it must insist upon exact quantitative results as well.
Accordingly about three- fifths of the time allotted is
given up to experimental work in the laboratory with
simple apparatus. A laboratory manual is used and
permanent note books are kept by each student. This
work is supplemented by the use of a text book and by
The exhibit was prepared from the work in physics,
and aimed to show not only the plan of work as carried
out here, but also that physics can be taught successfully
by the experimental method in schools of limited means.
THE EXHIBIT INCLUDED THE FOLLOWING!
1. Note books, temporary and permanent, showing
their construction and plan of work used.
2. Simple apparatus made in the laboratory to illus-
trate and determine the facts and laws studied.
3. Measurement a balance.
(a) Specific gravity by balancing columns.
(b) A hydrometer.
(c) Boyle's Law.
(d) Capillary action.
(e) The common lifting pump.
(f ) The hydro-static press.
(g) A water wheel.
(a) Composition of angular and of parallel forces.
(b) Laws of the lever.
(a) Coefficient of expansion of solids.
(b) Coefficient of liquids and of gases.
(c) The boiling point of a thermometer.
(d) The still, showing construction of parts, viz.:
water-jacket, condensing tube, supply pipe,
(e) Latent heat of water.
(f) A differential thermometer.
(a) Magnets and electromagnets.
(b) Electrostatic induction.
(c) Gold-leaf electroscope.
(e) Electric condenser.
( f ) Insulating stool,
(g) Tumbler cell.
(h) Tangent galvanometer, showing construc-
tion of parts, viz.: the wooden circle, the
circle wound with wire, etc.
(i) Astatic galvanometer.
(j) Mercury cups.
(k) Current reverser, showing construction.
(1) Wire connecter.
(m) Comparison of resistances.
(n) Induction coil.
(o) Electrolysis cup.
(r) Electric motor.
9. Sound a sonometer.
10. Light a photometer.
The subject of descriptive geography is studied during
the first and second terms of the pupils' course. Guyot's
Lectures on "The Earth and Man" constitute the course in
physical geography, which is taken daring the sixth
The work in geography commences with an analysis
of geographical ideas and a careful organization of the
preparatory work which must be performed before the
subject of real geography is entered upon. This work
will include such ideas as distance, direction, slopes, ele-
vations, plains, water courses, etc. Elementary sketch-
ing, molding, sand modeling, and kindred devices are
introduced. As illustrating the methods to be employed
in geography, and for the purposes of knowledge on the
part of the teacher, the various continents are examined
and a course of geography carefully outlined. The char-
acter of the work could be very well ascertained by a
study of the fifteen volumes of written work, the ten
bound volumes of maps, the twelve framed maps, and
the framed plans of study. The bound volumes included
outlines of a full course in geography, study of home
geography, geography of New England, of North Amer-
ica, of Europe and of Asia, mathematical geography
and physical geography.
The bound volumes of maps showed the results of tests
given to the classes on the memory of form and posi-
tion. They contained maps of Lake Michigan, Lake Supe-
rior, Lake Erie, Lake Cham plain, Basin of the Delaware,
Charleston and vicinity, Georgia, Florida and Alabama,
Kentucky and Tennesse, Washington City and vicinity,
Italy, Danube River, Norway and Sweden, France, Spain
and Portugal, Black Sea, India, State of Washington,
and two volumes of miscellaneous maps.
To illustrate the methods in history the following
work was exhibited: Colonization period, two volumes;
Burgoyne's Invasion, three volumes; Washington's Ad-
ministration, two volumes; From the Rapidan to the Ap-
pomatox, one volume ; History of Greece, three volumes;
Charlemagne, one volume; The Saracens, two volumes;
Henry VIII, one volume.
The study of civics is pursued during the fourth term
of the course. The methods of instruction do not differ
in any essential feature from those employed in history,
They were illustrated in three volumes: How to Teach
the Constitution, Town and County Government, and
Government of Illinois.
In connection with the regular reading work the pu-
pils are given a considerable amount of physical train-
ing under the direction of an expert especially prepared
for the work. The character of the work could be learned
quite readily from a considerable number of photographs
showing classes of young men and young women in
various positions and engaged in various drills. The
method employed in the reading class was also illustra-
ted by examination work exhibited in bound volumes.
It showed especially the course by which a critical exami-
nation of the text is secured and how an adequate ex-
pression of the thought and feeling may be obtained by
a series of questions rather than by the principle of
imitation. The method of teaching reading in this In-
stitution is somewhat peculiar in that it has strongly
emphasized that feature of the work.
Our work in literature for two terms follows three
lines; the history of English literature, class-room study
of English masterpieces, and private study of special
works, chosen not from English literature alone but from
the literature of the world. A third term is given to
Shakespeare exclusively. In the historical study we em-
phasize the relation of English literature to the life and
character of the English people, and seek to lead the
student to see that literature is not an accident, but an
out-growth of life. Accompanying this is a detailed
class-room study of representative authors from Chaucer
to Tennyson, in which we are mainly concerned with
the ethical, historical, and artistic aspects of literature.
Further, the results of the private study, referred to
above, are presented to the class in critical essays and
are there discussed. The term given to Shakespeare
completes our required course in literature. It includes
class study of two or more plays and private study of
three more, with two essays for each student, and sev-
eral days' discussion of each play read privately. Most
of this work cannot be presented in a paper exhibit.
We sent to Chicago several volumes of essays, represent-
ing the results of private study, and, in some measure,
the power acquired in the class room.
In our work in rhetoric we seek three things; a pure
diction in speech; a greater enjoyment of good English
in books; and an appreciation of the fundamental quali-
ties of good composition, unity, directness, and sim-
plicity. We give more time to problems of structure
than to questions of ornament. The old text books
gave prominence to such topics as grace, beauty, and
sublimity; we try to work in the spirit of the new, and are
more concerned with the formation of the sentence, the
paragraph, and the composition. Our exhibit in Chicago
was made up of volumes of regular class exercises dis-
cussing such topics as, The Paragraph in General; In-
troductory Paragraphs; Transitorial Paragraphs; Sum-
maries; Unity; Distinguishing Features of Narration and
Description, and Types of Arguments.
The exhibit in mathematics was intended to set forth
some characteristic features of the work in arithmetic
and geometry. The general method in arithmetic is
first to present every process as a process with numbers
of objects, then to teach the process with figures as
representing the real operation with things. To exem-
plify this method there was a series of papers in the
several stages of the development of fractions, and an-
other showing the manner of dissecting the prism, pyra-
mid, and sphere, to derive the formulae for the mensu-
ration of those forms. All these papers were prepared
by the students, and each set included the work of the
In our work in geometry especial attention is given
to the logical mechanism of the demonstration, to ac-
curacy and elegance of form in oral recitation, and to
exercises in geometrical invention. The work prepared
consisted of about thirty original demonstrations by each
member of the class, and a series of pasteboard figures
and wooden blocks illustrating the leading propositions
of solid geometry.
DEPARTMENT OP ANCIENT LANGUAGES.
In this department the exhibit was naturally one of
manuscripts. A liberal number of papers prepared by
the pupils partly the result of class room tests and
partly the fruits of home labor bound in handy vol-
umes, revealed the extent to which the pupils had mas-
tered each of the eleven terms' work in Latin and the
seven terms' work in Greek in the High School Course.
It was not the aim of the exhibit to vent new and
startling theories. It was not so much its purpose to
display any hitherto untried modes of instruction as to
redemonstrate the effectiveness which may attend the
faithful pursuance of the more conservative and better
approved methods now actually practiced in many of
our best schools. The "induction method" in its full
scope, has not been adopted; simplified texts are not
used; Caesar is still regarded as good reading for third
term pupils in Latin.
The volumes of manuscript were prepared for the fol-
(1). To show by the character and the amount of
work written in a limited time, that both exactness and
facility had been acquired in handling the fundamental
inflections. (2). To show that the main principles of
syntax had been mastered. (3). To show an ability to
translate Latin and Greek into good, forcible English,
and to do so without the ordinary needless wanderings
from the literal. (4). To show an aptness in writing
Latin and Greek. (5). To show that the pupils had
learned how to translate at sight. An increasing effort
is being made to bring the student to the habit of ap-
proaching an assignment for translation with more re-
liance upon his thought and less upon his vocabulary.
(6). To show a fairly complete acquaintance with the
immediately related history, geography, mythology, bi-
ography, etc. (7). To show some appreciation of the
real value of the masterpieces of classical literature read
in the class room. A special effort is made to study
strictly from a literary standpoint, and quite extensively,
a limited portion of each author read; while every lesson
in translation is aimed to be also an exercise in English
composition. (8). To show that the pupils have some
ideas at least of the lineal and cognate relationship of
the English language to the Latin and to the Greek.
The researches of men like Diez, Littre, and Brachet,
into the origin of French, coupled with those of Skeat,
Morris, Sweet into the development of modern English
from Anglo-Saxon, have at length made possible a scien-
entific treatment of Latin as the mother of more than
two-thirds of our English vocabulary; while in the wider
field of Indo-European philology, the brilliant work of
Bopp, Grimm, Veruer, Brugmann and a host of others,
has rendered just as fruitful the study of Latin, Greek,
and native English as cognate or sister tongues.
Manuscripts covering two years' work in German
showed that hard work had been done all along the line
of quite an extensive course in grammar, simple prose,
classics and conversation.
In our work in drawing we seek to do three things:
to teach drawing as a language, to lead pupils to seek
culture from the beautiful in nature and in art, and to
promote mental development. The characteristic feature
of the work in the Normal School is picture drawing
The course, which extends over a period of two years,
two lessons per week, may be outlined as follows: Ten
lessons in form study expression in clay; fourteen lessons
in construction drawing, noting only the elementary facts
of orthographic projection; twenty lessons developing
the principles of free-hand perspective ; twenty lessons in
light and shade; twenty lessons in representation with
water color; twenty lessons in illustrative drawing in
which an effort is made to acquire skill in rapid blackboard
work ; twenty-six lessons from the history of art, pupils
noting the styles of architecture and sketching freely the
The exhibit at the World's Fair was arranged to show,
so far as we could, the results of the above outline. It
consisted of thirty-six portfolios containing the home and
class work in quantities to suggest the average work of
the pupils. There were also eight volumes of essays and
drawings compiled from the papers of the pupils written
in connection with the history lectures. Fifty tablets
were on file showing the work from day to day in the
class room. The made work in clay and paper was ex-
hibited in two glass cases.
In the collection of photographs were pictures showing
the class room, the pupils at work, and the equipment
in the way of casts, models, etc.
With the exception of about a dozen large drawings,
there was no work in the exhibit which was not the work
of the pupils, it being the aim to have our exhibit sug-
gestive, not only in theory but in practical results.
PURELY PROFESSIONAL WORK.
The purely professional work begins with the pupil's
admission to school. For the first term it consists of
two exercises each week. After developing an outline of
the general ideas of pedagogics, the pupils begin the
study of educational ideals as illustrated in the history
of various peoples and of the successive attempts made
by reformers to improve existing educational conditions.
China, Japan, Greece, Rome and the modern European
world are examined with more or less minuteness. The
movement introduced by Comenius is studied with con-
siderable care as it may be regarded as the introduction
of realism, or the study of the external world, into the
methods of education then prevalent. Rousseau, Pesta-
lozzi and Froebel are examined for the purpose of
rendering clear the ideas for which they stood, and
the progressive movement which has been going forward
with more or less steadiness since the Revival of Learning.
With the beginning of the second term the pupils take
up the subject of special method which occupies them for
two terms, five hours a week. History and literature for
the first six grades are first discussed, and they are fol-
lowed by geography, reading, language lessons, and arith-
metic. The work is preceded by a discussion of the prin-
ciples of attention and apperception especially. The gen-
eral ideas brought out in the first term's work also become
a basis for the work of the second and third terms. Space
will not permit a detailed account of the method of pro-
cedure. In passing, however, it should be said that in
history and literature fairy tales are made use of in the
first grade, Robinson Crusoe in the second grade, The
Tales of Troy in the third grade, American History
stories in the fourth and fifth grades, and the study of
Colonial History especially in the sixth grade.
Contained several volumes showing the character of this
work. These volumes were prepared during the ordinary
recitation period in answer to certain questions written
upon the board. They were, in effect, examination papers
upon topics covering the successive stages of a develop-
ment of the subject.
Is introduced at the beginning of the second year. An at-
tempt is made to have it constitute the basis of a rational
methodology. The method work of the first year is
necessarily simple and cannot be made to rest upon the
truths of psychology in a highly conscious way. Owing
to the fact that the demand for even partially trained
teachers is so great the average pupil remains with us
only a little over three terms. A special effort is made,
as soon as the study of psychology is begun, to show
its close and vital relation to teaching. Consequently,
we study Applied Psychology at first. As soon as any
phase of mental activity has been discussed the educa-
tional principles to be derived from it are at once con-
sidered. Another reason for introducing elementary
psychology at the beginning of the second year is the
fact that the practice work in the model school regularly
begins with the second term of the second year and all
possible preparation is needed for that experience.
Psychology is again taken up at the beginning of the
third year and is continued for seven months. Here the
work is pursued far more vigorously, the more difficult
phases of the subject receiving attention.
At the conclusion of this work three months are de-
voted to the study of the Philosophy of Education as
developed by Dr. Rosenkranz. This necessitates the re-
view and application of certain principles of psychology.
Three hours a week during the third year are devoted
to the study of general method, including apperception
and kindred topics, and to the criticism of class exercise.
Of this work consisted of a number of bound volumes
containing the results of examinations upon the differ-
ent topics, extending over a considerable part of the
THE PRACTICE SCHOOL.
The school is accommodated in a two-story brick
building just north of the main building. It has six
rooms on the first floor, and nine on the second floor.
Five of those down stairs are large rooms, capable of
serving as regular school rooms with desks. One is an
office. On the second floor, all, except the large assembly
room for the grammar school, are for recitation purposes
for small or medium-sized classes. Three of the rooms
are sub-divided by partial partitions so as to secure
room for more classes. Two of the halls or dressing
rooms are also used for small classes. There are several
times in the day when every available space in the build-
ing must be used for class-room purposes.
In the basement are four well-lighted play-rooms, two
for the boys and two for the girls, which are very freely
used by the children in bad weather. The noon pupils
also take their dinner in the basement. The closets
for both the boys and the girls are in distinct parts of
the basement, the dry closet system being in use. The
ventilation of the building is excellent, there being a
constant influx of fresh air which passes over hot coils
and into the school room, about eight feet from the
floor, and the bad air being constantly drawn off through
openings near the floor. On the campus are ample play-
grounds near the building.
The purpose of the practice school is to furnish oppor-
tunities under good conditions for Normal School students
to observe good instruction in classes and to partici-
pate in the work of managing and instructing children.
Before beginning the work of teaching, Normal students
usually complete the first year of studies in the Normal
course. Besides a thorough drill in the common English
branches, this includes three terms of special study of
the history and methods of teaching. Those having
charge of these classes in the Normal Department are
accustomed to illustrate their ideas of teaching with
classes of children. The recitations are held with children
in the presence of the Normal students and then a close
criticism of the class work follows.
About one hundred and thirty Normal students are
regularly employed in teaching classes in the Model
School. Each student takes full charge of a class in one
subject for a term of twelve or fifteen weeks, and is re-
quired to teach for four such terms before graduation.
He is fully responsible for the instruction and success of
the class. His work is carefully scrutinized by the regu-
lar critic teacher who examines the plans of his work,
carefully arranged beforehand, and encourages or criti-
cises his methods and bearing before the class. There
are four such critic teachers who devote their entire time
to the work of supervising the recitations of Normal
student-teachers, one critic teacher for first and second
grades, one for intermediate grades, and one for the
grammar school, and one superintendent, whose duties
are to organize and unify and manage the instruction
throughout all the grades. The superintendent also meets
all the teachers regularly once, often twice, a week, for
the discussion of problems in teaching, for general criti-
cism, and for keeping up the right spirit in the school.
Besides the critic teachers there is a principal of the
Grammar School who has general charge of the discipline
and management in that department and teaches several
classes, especially the preparatory classes for the Normal
and High Schools.
There are also four assistant teachers whose duty it is
to take charge of the general discipline and control of
the rooms in the four primary and intermediate schools.
They are really room teachers who teach part of the
time and are responsible for the studies and conduct of
a single room each.
A Model School of this kind has some peculiar difficul-
ties and problems. It is called upon to secure system-
atic, good teaching by young teachers, and can succeed
only by close and watchful criticism. Such a school is
also expected to stand well to the front in advanced
and improved methods of teaching, at the same time
that it prepares teachers daily for the schools as they
really are, and not as one might wish them to be.
I. Literature as used in first grade.
Books of fairy stories from Andersen and the Grimms,
changed in form only so far as necessary in order to
adapt them to the understanding and highest apprecia-
tion of the children.
These stories are given to the little ones orally by the
teachers after which they are reproduced by the children.
Only so much of the story is given at one recitation as
can be well learned and told by the children at that reci-
tation. In these reproductions the children express them-
selves freely, the teacher correcting errors in grammar
These stories are chosen because we consider them the
best classical literature for children of the age, for:
1. They are readily comprehended and thoroughly en-
joyed by the children, they being fitted for the children
of their age in that
(a) The child is imaginative to a high degree and the
stories are very fanciful.
(b) They deal with objects in nature with which the
child is familiar and in which he is already interested.
(c) In form the language is such as the child under-
stands and likes not always just the language that he
would use, but he sees in it a better, more beautiful ex-
pression of his own thoughts, hence:
2. The child's own vocabulary is increased and en-
riched by their study.
3. They supply the mind of the child with an abund-
ance of good thoughts of the best writers.
4. With such food for thought a taste for 'the best
literature is encouraged, a taste which leads him to re-
ject the mediocre or bad.
5. Great moral truths underlie most of the stories.
These truths do not thrust themselves above the sur-
face in such a way as to annoy and hinder the child in
his onward progress in the story, but his feelings are
thoroughly stirred and judgments are voluntarily and
unconsciously passed which he applies to his own ac-
II. (a) In connection with these stories a large num-
ber of drawings made by the children, illustrating dif-
ferent passages in the stories, were sent to the Fair.
These drawings, besides serving as training to the
hand and eye, give vividness to the story. They give
the child a chance to express himself in another way
than by oral reproduction. They also show the teacher
whether or not she has been successful in getting before
the child a clear and accurate mental picture.
(b) Pictures illustrating "Robinson Crusoe," in second
grade, and Hawthorne's "Tanglewood Tales" and "Won-
der Book", in third grade, were sent; also a number of
sketches were made by the children while studying the
Pioneer History stories in the intermediate grades.
III. Written Language. Papers written by pupHs
from the first to the eighth grades, inclusive, based
upon literature, science, history, and geography. These
papers showed the progress made by the pupils in ability
to express their ideas, also the improvement made in