
shallow ponds, so arranged as to give a full view of the
fish, and at the same time to furnish surroundings as
nearly natural as practicable. Plans for such an exhibit
were proposed by the Commission to the Committee, and
as before stated, sufficient latitude was given the Com-
mission to reproduce, in working order, the plans sub-
mitted. The space assigned them was one of the most
desirable in the State Building. The plans were shown
Mr. J. B. Mora, a French architect, who suggested a
beautifully elaborated scenic finish, which was adopted
by the Board, and the contract was let to Mr. Mora to
arrange the exhibit according to such plans. The exhibit
differed from anything of the kind ever made before for
the purposes of a live fish exhibit, and consisted of a
miniature mountain, down the sides of which fell, in cas-
cades, pure filtered water into the several pools formed
at various heights along; its sides, until all the water
met at its base in a beautiful miniature lake. This lake
was crossed by a rustic bridge, from which the observer
could see all the fish in any of the pools. Around the
edges of the lake and pools were planted various aquatic
plants usually found in such places. The mountain itself,
covered with cedars, shrubs and flowers, as a whole pre-
sented one of the most attractive exhibits of the Build-
ing, if not of the Fair. In the lake a full carload of fish
could be comfortably cared for. The fish used in the ex-
hibit were placed there in March and taken out in Novem-
ber. The loss was but a small per cent, of the whole,
showing a wonderfully healthful condition, particularly
when it is considered that the water was filtered, thus
depriving it of a very considerable amount of the
natural food supply usually obtained from water in
its natural state. The freedom from fungus, the greatest
enemy of fish in aquaria, was particularly noticed; in
fact, a more complete demonstration of the value of
surface area in aquaria exhibits could not have been
made. The exhibit as a whole was a great educator,
showing as it did to thousands the fishes of this State