University of Illinois Furnishings.
1. A plain table with case resting on table covered
with glass in front, with two movable shelves.
2. A square glass case resting on floor with sash.
3. Two tables, 7 feet and 11% inches long, with one
row of drawers full depth of tables.
4. A case adjoining No. 3, 14 feet long with glass
doors in front and with a continuous, movable shelf on
5. Case, 6 feet long, same as No. 4.
6. A continous table and case with glass front and
one movable shelf.
7. A glass case resting on the floor, provided with
8. A glass case, 7 feet 1% inches by 11 feet 4 inches,
same as No. 7, but no shelves.
9. A glass case 2 feet % inch by 11 feet 4 inches, with
three movable shelves.
10. A plain table with drawers, 4 feet by 8 feet.
11. Two plain tables of different heights, with show
case on the higher one.
12. 13 and 14. Three glass cases resting on the floor
all the same height but of different sizes.
15. A case with solid panel doors underneath and
movable shelves and glass doors above.
16. A case in two sections, one upon the other, with
glass doors across the front and movable shelves 6
inches apart from top to bottom.
17. A table with show case on top and with two
drawers and paneled door underneath on both sides for
18. A long table cut to fit round a part, with various
large and small drawers and doors for closets.
19 and 20. Two high upright cases with glazed doors.
21. A case and cabinet with drawers and cupboards.
22. A plain table with standard show case on top.
23. Two upright cases with glass doors and movable
24. One upright case, glass all around upper part;
solid panels below; inside of upper part built up with
25. A desk for the study of chemistry.
26. Four upright cases, glass doors in front, provided
with movable shelves.
27. Four tables and cases.
28. Work bench, provided with drawers, shelf and
29. A case of cupboards.
30. A case of drawers.
31. A heavy work table.
32. An upright case resting on floor, glass sash all
around and glass top; inside a pyramid of shelves.
33. An upright case, with glass sash in front ends
and on top; inside a pyramid of shelves.
34. Two cases paneled underneath and glass doors
above with movable shelves.
35. Case with glass sash all around.
36. Case with glass on three sides and top and two
37. A desk with show case top; desk part provided
38. A glass cabinet with show case on top.
39. An upright case with glass doors and drawers
40. Two upright cases with glass sash all around.
40 A. A common table.
41. A desk with two glass doors and with cupboards.
42. A high upright case with glass sash front.
43. A case of cupboards with three front doors; inside
in two sections, one section provided with four station-
44. A high upright case resting on the floor, glass
sash all around.
45. Two cases of cupboards with four doors in front
and one fixed shelf.
46. Three tables with vertical walls attached.
47. A glass case with solid inclined top doors in front
and rear; two stationary shelves.
48. Consists of six tables.
49. A continuous table with drawers and cupboards,
with glass case on top.
50. A cabinet and case; the lower part with drawers
and cupboards, the upper part with glass fronts and in-
51. A square case with inclined top and doors on one
52. A table.
53. A table with show case on it.
54. A table with show case on it.
55. A table with show case on it.
56. A table with show case on it.
57. An upright case with glass sash on three sides.
58. A cabinet and case like No. 50.
59. An upright case; glass front and ends, with mov-
60. Three cases with show case tops; tops, ends and
61. A case of two tables and show cases; tables pro-
vided with center parts; cases have inclined tops and
glass on all sides and tops.
62. An upright case with door in front and glass all
around and movable shelves.
Illinois Normal Universities.
Your committee have no data from which to give the
different articles of furniture or furnishings in or on
which was displayed this exhibit.
We can only say that each of these Universities was
furnished such tables, cases and furniture as they re-
The furniture and furnishings for 'the Illinois State
Normal University, were made and delivered by Kelly
Brothers' Manufacturing Company for the sum of
And for the Southern Illinois Normal University, by
Kelly Brothers' Manufacturing Company, for the sum of
For the display of the exhibits of the public schools
all the furniture, tables, cases, screens, etc., which were
required by the superintendent of that exhibit. Prof.
William Jenkins, were made and delivered by Kelly
Brothers' Manufacturing Company for $2,085.00.
The furniture and furnishings of the several educa-
tional exhibits occupied a large and prominent space
in the building, and with the exhibits attracted much
of the attention of visitors. . *
The various offices and reception rooms were furnished
with carpets, window shades or curtains, desks, tables,
chairs, sofas or lounges, washstands and other conven-
iences, and some of them with stoves, the cost of which
will be found in the report of the committee on finance.
J. IRVING PEARCE.
D. W. VITTUM,
E. C. PACE,
JAMES M. WASHBURN.
REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE ON GROUNDS AND
f'HE grounds surrounding the Illinois State Building
_ for lawn purposes embraced about two and one-
half acres. The extent was two or three times that of
any other State Building. The location rendered neces-
sary much heavy filling to bring to grade, especially on
the north* side the north annex extending into the
lagoon. After bringing into grade, and to complete the
preparation of the ground for sodding, etc., there was
added from four to six inches of well fertilized soil, made
necessary by its complete absence, there being little else
than sand. Handsome shade trees were already upon a
part of the grounds. Some of these had to be removed,
and they with others were distributed over the entire lawn.
The general purpose and desire being that the lawn
and its appointments should be in keeping with the
building and its surroundings, special efforts were made
to accomplish this purpose. The approaches to the
building from the National roadways the one from the
south being 60 feet and the one from the west being 50
feet wide were laid with Illinois paving tile. On each
side of these walks were placed large rustic benches for
the accommodation and comfort of the general public.
On the north side of the building and next to the lagoon
were built a gravel walk and roadway extending the en-
tire length of the building, connecting with the National
roadways on the east and west. This roadway was 12
feet in width by nearly 600 feet in length. The balance
of lawn was carefully sodded, requiring between 8,000
and 9,000 square yards, all being inclosed with steel
posts and chain for its protection.
In the fall of 1892 a number of tulip beds were
located, prepared and planted in variety. These fur-
nished not only beautiful flowers, but a delightful con-
trast for the spring and early summer of '93, and being
succeeded by cannas in large variety, the beds were thus
continued until the close of the Exposition. In addi-
tion, palms, shrubs and flowering plants were distributed
over the ground for a relief, adding much to its general
appearance. It was designed to introduce a few rockeries
for ornamentation, but instead coal pyramids were sub-
stituted, not so much for their beauty, but as a practi-
cal demonstration of the value of the coal fields under-
lying the great State of Illinois. One of these pyramids
showed the vein of coal to be 10 ft. in thickness. On
the south front in the center of the walk leading to the
main entrance was located a piece of sculpture called
"Hide and Seek," David Richards, of Chicago, artist,
which, for artistic excellence, was certainly not equalled
by any similar work on the grounds of the Exposition.
The plans and specifications of the building called for
statuary at the entrances. Early in 1892 the commis-
sion decided to substitute for these, plants, flowers,
vines, etc. The platforms on either side of entrances
were converted into rockeries mingled with soil, into
which grasses, ferns and running vines were planted,
the whole being surmounted with palms and other rare
plants, producing a beautiful and highly artistic effect.
The decision of the commission also included the inte-
rior of .the building, which was beautifully decorated
throughout with hanging baskets, flowering, foliage and
other plants. We think the commission made no mis-
take in deciding upon this change, as it seemed to give
general satisfaction, and elicited many favorable com-
ments. No other building upon the grounds of the
Columbian Exposition was similarly decorated, and the
cost, including care, will not equal one-fourth the cost
of statuary. We feel that our lawn was "a thing of
beauty," and only wish that it could have remained "a
joy forever". The committee on ''grounds and exterior
ornamentation" were supposed to have $10,000.00 for
their use, including care and maintenance during the
six months of the Exposition.
The fin-ance committee's report will show that less
than half of this amount has been expended, and we
feel confident that the Commission and general public
feel satisfied with the work that has been done.
A. B. HOSTETTER,
W. H. FULKERSON,
S. W. JOHNS,
REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON ARCHITECTURAL
DRAWINGS, TOPOGRAPHICAL SUR-
VEY, MAPS AND DRAWINGS.
lip' HE work assigned to this committee, under the di-
^ip> rectioii of the Commission, is outlined in the third
article of the second section of the statute creating the
On investigation, the committee learned that but very
few of the original architectural drawings of the several
State institutions had been preserved, and to make new
measurements of the buildings would be very expensive
To make drawings with a reasonable degree of accu-
racy, photographic views would have to be depended
upon as the basis of the work.
By the process of enlarging photographs to any de-
sirable size, it was found that the buildings and grounds
of the institutions could be shown as correctly, and at
much less cost than by drawings. By coloring these
views by hand-work, a more natural representation was
produced, and a more attractive picture the result.
The committee, deeming that plan the most practica-
ble means of executing the law, adopted the method, and
procured the service of a competent photographer, who
visited all the institutions and made photographs of them.
From these pictures were made, varying in size from 4%
to 6 feet in length, according to the size of buildings and
grounds, of all the State institutions, as follows:
University of Illinois, at Champaign.
State Normal University, at Normal.
Southern Normal University, at Carbondale.
Northern Hospital for Insane, at Elgin.
Eastern Hospital for Insane, at Kankakee
Central Hospital for Insane, at Jacksonville.
Southern Hospital for Insane, at Anna.
Institution for the Education of Blind, at Jacksonville.
Institution for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb,,
Asylum for the Feeble-minded, at Lincoln.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, at Quincy.
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, at Normal.
Eye and Ear Infirmary, at Chicago.
Reform School, at Pontiac.
Northern Penitentiary, at Joliet.
Southern Penitentiary, at Chester.
Penitentiary for Insane Criminals, at Chester.
State House, at Springfield.
State Building, World's Fair Grounds, at Chicago.
To preserve the form for the future, and to show thfr
prosperity of our State as shown in its Capitol buidings
since the admission into the Union, it was decided to en-
large a photograph that was obtained of the first State
House at Kaskaskia, where the first session of the Legis-
lature was held in 1819. Also, the second State House,
at Vandalia, which was used for twenty years. The third
State House, at Springfield, which was used until the
present Capitol building was constructed.
The pictures were well framed and glazed, and exhibited
on the gallery of the building.
The collection was an interesting exhibit to visitors
from home and abroad. It illustrated the progress,
wealth and prosperity of our State by sight. They
showed how freely our taxpayers had contributed to
the cause of education, and the greatest of all virtues,
charity, in caring for its afflicted and unfortunate citi-
zens, for its aged and enfeebled soldiers, and in protect-
ing society from the destructive liberty of criminals.
RELIEF MAP OF ILLINOIS.
The best method of illustrating the topographical
features of the State was a subject of much deliberation
by the Commission.
It was decided that the most intelligent and interest-
ing profile of the surface could be made by the Relief
Map modeled from a survey of the State. The scale of
measurements adopted for the map was two miles to
the inch horizontally and 500 feet to the inch vertically.
The surface of a large portion of the State being com-
paratively level, without sharp elevations, an exagger-
ated vertical scale had to be used in order to make a
good representative form of the surface as it really
No topographical survey of the State had ever been
made; hence there were no data in existence for such a
work further than that furnished by the base lines of
the Government survey and the survey of the different
railway lines in the State.
Not having the necessary time or means to make a
complete topographical survey of the State, the com-
mittee decided, in addition to those surveys mentioned,
to have made topographical observations by counties,
with barometers and levels in the hands of surve3 T ors
who traversed the counties in different directions by
That work was executed at considerable expense, but
the committee feel assured that the important data thus
secured will more than compensate the State for the
C. W. Rolfe, of Urbana, professor of geology in the
University of Illinois, was employed to superintend and
direct the work, and the committee have reason to be-
lieve that it was done with as much care, accuracy and
economy as possible under the circumstances.
The following is a synopsis of data upon which Prof.
Rolfe directed the survey. From the Mississippi River
Commission a line of levels from Cairo to Dunleith, a
line of levels from Fulton to Chicago, along the Chicago,
Milwaukee and St. Paul Railway, a series of topograph-
ical charts of the Illinois shore of the Mississippi and
the low water slope of the Mississippi.
From the lake survey a series of geodetic stations be-
tween Chicago and Olney.
From the Illinois and Michigan Canal low water levels
of the Illinois River.
From United States Geological Survey a series of to-
pographical charts between Chicago and Peoria.
From the coast and geodetic survey a Hue of levels
from Olney to St. Louis, a line from Centralia to Cairo
and low water levels of the Ohio and Wabash Rivers.
From United States engineers the preliminary survey
of the Hennepin Canal.
From the railroads profiles of their lines.
Barometric profile made with moving and stationary
barometers of such railroads as had no profile.
The bench marks of the lines of levels and geodetic
stations were connected with the nearest railroads, and
were used to correct the profiles of such railroads.
The elevations above low water of the railroad bridges
over the Illinois and Mississippi rivers were obtained,
and the railroad profiles checked by them.
The exact relations of the railroads at intersecting
points were ascertained, and the profile of the roads
checked on each other, using those that had been cor-
rected by United States data as master systems.
To the outline so established the details of surface in the
different counties were added by traverses with barometer
and hand level arranged to intersect railroads as often
as possible, and practically to bring the observer within
sight of every section of land in the county.
Prominent points either of elevations or depression
were visited and observations made upon them.
Many cross checks and other means of correction were
applied to overcome errors in atmospheric pressure, in-
strumental irregularities, and errors of observations.
Finally the results thus obtained were expressed by
contour lines on the maps with figures showing the ele-
vations of the points taken in the several counties.
Great care was taken to make the data atlas map of
the State more correct in its horizontal features than any
The locations of towns and courses of streams were in
most cases either verified or corrected.
The time allowed for making the survey was one year,
and the area covered was 56,000 square miles.
It is hoped that future observations will show that
the work has been as well done as the limitations of
time and funds would admit.
From the data thus compiled the committee pro-
ceeded with the work of having the relief map of the en-
tire State made in plaster, that material being the best
known for durability. Miss Louise Barwick of Tracy,
Cook County, Illinois, a skilled artist in modeling work,
was engaged to model the map in clay preparatory to-
making the plaster cast.
The work was executed in the following manner:
Six wooden squares 2 inches thick were made. These
were of sufficient size that when joined together they
made a surface larger than the map would occupy, and
represented the sea level upon which the map was built
up to the points of elevations taken in the survey.
The squares were then covered with cloth surfaced so
as to retain the finest lines. By means of carbonized
paper the contour lines and figures representing the ele-
vations and depressions of the surface of the country in
the data atlas, heretofore mentioned, were transferee!
clearly to those squares. Slender wire nails were driven
into the wood as a guide to the modeling. By measure-
ments the portion projecting above the wood corres-
ponded with the figure on the contour line where they
In making the survey of the State over 90,000 points
of observation were noted, and the same number of nails
had to be driven to form the lines for the modeler in
the clay work, which it was necessary to execute first
in order to cast from the clay moulds in which the fin-
ished plaster map of the work was made. Three months
time was occupied in doing that part of the work.
The squares were placed on a platform in a horrizon-
tal position carefully joined together, the whole repre-
senting the State on a surface 10 by 17 feet.
After the whole had been painted a light green in color,
the county boundaries were shown by heavy red lines;
the lakes, rivers and smaller streams in blue; the rail-
roads by black lines, and the names of county seats in
heavy black letters.
The whole, when completed, making a graphic birdseye
view of the State, the like of which no human eye had
ever seen before. As an exhibit it was one of the most
interesting in the building. It was daily surrounded by
the aged and the youthful visitor, who seemed greatly
impressed as they gazed on the face of our great State.
Teachers, students and children engaged in the primary
grades of education, seemed alike deeply interested in
The plain around the entire map, as aforesaid, repre-
sented the sea level. The Mississippi river, as the west-
ern boundary, was shown slowly rising above that level
from 268 feet low water mark at Cairo, until, at the
northwest corner of the State, it has an elevation of 615
feet, and the waters of the Wabash river, on the east,
reach an elevation of 601 feet, while Lake Michigan, at
Chicago, placidly rests at an elevation of 595 feet above
The lowest point of land in the State is at Cairo, and
the highest is that of Charles mound, on the State line
of Wisconsin, in JoDaviess county, which reaches the
height of 1,257 feet above the sea.
It was a surprise to a great many visitors, even those
who were old residents of the State, when looking at the
map, to see a high range of hills crossing the southern
portion of the State. The fact, as shown by the map, is,
that a spur of the Ozark Mountains of Missouri extends
through Union, Johnson, Pope and Hardin counties.
The higest of these hills, and the highest point of land
in Southern Illinois, is what is known as Bald Knob, in
Union county, which has an elevation of 985 feet.
In Johnson county, the highest point of observation
was 800 feet; in Pope, 823 feet; and in Hardin, 780 feet.
There are well founded reasons for believing that there
has been a period in the past when this range of hills
was much higher, and has been worn away by the influ-
ences of time, yet the range at the present time is nearly
200 feet higher than the waters of Lake Michigan at
There is an erroneous belief existing among non-resi-
dents of the State, and many of its citizens who have
not traversed it, that much of the surface is a level
plain, which will not admit of sufficient drainage neces-
sary to ensure the best agricultural results. The map
dispels that idea at sight. In addition to the range of
hills mentioned, it shows two other great water-sheds
extending across the State from the northeast to the
southwest, with elevations above the Mississippi, Wabash
and Illinois rivers, varying in height from three to five
hundred feet, and the remarkable fact that the interior
streams of the State flow north, south, east and west,
with strong currents, into these outlets. It also shows
that the State has within its borders the means of
creating one of the greatest water powers in the world,
with the great lakes as a reservoir to feed the same.
The bed of the Desplaines river at Joliet, forty miles
from Chicago, is 46 feet lower than the waters of Lake
Michigan. Only the outlet has to be made and powers
for manufacturing purposes can be made far surpassing
that of Niagara, because at Ottawa, eighty miles dis-
tant, the Illinois River is 146 feet below Lake Michigan,
and this would permit the same power to be used many
The map shows, as cannot be shown on a flat map,
many interesting features of the State, which in future
years will without doubt add greatly to its prosperity
and wealth, and which will enable it to maintain a dense
population. As an evidence of the correctness of the
survey of the surface of the State made for this purpose,
and the perfection in modeling the form as it exists, the
map on exhibition proved a great object lesson to the
students of glacial geology.
In all such prehistoric investigations, where positive
proof of theories are not in existence, the human mind
has a wide range in conjecture, and no ideas of one in-
vestigator are free from attack by a conflicting mind.
As no other State in the Union had made a relief map
in the form of this one from actual survey of its surface,
students of national reputation, from different States,
studied its markings with much care and interest. These
markings represent the only data we have of prehistoric
periods in the earth's history, in which students of glacial
geology are much interested.
No one can give any definite information in reference
to the lapse of time since the Glacial period, or how long
it continued, but this map shows clearly to the eye of
a student that there has existed on the surface of the
State of Illinois two distinct periods, and that a long
interval of time intervened between them.
Subsequent to the coal era it appears that there was
a period when nearly the entire State was covered with
ice and water, a portion of the northwest corner and a
part of Calhoun county being of such elevation that
they were not covered. The Ozark Hills were the south-
ern shore line, but when the Mississippi and Ohio rivers
broke through these hills the State was drained and the
waters receded to Lake Michigan.