penmanship, punctuation, etc. This is the third method
of expressing themselves.
IV. Science, (a) Bottles of alcoholic specimens show-
ing the different stages of development in the buds of
box elder, soft maple, ash, horse chestnut, balm of gilead,
Austrian pine and Norway spruce.
(b) Pressed specimens showing the above, also collec-
tions of grasses and sedges, and common wild flowers.
(c) Collections of insects.
(d) Drawings of the animals and plants studied, also-
of parts, as of the eye and stomach of the ox.
These drawing were made by the pupils of all grades,
from first to eighth, inclusive. Besides training the eye
and hand, they lead the child to observe more carefully
than he otherwise would.
V. Beading. A set of reading books used in the first
primary. The stories were short ones which had been
given by the children in answer to questions put by the
teacher, based on the literature and science work. These
sentences were placed on the board by the teacher. After
the children recognized a written sentence as identical
w th the one they had given orally, the words in the
sentence were learned from their position, and afterwards
recognized wherever found.
VI. Writing. Children's books showing the work for
a year in the different grades.
VII. Number, (a) Children's books showing a year's
written work in the first three grades.
(b) Charts picturing the tables of liquid and dry meas-
ure. Much concrete work is given in these three grades.
These concrete stories are based upon the science and
VIII. Geography and History. Sketches made in the
class from memory.
IX. Clay Molding. Many pieces made by children in
the primary department, of objects studied in science
and literature: e. g., leaves and buds of trees, beans
and peas in pod, in science; and in literature, Kobinson
Crusoe's canoe, his dishes, fire-place, etc.
X. Paper-cutting, based also on science and literature:
e. g., fruits, leaves and flowers in science; and in litera-
ture, "The Ugly Duckling," "The Coal of Fire," "Bean
and Straw out Walking," etc.
XI. Collections of poems and songs for primary grades.
XII. Daily plans of pupil teachers, as prepared by them
each week. These plans are criticised by the critic teach-
ers and' suggestions made to the teachers whose work,
as planned, is not satisfactory, before they hear the reci-
tation. By so doing many mistakes are avoided.
XIII. Observation notes made on pupil teachers' class
work, by Normal students observing the work done.
These notes are read by the one whose work is thus
under scrutiny and he is given a chance to reply before
the critic teacher reads the notes and replies.
This work, if well done, is very helpful, (a) to the teacher
of a class, whose faults each day are set in order before
him; (b) to the observer himself who must give clear
and sound pedagogical reasons for his criticism ; and (c)
to the critic teacher who finds out without visiting the
class every day, how the work is being done and what
control the pupil teacher has over his class.
In addition to the exhibits noted, a large number of
photographs were presented showing exterior and in-
terior views of the building, views of the campus from
the cupola of the main building, and views of the im-
mediately adjacent portions of the town and surrounding
country. The purpose of these pictures of the environ-
ment of the school was to show to observing students
of our exhibit the physical setting of the institution.
Planted in the midst of an agricultural region of mar-
velous fertility, inhabited by a thrifty and intelligent
race, it must receive from its surroundings influences
which cannot be ignored in determining its character.
In order that our exhibit might be more clearly under-
stood we published a carefully prepared pamphlet giving in
considerable detail the course of study, careful outlines of
special work, and a great many explanatory paragraphs
all of which were intended to supplement the objective
exhibit. This pamphlet was paid for by -the Institution.
I desire to acknowledge the assistance of the heads of
the several departments in the preparation of this report.
In several instances their contributions are introduced
Recalling again the statements with which this report
was begun, that peculiar difficulties attend any effort to
show objectively the work of educational institutions not
devoted especially to the production of skill in the arts,
and expressing anew our appreciation of the numerous
courtesies on the part of the Board of Management, the
foregoing is respectfully submitted.
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS.
f ; HE University of Illinois has its seat in Champaign
_ county in the eastern central part of the State,
between the twin cities of Champaign and Urbaua, within
the corporate limits of the latter. It is one hundred
and twenty-eight miles southward from Chicago, at the
crossing of the Illinois Central railroad by the Cleve-
land, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and Wabash rail-
ways. The Institution has made, during recent years,
rapid advancement in all that constitutes a great state
university, and in several respects now stands unrivaled
among kindred institutions of learning in the country.
It has large endowments and is further generously sup-
ported through appropriations by the State Legislature.
The land occupied by the University and its several de-
partments embraces about two hundred and eleven acres,
including campus, experimental farm, orchards, forest
plantation, arboretum, and military parade grounds. The
six main buildings are situated upon a very beautiful
campus kept in excellent order.
University Hall, designed wholly for public uses, occu-
pies three sides of a quadrangle, measuring two hun-
dred and fourteen feet in front and one hundred and
twenty-two feet upon the wings. The library wing con-
tains in spacious halls the museum of natural history,
the library, the art gallery, and the museum of indus-
trial art. The chapel wing contains the chapel, the
physical and electrical laboratories and lecture room,
and rooms occupied by the departments of architecture
and of art and design. In the main front are conven-
ient class rooms, and on the upper floor elegant halls
for literary societies.
The Chemical Laboratory is a building seventy-nine by
one hundred and twenty feet, and two stories high, be-
sides well lighted basement and mansard stories. It con-
tains the general laboratories for students, instructors'
laboratories, lecture rooms, store rooms and various
departments for special purposes.
Machinery Hall is of brick, one hundred and twenty-
six feet in length and eighty-eight feet in width. It con-
tains a boiler room, a machine shop furnished for prac-
tical use with a steam engine and lathes, and other
machinery, pattern and finishing shop, testing labora-
tory, shops for carpentry and cabinet work, and is
furnished with wood-working machinery. The black-
smith shop contains sixteen forges with anvils and tools,
and a cupola for melting iron.
Natural History Hall is a handsome building one
hundred and thirty-four by ninety-four feet, with base-
ment, two main stories and an attic. It is occupied
by the departments of botany, zoology, mineralogy,
geology, and physiology, for each of which there are
ample laboratories, lecture rooms and offices. Here also
are the offices of the State Laboratory of Natural His-
tory, of the State Entomologist, and of the Agricultural
Military Hall, one hundred by one hundred and fifty
feet in one grand hall, gives ample space for company
and battalion maneuvers and for large audiences upon
special occasions. It is also used as a gymnasium, for
which there are dressing rooms with lockers. A bath
room is provided.
Engineering Hall, now in course of erection, is to be
the best building among the group of good ones. It
was designed by a graduate of the school of architecture
and is now under his general superintendence in con-
struction. It is T shaped, with an extreme frontage of
two hundred and eight feet and depth of one hundred
and forty feet. It is four stories high, including utilizable
basement and attic. It is designed to accommodate the
work in mechanical, electrical, civil and municipal en-
gineering, in architecture and in physics. For these pur-
poses there are full suites of rooms intended for offices,
lecture rooms, drawing rooms and laboratories.
There are, in addition, several smaller buildings for
various special purposes.
The University consists of four colleges devoted to
undergraduate work, and of a graduate school. There
is also a preparatory school. The organization is as
I. The College of Agriculture.
Regular course in Agriculture.
Junior course in Agriculture.
Course in Horticulture.
II. The College of Engineering.
Course in Mechanical Engineering.
Course in Electrical Engineering.
Course in Civil Engineering.
Course in Municipal and Sanitary Engineering.
Course in Architecture.
Course in Architectural Engineering.
III. The College of Science.
Natural Science group.
IV. The College of Literature.
Elective Courses, such as:
English and Modern Languages,
V. Graduate School :
Courses for Masters' and Doctors' degrees.
Vocal and Instrumental Music are also taught, but not
as parts of any regular course.
Preparatory School: A preparatory school with a
course of two years exists. In this are taught the sub-
jects necessary for entrance to the University.
The undergraduate courses of study extend through
four years and lead to appropriate degrees. In the Col-
lege of Engineering the curriculum in each department ia
prescribed and in order to graduate students are obliged
to complete the work as laid down, but in all other de-
partments great freedom in choice of studies is permitted.
Aside from the few required subjects, and upon condition
of following chosen lines long enough to make them of
recognized value, all courses of instruction are freely open
to those who are prepared by previous training to take
up the work. Instruction is by the research or laboratory
method, in whole or in part, whenever this is practicable,
so that students are trained to do things as well as to
memorize and to comprehend what others say; to find
facts as well as to learn facts. In the shops they be-
come expert with their hands, while in the class rooms
they gain knowledge and discipline of mind. In the
science laboratories they deal with objects rather than
with books, though the latter are by no means neglected.
In the libraries they study literature, history, etc., from
original sources, in correlation with the lecture room re-
quirements and opportunities. For the so-called practi-
tical side of instruction extensive equipment exists;
otherwise it would have been impossible to have shown
at the World's Fair the very large amount of material
exhibited and at the same time have carried forward
the regular work of the University.
In the graduate school instruction and facilities of re-
search work are offered to those who have satisfactorily
completed undergraduate work in this or in other col-
For the year 1892-93 there were enrolled seven hun-
dred and fourteen students an advance of one hundred
and thirty-one over that of the preceding year, and of
nearly 40 per cent, over the enrollment for the year
THE UNIVERSITY EXHIBIT.
The exhibit made by the University was divided into
six general departments, viz.: a small general exhibit,
one for the school of art and design, and one for each
of the four colleges. The general office or headquarters
faced north on the central aisle of the building and was
entered under festooned national flags draped over stands
of Springfield rifles on either side, representing the equip-
ment of the military school. Within the enclosure were
shown, in frames, large exterior views of the University
buildings and sixteen interiors; one frame, photographs
of the members of the board of trustees; one frame,
photographs of members of the faculty; life-size por-
traits of the three regents; one large frame containing
photographs of four athletic teams; three frames, pro-
gram of instruction; one framed list of periodicals.
COLLEGE OF LITERATURE.
The exhibit joined that just described on the south and
extended to the aisle next to the Women's Department.
Here were large reproductions of photographs of interiors
of the University library, lecture rooms, halls for literary
societies, etc., and a series of large photographs of Gre-
cian and Roman architecture and scenery, used in con-
nection with instruction in the ancient classics. There
were thirty-six volumes of examination papers, twenty-
two volumes of essays, orations and translations, and
nine volumes of graduating theses, illustrating work
done by students of the college. Here, also, were maps
and charts illustrating methods of instruction, collec-
tions of periodicals and text books, and a case of appa-
ratus aiid models used in class work in elocution and
The exhibit of the department of pedagogics, also in
this space, consisted chiefly of a very full collection of
the periodical literature of the world upon the subject.
Of the four hundred and eighty-three educational peri-
odicals shown, one hundred and twelve were from the
United States, one hundred and eight were in the German
language (Germany, Switzerland and Austria), and one
hundred and fifty-eight were from Spain. All the Central
and South American states were represented, as was
every country of Europe and Asia except China.
ART AND DESIGN.
The exhibit was shown in one hundred and nine frames,
including work from the six courses, though the greater
amount came from the regular course in art and design
and the special course prepared for students in architec-
ture. Less than five per cent, of the pupils entering this
department received previous instruction in free-hand
drawiug K and the exhibit covered work from the first ex-
ercise of the first term to the last work of the third .year.
The exhibit consisted of three parts: That of the first
year's work (a) pencil drawing from geometric solids,
common objects (as books, vases, tables, chairs, etc.),
interiors (as the corner of the room), casts and flowers
and foliage from nature; (b) the light and shade of com-
mon objects, and plant and animal form from casts.
That of the second year's work (a) modeling in clay, orna-
ment and detail of the human face ; (b) oil painting from
groups of still life ; (c) water color painting from groups
and flowers from nature. That of the third year's work
(a) modeling from the antique and from life; (b) oil
and water color painting ; (c) drawing from the antique
and from life.
AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE.
The College of Agriculture and Agricultural Experi-
ment Station had a joint exhibit. There were framed
photographs, representations of the building and
grounds, plats and maps of the farm, and six glass
cases of cereals in their various states of preservation,
showing size and manner of growth as well as yield and
quality. A chemist's work desk and outfit were shown
illustrative of this department of the Experiment Station
and of the work accomplished, including a number of
special contrivances invented by those in charge. Hor-
ticulture was represented by a large show-case of wax
casts of orchard and garden fruits, vegetables, etc., a
collection of tree trunks from the artificial forest tree
plantation, and by specimens of grafts, trained fruit
trees and root developments. A large series of ears of
sweet corn mounted on exhibition boards, showing origi-
nals and the results obtained by cross-fertilization, at-
the tracted much attention. The botanical department of
Experiment Station showed a collection of seeds of eight
hundred Illinois plants, a herbarium collection of speci-
mens of introduced plants (by birds) from the college forest-
tree plantation and a collection of specimens illustrating
all the most destructive diseases of cultivated plants in
the State due to parasitic fungi. The diseased plants
were pressed and mounted on card boards on which
were also magnified representations of parasites. Be-
sides the names of the host plants and fungi, there were
also attached directions for combating the attack of
the latter. The veterinary department showed a life-
sized dissected model of a horse, skeletons of the horse
and cow, models showing the age of horses by their
teeth, and tools, apparatus and drugs used in practice.
This College and Station exhibit taken together was a,
very large one of its kind and was abundantly inspected.
The space adjoined on the west those of the general ex-
hibit and of the College of Literature, south of the cen-
COLLEGE OF SCIENCE.
The department of chemistry showed a work desk with
fittings, apparatus and chemicals complete, as furnished
to students for the prosecution of their work in the
various branches of pure and applied chemistry in the
University. Many sets of apparatus arranged as they
are employed in the actual chemical processes were ex-
hibited, and some of these were in operation, thus illus-
trating more fully the precise use made of them. A set
of one ^undred and fifty finely crystallized inorganic
compounds made by students in the course of their
laboratory practice was shown, together with several
lots of laboratory waste mixtures from which chemically
pure substances had been made. A set of one hundred
and twenty-two organic compounds prepared by stu-
dents, and including a number of such substances as
saccharine and indigo, made synthetically, illustrated
the scope of the student's work and the care and skill
exercised in manipulation. There were also other sup-
plementary organic and inorganic substances, not pre-
pared by students, but forming with the others com-
plete and valuable collections of the chemical elements
and their combinations, which are used in the class
room in illustration of the subjects there discussed. The
work in quantitative analysis was represented by the
actual apparatus used, including a fine balance, and by
sets of constituents giving graphic illustration of the
quantitative chemical composition of such ordinary sub-
stances as milk, butter, wheat, corn, clay, coal, feldspar,
glass, cast iron, brass, etc., which had been prepared in
correspondence with the results of analyses made by
students in the ordinary course of work, the students'
reports of the analyses being exhibited together with the
illustrative material. Thus: A quart of milk was ex-
hibited and adjacent to it, in bottles plainly labeled,
were shown the quantities of water, butter fat, albumi-
noids, sugar and mineral matters contained in the quart
of milk, as determined by the student in his analysis;
and besides the set of bottles with their contents was
the tabular statement of results which the student is
required to make when each analysis in duplicate is
completed. The exhibit of each of the other substances
in this set was in all respects similar to that of the milk.
The course in pharmacy was represented by the sets
of apparatus and material supplied to the student and
by a small set of samples of the crude drugs which are
used in the instruction of pharmacognoscy. The actual
work of the course was exhibited in a collection of one
hundred specimens of various galenical preparations which
had been made by students in the ordinary course of their
pharmaceutical practice. In illustration of the progress
made in the development of skill and knowledge, and as
an indication of the students' ability in conducting
partially independent investigations, there were exhibited
a number of those which are required and which had
been prepared by students who were candidates for the
degree of Bachelor of Science in chemistry. Sets of pho-
tographs of the various lecture rooms, laboratories,
balance room, store rooms, etc., served to indicate some-
what the facilities for chemical work at the University.
The exhibit of the department of geologv included:
(a) laboratory table like those in use at the University
with a set of apparatus similar to that furnished to each
student in mineralogy and lithology; a series of polished
granites and one of marble to represent the collections
in economic geology; a small collection of Illinois build-
ing stones with results of a series of tests upon them by
a senior student during the preparation of his graduat-
ing thesis on "The Properties of Some Illinois Building
Stone;" a relief map of Leadville to represent the series
of such maps available for the study of regions especially
interesting to the geologist; a series of charts prepared
at the University to illustrate the action of dynamic
forces; a series of lantern slides from photographs of
localities in which the operations of these forces are well
displayed; a model showing the actual movement of a
point in the earth's surface during an earthquake which
occurred in Japan ; a lathe for cutting and grinding thin
sections for the microscopic study of rocks, minerals and
fossils; a microscope adapted to the study of such sec-
tions ; small series of each of the groups, corals, crinoids
and cephalopods, to represent the collection of fossils;
six large casts of mesozoic, tertiary and quaternary fos-
sils; antlers of an Irish elk taken from a peat bog in
In the botanical department there were numerous pho-
tographs and bromide enlargements showing interiors of
the laboratories and various views of the facilities and
accommodations for the work at the University. In the
exhibit there were a student's and an instructor's labora-
tory desk, each fitted out with the apparatus and mate-
rials used in study and research. A long desk with closets
and drawers and a glass case with a display of a con-
siderable amount of apparatus represented the provisions
for work in bacteriology, while cultures of the organisms
in tubes, microscopical preparations, and photomicro-
graphs illustrated results obtained. In one case were
shown a series of ten microscopes which well illustrated
the progress made in the construction of this instrument
since it came into use in the laboratory twenty-three
years ago. Here, also, were apparatus and articles used
in vegetable histology, and prepared specimens. In the
same case were shown equipments for photography and
photomicrography with illustrative specimens of the arts.
A third case contained various models of flowers, fruits,
etc., for use in instruction; also botanical specimens of
different kinds showing method of preparation for the
herbarium and museum. A herbarium case containing
twelve hundred species of Illinois plants properly mounted,
was exhibited, together with a card index from which
might be obtained an idea of the herbarium collection at
the University. In another case were to be seen a full
set of text and reference books, bound volumes of notes,
and theses by students, and published contributions from
The exhibit of the zoological department was made
up from the museum of the University, the models and
charts used in class work, the apparatus used in collect-
ing, studying and preserving specimens, by both instruc-
tors and pupils, and from work actually done by in-
structors and pupils. The exhibit contained a small
collection of mammalia, among which were a buffalo, an
elk, a puma, a porcupine, a young wolf, an ornithorhyn-
cus, a civet cat, a moose deer, a proboscis monkey, a
gibbon and its skeleton, a flying squirrel and its skeleton,
and a bat. Seven species of birds were shown, among
them being an apteryx and its skeleton, and an owl
parrot with its skeleton. From the class-room appara-
tus were shown eighty-five wax models illustrating seg-
mentation and gastrulation of the ovum, the embryology
of amphioxus, the embryology of the star fish, and the
embryology of cheironomus. Fifteen charts illustrated
various portions of the animal kingdom, and a full out-
fit of compound and dissecting microscopes, reagents,
stains, dissecting tools, parafine baths, glassware, etc.,
from the students' laboratories, were brought together.