number of volumes and mounts to fully represent its
work, together with any other matter that cannot be
thus classified. It is hoped to make the exhibit of
secondary schools as full, striking, suggestive and in-
structive as possible.
The possible aggregate may seem large, but it is not
expected that the full amount of work indicated will be
secured in every case. Furthermore it must be borne in
mind that enough of material is needed to make at least
six entire changes in the exhibit, one for each month.
It is the intention also to classify these changes to con-
form to the classification of schools as far as may be
It is desired to receive from boards, superintendents,
principals and teachers, courses of study, manuals of
directions, reports of boards, circulars, examination
questions, district, central and final, and for other pur-
poses, reports to parents, blanks, library cards, etc.,
used in the administration of schools, bound in the same
manner, as nearly as may be, as the manuscript work
of the pupils.
Correspondence is solicited from parties who may have
old text and exercise books, views of old school houses,
log or otherwise, historical sketches devoted to educa-
tional matters in Illinois, biographical sketches, portraits
of noted teachers, and all similar matter.
The value of the exhibit will depend upon the honesty
of purpose and the integrity of conduct of all connected
with it. In this connection I quote without reservation
the following words upon this point as applicable to
work presented as the product of the pupils exclusively:
"Every item of work presented as the product of the
pupils, should be absolutely genuine. The interference
of a teacher, even to the correction of an obvious mis-
take, the retouching of a shade in drawing, the fitting
by a shaving of a joint of woodwork, the dotting of an
"i," or the crossing of a "t," should be deemed an in-
excusable fault; any work so "improved ' should be
rigorously rejected. Each item should be forwarded ex-
actly as the pupil left it. No special instruction, prac-
tice or drill should be given to any pupil, class or school,
preparatory to work which is intended for the Exposi-
tion. The actual fruits of the regular school system
should be presented without being worked up for this
"It will happen that in a given city one school will
win the honor of sending forward the representative
class in one subject, another in another, and so on. It
will be possible that every community which is really
excelling in some particular, may have the honor of
being represented in something in the final selection."
In case the work is to appear with correction, by the
teacher, these should be placed so as to show exactly
what the work was prior to the indicated corrections.
As soon as possible after January 20th, 1893, it is
desirable that superintendents, principals or committees
having authority or responsibility for the exhibit of any
school, or system of schools, should report to the under-
signed, Superintendent of the Public School Section of the
Educational Exhibit of Illinois, stating what grades,
variety and amount of work will be contributed.
This report should be in detail as much as circum-
stances will permit, and be made without reference to
any previous statement, oral or otherwise.
This circular was intended to be issued about Decem-
ber 1st, but it has been unavoidably delayed.
It is designed, however, for final directions rather than
to initiate action. It is supplementary, not intro-
It is to be hoped that the occasion and the oppor-
tunity may not be overlooked nor undervalued.
The time that remains is short and should be dili-
Under the direction of intelligent and zealous teachers
there is ample opportunity to make an exhibit of Public
School Education in Illinois that shall be at once an
honor and an inspiration.
The exhibit is to be made upon the soil of Illinois in
her great metropolis. It will be surrounded by the evi-
dence of progress and enterprise in every walk of life.
Let us see to it that this greatest interest of a free
people lacks nothing to make it impressive as well as in.
Let every child in the commonwealth be made to feel
that he has contributed of his thought and action to
the great Ex position.
Additional suggestions and directions will be published
if deemed necessary, but it is believed that all further
needful information can be given by correspondence or
Additional copies of this circular may be had on appli-
Correspondence is invited;
DECEMBER 9, 1892.
Supt. Public School Sec. of Educational Exhibit of Illinois.
Room 18, Montauk Block, Chicago.
HENRY RAAB, Supt. of Public Instruction of Illinois.
Rooms of the Illinois Board of World's Fair Commis-
Approved: JOHN P. REYNOLDS,
Chicago Public School Exhibit.
The Chicago School Exhibit embraces work from the
Kindergartens, Primary and Grammar Grades, High and
Manual Training Schools and Evening Schools.
The work embraces about 4,000 mounts upon cards
22x28 on wing frames in cases, and 200 wall mounts
under glass in frames.
One hundred and twenty-five bound volumes represent
the work of whole classes of pupils, and specially selected
work, which indicates the methods used in presenting dif-
erent topics in the various branches of studies.
Sixty-four mounts representing some portions of the
first year's work.
NOTE: Ten kindergartens were accepted by the Board
of Education of Chicago September, 1892.
2 PRIMARY AND GRAMMAR SCHOOLS.
The work of pupils is presented from the first to the
eighth grades inclusive:
a. Language, two cases, 66 cards, with 264 mounts.
b. Arithmetic, two cases, 66 cards, with 264 mounts.
c. Geography, one case, 33 cards, with 132 mounts.
d. History, one case, 33 cards, with 132 mounts.
e. Physiology, one case, 33 cards, with 132 mounts.
f. Drawing, all grades, three cases, 99 cards, with 396
mounts, besides 74 cards, wall mounts.
In addition to the exhibits in cases on the various
subjects there are framed exhibits of 42 cards with 168-
mounts, representing typical work in each grade.
CLASS WORK IN BOUND VOLUMES.
First Grade 1.
Second Grade, Language 5, Arithmetic 3.
Third Grade, Language 6, Arithmetic 7.
Fourth Grade, Language 5, Arithmetic 6. Geography 7.
Fifth Grade, Language , Arithmetic , Geography,.
Sixth Grade, Language , Arithmetic , Geography
, Physiology .
Seventh Grade, Language , Arithmetic , Geography
, Physiology , History .
Eighth Grade, Language , Arithmetic , History ,
One volume of representative work in each grade and
one volume of representative work in each of the sub-
jects of Arithmetic, U. S. History, Geography and Physi-
One volume of class work from each grade from third
to eighth grade inclusive. Six framed mounts typical of
4 MANUAL TRAINING.
a. One case representing the experimental work carried
on in the grades from two to five inclusive, in the Lake
View No. 2 and Foster Schools, 40 pieces.
b. One case representing the experimental work carried
on under the patronage of Mr. R. T. Grane in the sixth,
seventh and eighth grades at the Tilden School build-
ing, corner of Lake and Elizabeth streets, 40 pieces.
Classes from the Tilden, Skinner, Emerson, Washing-
ton and Carpenter Schools work two hours each week
throughout the year.
c. One set of objects constructed by the pupils of the
sixth, seventh and eighth grades from the Jones, Haven,
Moseley and Calumet Avenue Schools. The classes re-
ceive their instruction at the Jones School building,
corner of Harrison street and Third avenue, two hours
a week throughout the year, 18 pieces.
One case of 33 cards, having 172 specimens of work
from second to fifth grades, inclusive, also three framed
typical exercises having 30 specimens, one book of 64
specimens, and another of 37 specimens.
5 HIGH SCHOOLS.
Three cases of 33 cards, with 132 mounts, represent-
ing Biology, first year's Science; Physiology, or second
year's Science; Chemistry, or third year's Science, besides
40 wall mounts under glass in frames. One biological
table with out-fit of microscope and instruments, as
used for science instruction, and furnished by the Board
of Education of Chicago to the various High Schools.
Fourteen volumes of essays of first, second and third
year High School work.
Five volumes showing examination questions, as used
in the various High Schools, with a summary of the re-
Thirty-three microscopic preparations in Biology.
6 ENGLISH HIGH AND MANUAL TRAINING.
One case, 60 pieces, representing the various exercises
in wood work.
One case, 325 pieces, representing the various exercises
in iron work.
One hundred and five articles in wood and iron, show-
ing constructive power of the pupils.
One case, 33 mounts, free-hand drawings.
One case, 33 mounts, mechanical and architectural
One portrait of Supt. A. G. Lane, and
One of Asst. Supt. A. F. Nightingale.
7 EVENING HIGH SCHOOLS.
One case of mechanical and architectural drawings,
having 33 mounts.
Four wall mounts.
Six volumes showing progressive steps in mechanical
and architectural drawing, as taught in the Evening
8 TEXT BOOKS USED IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
One book-case, duplicates of which are furnished to
each schoolroom, containing a copy of each text book
used in the public schools of Chicago.
Seven pieces of apparatus made by pupils of the Jeffer-
son High School.
One case of prepared birds of 56 specimens from the
Jefferson High School.
One table or bench, such as is used by pupils in the
Grammar Grade Manual Training Work.
It : # i
SOUTHERN ILLINOIS STATE NORMAL UNIVERSITY.
[D. B. PARKINSON, SUPERINTENDENT.
'EREWITH is respectfully submitted a report of the
1m exhibit made by the Southern Illinois State Normal
University at the World's Fair just closed.
Before entering upon the details of the report, it should
be stated that the Illinois Commissioners have the hearty
thanks of the faculty, the students, and the many friends
of the Institution hereby represented, for the desirable
and ample space allotted to their exhibit, the excellent
provision made for its display, and for the many courte-
sies shown to those who were in any way connected with
its care. Also, for the generous concession made at the
close of the Fair in the donation to the institution of
the excellent cases, desks, counters, etc., which were pro-
vided by the Board in placing the exhibit before the
public. It should be further added that these cases, etc.,
are now in use in the University, and are truly a valuable
acquisition to the equipment of the Institution.
The preparation of the exhibit began in the spring
term of 1892, and continued through the larger part of
the following year, a few pieces being added after the
formal opening of the Exposition.
The aim of the exhibit was to place before the world
the methods found by experience to be the best adapted
to the preparation of teachers for their calling. It should
be borne in mind that the character of the work done in
a normal school must necessarily differ from that of
other institutions of higher learning. The ultimate pro-
ducts of a school of this kind are skill and power acquired
in the intellectual training of the young; therefore it was
found difficult to fairly present an exhibit that would
justly represent the work of the school. After some con-
sultation it was finally decided that the exhibit should
consist of the following features: First, photographic
views of the buildings and grounds, of the various rooms
of the building (in some cases with classes at work), of
pieces of apparatus used in instruction; second, the work
of the students, in each of the departments, in the form
of bound volumes of manuscripts, charts of drawings,
manuscripts, etc., mounted on rollers and placed in suit-
able cases; third, samples of the equipment of appliances
for school work, especially that used in the lower grades.
The task of care-taking for the six months was given
into the hands of present or former students of the
school, one serving at a time, each for two weeks, re-
ceiving from the Board of Commissioners compensation
for their services at the rate of seventy-five dollars per
month; to this was added an entrance ticket to the
Because of the limitations to the task of fairly repre-
senting the products of a normal school, it is but just
that this report should embody some of the methods of
work characteristic of the school and not shown in the
preparation of the exhibit. Some of these methods are
given more in detail than others. The order of state-
ment as to departments is the same as that adopted in
the catalogue of the school, and the account of each de-
partment is largely the thought of the teacher in charge
of said department at the time of the preparation of the
It should be added in this connection that several
thousand copies of a unique "Hand-book" were published,
setting forth a brief history of the school, its aims, and
its varions methods of instruction. This book was con-
idered a part of the school's exhibit and was distributed
among the many visitors who were interested in the class
of work represented by the Institution.
The exhibit was located on the south side of the east
wing between a portion of the space allotted to the Uni-
versity of Illinois and that given to the Illinois Normal
University covering an area of 39x27 feet.
Seventeen excellent cases, made of oak, with glass
doors, were provided for holding the charts named above,
some of the bound volumes, and the specimens from the
natural history department. These cases were placed
east and west, facing each other, except those at the ends,
with ample space between for the free passage of visitors.
A raised platform, furnished with desk, chairs, etc.,
occupied the central portion of the floor space. This was
used as the office of the attendant, and a sort of head-
quarters for all friends of the Institution.
Parallel to the platform, on either side, were a counter
and show-case for exhibiting the bound volumes and the
material used for illustrative purposes in the work of the
The cases were arranged in two equal and distinct
parts those on the west for the Normal Department and
those on the east for the Training Department.
I. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PEDAGOGY.
The exhibit from this department contained representa-
tions of work from each class and showed every phase
of the work in the department. The exhibit consisted of
students' note books representing work done by the ele-
mentary class in preparation for teaching in the ungraded
schools; two volumes of reports of observations in the
Training School; four volumes of essays and reviews
treating of the principles of psychology and their appli-
cation to education ; two volumes on history of educa-
tion; and one on ethics. The manuscript of these vol-
umes was so arranged as to present the work systemat-
ically in the order in which it was taken up in each class.
The manuscripts in psychology were prepared after a
thorough study and discussion in class of each subject
presented. The plan of work was to take the thought
of the author studied as the basis for discussion, and
then add to this thought by reading other authors and
especially by the student's own experience and investiga-
tion. Special effort was made to secure the following
1. Independence in thinking.
2. Freedom of discussion.
3. Practical application of the principle studied.
This plan excluded the most valuable feature of the
work in this subject from any exhibit that it was pos-
sible to make.
The plan of work in pedagogy and history of educa-
tion was nearly the same as that pursued in psychology.
From a careful study of the principles of education a
thorough knowledge of theory was obtained. The prin-
ciples embodied in this theory were then discussed with
a view to their application to the daily work of the school.
The papers exhibited were either written reviews given
as regular class exercises, or results of the study and
discussion of subjects considered especially important.
The volumes on "Observations" were made up of re-
ports of those students who were required to spend a
portion of the term in observing the work of the prac-
tice teachers in the Training School. Each student was
required to visit the same class at least three times, and
at the close of these visits prepare a written report of
the work studied. These reports were copied without
alteration and appeared as originally prepared.
The students' note books represented notes on lectures
given the elementary class on subjects specially designed
to aid them in teaching in ungraded schools. The notes
on each lecture were preceded by an outline which was
given the student to follow during the discussion of the
subject. At the conclusion of the lecture the notes were
written and then copied into the books without correc-
II. PHYSICAL. AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE.
While the "natural sciences" are largely used as a basis
in the earlier years in the Training Department of the
Institution in furnishing material for the language, num-
ber and reading work, the several branches assume more
definite shape in the fifth grade.
Pupils are allowed to use an elementary text in con-
nection with their study of physical phenomena. Special
attention is given to the inculcation of a correct spirit
of inquiry and research, that makes a study a delight
and not a burden.
In the eighth grade the pupils are led by advanced
steps to see more carefully and deeply into nature's phe-
nomena, and to reason more systematically as they ''read
nature in the language of experiment." Exercises in
observing the reading of graded instruments are begun
in this grade, such as noting, daily, the barometric and
thermometric readings at a stated time.
In the first term of the second year of the Normal
course the students complete the work. At this period
the work is enlarged, a more thorough investigation of
many subjects touched upon before, is now required.
Problems requiring a knowledge of physical laws are sub-
mitted for solution, original essays upon themes studied
The inductive method is emphasized, but not adhered
to with that rigidity that precludes the acquisition of
knowledge from the results of the labors of those who
have been specialists in the various lines of research.
The plan has been to combine the best of all good
The work in Physics as outlined above was represented
in the Exposition by manuscripts and drawings bound in
volumes. The drawings were from the apparatus used,
and the manuscripts were either the students' report Of
the experiment, noting first, the apparatus; second, the
manipulation; third, the phenomenon; fourth, the les-
son to be learned ; or an essay on some subject selected
by the student or the teacher.
In addition to the bound volumes, charts were pre-
pared which contained simply drawings and manuscripts
describing and explaining the experiment as performed
either by the student or by the instructor showing on
a larger scale the method of instruction.
The method of teaching chemistry being largely the
same as that of physics, the exhibit was practically of
the same general character.
The scheme of note-taking was indicated by the order
of description of experiments shown in the volumes and
by the charts, which were very similar to those used in
presenting the work in physics.
The nature of the study renders the plan of work
somewhat different from that of others in the depart-
ment. Hence the exhibit was a representation of
what the student saw by the study of the text rather
than by personal observation. However, as far as the
student was able to come in contact with the actual
geological formation or phenomena by visiting coal
mines, and the adjacent regions, he represented his
thought regarding it by a sketch made at the time.
A specimen of the essay work required in this study
was also furnished in a bound volume.
The plan of work in teaching this science was repre-
sented, in part, by bound volumes of sketches and their
explanation made from actual observations, either with
the naked eye or by the aid of the telescope belonging
to the Institution, such as the different phases of the
moon and Venus, the relative positions of Jupiter and
his moons, Saturn and his rings, the spots on the sun, etc.
After giving an analysis of the topics of study in this
section, the "Hand Book" gives the following plan of
carrying out the work as done in our classes:
"The first two weeks of the term are spent in prepar-
ation for analysis of flowers by use of the herbarium,
with appropriate lessons from the text book. After this,
fresh flowers are placed before the pupils for analysis.
As supplementary to the text book work each one is ex-
pected to write out the analysis of at least twenty-five
flowers in a copy of Keep's Plant Record Book, with
drawings of leaf and flower, besides making drawings
of seeds, buds, fruits, etc., with appropriate descriptions."
The exhibit showed this work in the following way:
One book, marked "A Botany," gave samples of tests
taken from time to time during the term, with samples
also of a paper required of each one on "How to Teach
Botany." A second book gave the manner of use of
Keep's Plant Record Book by exhibiting the work done
by five pupils of the class, their books being bound to-
gether in one book after they had completed the re-
quired work of the term. In binding these the original
covers were removed by the binder, and by an oversight
the names of the pupils doing the work, being on the
outside of the original covers, do not appear in the bound
volume. The books taken were fair samples of what
was done by a class of nearly a hundred pupils.
While the study is continued for only one term and
without previous preparation being required by having
studied elementary botany, the text book covering the
elements of structural and physiological botany and
some familiarity with plants are all that could be re-
quired. But while that is the case, other and more ad-
vanced work, by those competent to do it, is always
encouraged. As an illustration of the character of such
advanced work, one of the pupils of the class whose
work was on exhibition at the Columbian Exposition
took up the study of ferns as a special studj". She did
as a part of her study the following work: Study the
ferns in their homes, make collections, study the spores
and microscopic structure of the plants. As part of her
work, she made a set of drawings of the ferns of Jack-
son county, 111., one plate or drawing for each species,
except one, of all of those that are known to occur in
the county, the single exception being Asplemim Elevi-
oides, that having been found once only in the county.
The twenty-four plates of drawings she made showed first
the whole plant, or a frond natural size or reduced, second
a section of this enlarged so as to show the position
and character of the sporangia, third a spore case and
one or more spores as seen by the compound microscope.
These drawings, accompanied by notes on habits and
habitat, formed the third book of the exhibit.
The first paragraph of the explanation under zoology
in the "Hand Book" contains an analysis of the topic
of the text book used in the subject. The second para-
graph contains a brief synopsis of the method of treat-
ing this study in classes.
The exhibit in this branch consisted of two parts, a
book and a sample case of specimens from the museum,
used in illustrating the subject. The book, after the
preface stating the aims and methods in this science,
contained samples of the written tests taken during the
term. Part of these were in the form of essays on the
topics after they had been studied in class.
The sample case from the museum consisted of a case
of ducks, and was labeled "Ducks of Illinois," contain-