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crusts of Ice between the layers of snow, strong enough in many places to
bear up the deer and hunter. Frequently for weeks the sun was not visible,
and the cold was so Intense that not a particle of snow would melt on the sides
of the cabins facing the south. For weeks people were blockaded or housed
up, and remained so until starvation compelled them to go forth In search of
food. Great suffering, hunger and untold hardships were endured by the
people. Game, such as deer, prairie-chickens, quails, rabbits, etc., before that
time had been abundant, but for years afterwards was very scarce, having
perished In the snow. As the snow would thaw, deer were often caught and
killed without the aid of fire-arms, being unable to get through the snow or
walk on top. Later In winter, when the mass of snow or Ice had become
compact, fences that were staked and ridered, were driven over with heavily
loaded vehicles, and In fact the old settlers say in places could not be seen.
The snow in many places, where not drifted, was three to five feet deep. In
the spring, when this immense amount of snow melted, the river, streams and
marshes became flooded.

The "Sudden Freeze"

"The writer. In conversing with a lady, an old settler, elicited from her the
following facts and recollections relative to this wonderful and extraordinary
atmospheric phenomenon which occurred a little after noon one day in January,
1836. The lady says she and her family had finished the noonday meal, and
were sitting around and in front of the old-fashioned, large, open fireplace
enjoying its generous warmth, chatting and discussing the state of the weather,
as during the morning it had been snowing and raining a little; presently the
lady, in looking from the window in her cabin, noticed a heavy black cloud
lying off to the west, which seemed to be rapidly approaching. Needing some
water, she took a bucket and went to the well, at a distance of about 100
yards, lowering the bucket with a long 'sweep,' then used In drawing water.



382 HISTORY OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ILLINOIS

filled it and started for the house. Before reaching the house the wind and
rain struck her; blew and upset a portion of the water on her clothing; the
cold air seemed to cut like a knife, and before she reached the house, her dress
and apron were frozen stiff in a solid mass. . . . Many persons were frozen
to death who happened to be caught away from home; and many others, before
they could get to a place of shelter, had their faces, ears, hands and feet frozen.
Immediately preceding the storm the ground had been slightly covered with
snow which from rain falling in the morning, had become 'slushy.' Cattle
that were In the fields were held fast by the 'slush' freezing about their feet;
and It became necessary to cut away the ice to liberate them. Ducks and
geese were imprisoned in the same way. Scarcely ten minutes after the cold
wave swept over the place the water and melting snow was hard enough to
bear up a man on horseback."

The Earliest Physicians Arrive

"Few studies are more interesting and profitable to mankind than those of
the past experiences, deeds, thoughts and trials of the human race. Civilized
man and the untutored savage alike desire to know the deeds and lives of their
ancestors, and strive to perpetuate their story. National patriotism and pride
have prompted many in times gone by to write and preserve the annals of its
people. This Is entirely laudable if prejudice and selfish interests do not
suppress the truth nor distort the facts."

It is the aim of this work to collect and preserve in enduring form
facts concerning the early physicians and the part they played in
the scheme of development in Illinois. Their difficulties and sorrows,
their labors and their patriotism, should not be allowed to fall into
oblivion. So, if some of these biographies seem commonplace, if some
are given too much space and others too little, do not condemn the
collectors of this material ; for in the nature of things dependence lies
upon the recorded facts as elicited by historians of a previous generation.
These facts are weighed and rewritten according to their relative
value and given in a concise form, as the demands of our time and
our crowded life require.

Taylorville was not platted until 1839 ; and among those who bought
the land upon which it was laid out, and who had it surveyed, was Dr.
Richard F. Barrett, who was, therefore, one of its earliest physicians.
Dr. Alexander Ralston, a Scotchman, came also in these early times, and
he opened a drug store. Following these physicians came Drs. Higsby,
Chapman and Goudy, the last named of whom had a history full of
action that is covered here.

Dr. Calvin Goudy, a Printer and Physician

Born in Ohio in 1814, he moved Avestward to Indianapolis with his
parents and later to Vandalia, Illinois, in 1832, where he worked in



THE CENTRAL COUNTIES 383

the State printing office and bindery. In the fall of 1833 his family
moved to Jacksonville and the following year he entered Illinois College.
Here he continued his vocation as printer, working for a time on "Peck's
Gazeteer" and "Goudy's Almanac," his father's publication. "With
his brother he published "The Common School Advocate," a pioneer
publication of its kind in the northwest. This continued but a year;
after this he decided to study medicine with Dr. Henry and Dr.
Merriman, in Springfield. Later he was graduated in medicine from the
St. Louis Medical College. In 1844, he received a degree from Illinois
College. His first location was at Tajdorville, and in 1847 he entered
politics, being elected probate judge of Christian County for a term
of four years. In 1851 he engaged in the mercantile business and con-
tinued therein nineteen years, terminating his business career when
elected to the lower house in the general assembly. In the next session
of that body he was a leading supporter of the act to establish a State
Normal School. He served sixteen years on the State Board of Educa-
tion. In 1848 he was appointed professor of chemistry in the Rock
Island Medical College. He died at Taylorville in 1877.

Dr. Harvey C. Chapman, a native of North Stonington, Connecticut,
where he was born in 1821, came from an illustrious ancestry. His
family tree can be traced back to the twelfth century in old England,
where the name has been famous in the annals of that country 's military,
educational, scientific and artistic progress. Again, in New England,
the Chapmans lent luster from the earliest times to the development of
their adopted country. Therefore it is not strange that, when our own Illi-
nois needed settlers to wrest the country from the throes of the wilderness,
Thomas Chapman, the father of Dr. Chapman, represented that family
of action in the new land when he came in 1837. The future medico
was in his sixteenth year when he arrived to grow up with the
country. That this growth was conspicuously full of action was in a
measure due to his early training in his native State, which in those
days was noted for its excellent and thorough educational system. The
memories of the primitive schools of Illinois in which he spent one short
season were indelibly fixed in his mind when he described in after life
the "puncheon floors and greased deer-skin windows." In these
primitive schools he and his brother taught the pioneers' children for
some time. Both of these schoolmasters decided upon a medical career
as their future business in life. From Drs. Merriman and Henry, of
Springfield, H. C. Chapman obtained the rudiments of the medical
art, and Erastus F. Chapman studied under Dr. Edwards, of Edwards-
ville, Illinois.



384 HISTORY OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ILLINOIS

In 1844 Dr. Harvey Chapman felt himself capable of treating the
sick and he repaired to Zanesville, in Montgomery County, to look up
a location. He was favorably received and induced to remain. How-
ever, his short stay there seems to imply that the field had its limitations,
and he elected to settle in Audubon. But the Mexican War was
then in progress, and no red-blooded pioneer could sit idly by when
a fight was going on. Enlisting in the army, he received the appoint-
ment of surgeon of his company, but was disappointed to learn that the
quota of Illinois men required was filled, so his company was not ac-
cepted. Nothing was left for him but to work in his chosen pro-
fession at home, and with this in view he settled in Van Burensburg,
only to change his location to Greenville a little later. Again dissatisfied
with the scant returns from the rural community he served, he was
induced to go to Nauvoo, the city that was attempting to regain the
prestige lost through the stigma of Mormonism. Here in this beautiful
spot on the Mississippi he remained five years.

Goes to Chicago to Enlist in the Fight Against Asiatic Cholera

Thinking that he had discovered a specific for cholera, he determined
to test his remedy in Chicago, where that disease was prostrating
thousands. The Chronicler apprises us of the fact that the remedy was
all that he claimed for it, but does not detail what this magic remedy
was. However, he remained some time in the wider field for the exercise
of his talents, at the expiration of nine years returning to Christian
County, and in 1870 he became a resident of Taylorville, where he
evidently closed his career.

A Pioneer in Proprietary Medicine Distribution

Although it is recorded that he discovered combinations that had a
vogue in a limited way in his day. Dr. Chapman did not, like so many
of his successors in that field, become wealthy. "His industry, re-
search and experience have their reward ; not in the accumulation of
great wealth, but in the discovery and admixture of compounds that
have brought relief to suffering humanity wherever they have been in-
troduced. His medical discovery known as the 'King of Oils,' the great
specific for bronchitis, diphtheria, croup and all affections of the throat,
breast or kidneys or for rheumatism, has no equal within the range of
materia medica." A truly wonderful remedy to cover such a wide
field of usefulness. In the way of testimonial the author continues
his laudation : " It is with pleasure that we here add our mite of praise
and speak of it from experience, and say that its curative properties



-ll?**'



'^-^








Chicago in 1821

Buildings from right to left: The Kinzie house occupied at different times by Surgeon
Wm. Smith, U. S. A., Dr. Harmon, DuPin, the trader who dispensed medicines, and others;
Dr. Wolcott's U. S. Indian agency, Fort Dearborn surrounded by a stockade with well in
the foreground and barn with a cupola behind: shop and wash-house of the Fort; U. S.
Factor's houses. Building facing the outlet of the Chicago creek at the south end of the
sandbar, shown in the foreground, occupied at different times by Dean, "Whiting. Crafts and
J. B. Beaubien; in it Forbes taught the first school in the village.

Taken from nature hy Henry R. Sehoolcraft. Rrproduced through the eOiirtesy of the Chieago

Historical Society.



\sre p. ir,(i\



THE CENTRAL COUNTIES 385

are most wonderful indeed. His 'Cholera Balm' is also a wonderful
medical preparation, but not of such universal use as the 'King of Oils.'
In cases of severe cramping it cures almost instantaneously." The
credulity of the laity, as judged from this narration, is not confined
to any age, but is a product of a great desire for magical cures.

Dr. Joseph H. Clark was born in Christian County, Kentucky, in
1819. His family came to Illinois in 1844, settling in Taylorville.
Dr. Clark began studying medicine in 1838, under the direction of
Dr. T. P. Poole, of Christian County, Kentucky. He attended Wash-
ington Medical College of Ohio (later moved to Cincinnati and known
as "Eclectic Medical Institute of Ohio"), and graduated from that
school with the degree of M. D. He began practice in his native State
in 1842, but came to Taylorville in 1844. The doctor entered land in
Johnson Township with a view to abandoning the practice and taking
up farming; but he kept a supply of medicine on hand and his habit
of prescribing for his neighbors led to regular practice. In 1856 he
moved into Taylorville and opened an office in the court house. He
died in 1880.

Dr. David C. Goodan was born in Bourbon County, Kentucky, in
1818. He was brought to Sangamon County, Illinois, when four or
five years old, but was sent back to Kentucky to be educated. He
studied medicine at Louisville. After being fitted for practice, he
came to Macomb, McDonough County. Shortly after 1837 he moved
to Fulton County and practiced there four years. Later, after locating
in Springfield, he practiced for two years in Paris, Kentucky, In
1844 the doctor came to Taylorville. He afterward practiced in Sanga-
mon County, returning to Christian County in 1857. He died at
Greenwood in 1864. He is said to have been a "man who possessed
fine natural ability. He had acquired an excellent education and his
attainments placed him, as a physician, in the front rank of his pro-
fession. He was said to be the best penman in Christian County, and for
a time held the office of circuit clerk." "A man of a kind heart and
generous impulses." -^^

Early History op Medical Practice in Sangamon County

This county, famous for its association with the life of Abraham
Lincoln, had the usual history of malarial fever, previous to 1850, before
the flats were drained. When Springfield became the capital in 1838
a tremendous impetus was given the country town; and almost over



241 History of Christian County, Illinois. Brink, McDonough & Co., Phila-
delphia, 1880. Pages 230, 41, 115, 114, 130, 131, 133, 138, 173, 174.



386 HISTORY OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ILLINOIS

night it became the pivotal point for influences that had great bearing
upon the subsequent history of the State. Not only was attention
focused upon it by the State, but its fame soon radiated in every di-
rection in the nation. For here, born of the initiative of the frontier,
was developed a commanding consciousness of self-reliance that cul-
minated in the production of one superman, among a constellation of
lesser lights, whose greatness as judged by subsequent generations is
increasing year by j^ear. With such a school for increasing the wits of
its men, Springfield had also a number of medical men whose great-
ness was projected beyond the confines of the county.

Dr. Gershom Jayne, a Surgeon of the War of 1812, Locates in

Illinois

The first, and probably the most famous, was Dr. Gershom Jayne,
who came in the early twenties, and had a territory to cover that
extended within a radius of fifty miles. He was born in Orange
County, New York, in 1791. Dr. Jayne as a young man entered the
army and served his country in the conflict of 1812. His life in this
community was filled with professional duties primarily, but he found
time as well to be foreman of a jury that indicted the first murderer
in the community ; he was one of the first to serve as commissioner of
the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was a superviser of the con-
struction of a penitentiary at Alton, and helped to organize the first
State Medical Society. With these many duties, he still found time
to direct his son. Dr. William Jayne, in the intricate art of the prac-
tice of medicine, before he died in 1867.

Dr. Jayne was one of those who were in the thick of the battle against
the cholera epidemic in 1849, unmindful of personal danger. Dr.
Kreider, commenting upon conditions at that time, says: "The means
of preserving food in the summer-time were very poor, and cholera
morbus from decayed vegetables and meat was frequent." Dr. Pasfield
remarked that "it was nothing unusual to find in the hot summer
morning that three or four citizens had died of cholera morbus during
the night, after a few hours illness."

"Dr. Garrett Elkin came from Kentucky in 1823." He was a man
of considerable courage and served for six years as sheriff during the
trying early days. In the Black Hawk and Mormon Wars he could not
refrain from action when there was fighting going on, and so he was in
the thick of these military encounters. Again, when the Mexican War
was on, he enlisted from Bloomington, where he had moved in 1844.
His military training was recognized and he was given a captainship



THE CENTRAL COUNTIES 387

in E. D. Baker's regiment. After this conflict, he located in Oskaloosa,
Iowa, where he finally gave up life's battle. It is rarely recorded that
one man had seen active service in several military expeditions, but
Dr. Elkin was one of these.

Dr. John Todd, son of General Levi Todd, and uncle of Mrs. Lincoln,
was one of the early physicians of this county. He was born near
Lexington, Kentucky, in 1787. In 1810 he had given evidence of
fitness for graduation and received his degree from the University of
Pennsylvania. When the War of 1812 broke out he was among the
surgeons serving at the front. It will be recalled that the British had
captured the advance guard of Kentuckians on the River Raisin, in
Michigan; that Gen. Proctor allowed the Indians to cruelly scalp most
of the captives, and that the enraged Kentuckians and Indianians who
brought up reinforcements, spurred on by the battle cry, "Remember
the River Raisin," gave pursuit and avenged the cruel treatment of
their countrymen by the utter rout of the British and Indians at the
Battle of the Thames.

But fortunately. Dr. Todd's life was spared on the River Raisin,
although most of his colleagues suffered martyrdom. In 1827 he re-
turned to Springfield with the appointment of Registrar of the U. S.
Land Office, but lost the position in 1829, when "Old Hickory" Jack-
son brought into play his celebrated slogan, "To the victor belong the
spoils." This was, after all, a distinct gain for Dr. Todd, for he
went back to practice his profession, for w^hich he was better suited
than for the prosecution of a political career. In summing up this
man's place in the hearts of his countrymen, we quote his biographer's
tribute to him.

"Dr. Todd was a man of good attainments and excellent character and left
a fragrant memory, on his death in 1865."

Dr. William Merriman came to Illinois in 1820, from Baltimore,
having previously been, according to rumor, a surgeon on a slave-ship.
He soon acquired a good practice. Later he aspired to political honors
by running for Congress. He was not successful in this quest.

Dr. E. H. Merryman and Dr. P. A. McNeill also were practicing
physicians of this period.

The Second Decade of Springfield's Existence Adds More Names to
THE List of Medical Men

"Dr. Ephraim Darling came in 1830, and after practicing for some time went
to Fairfield, Iowa, where he died."

Dr. Alexander Shields came in 1833 from Pennsylvania, and Dr. A.



388 HISTORY OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ILLINOIS

G. Henry in 1837 from New York. The latter was "active in politics
and Avith Abraham Lincoln signed the call for the first Whig State
Convention held in 1839." When the first state-house was built, he was
one of the commissioners who superintended its construction. He was
appointed by Mr. Lincoln, surveyor-general of Oregon, but lost his
life while on the ocean.

Dr. William S. Wallace, who graduated from Jefferson Medical
College in 1824, came from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, in 1836,
and in 1839 married Miss Frances Todd, thereby becoming ]\Irs.
Lincoln's brother-in-law. Through this family connection he was
among those who were at Mr. Lincoln's side when he delivered that
sad farewell address, so prophetic of his impending death, to his
friends, from the railroad car. Dr. Wallace accompanied the Presi-
dential party to Washington, for he was to take up the appointment
given to him — as paymaster in the army. Exposure in the military
service caused his death in 1867.

Dr. Charles F. Hughes was born in Baltimore in 1807. His mother's
father was physician to Frederick the Great. Dr. Hughes was graduated
from St. Mary's College, Emmettsburg, Maryland, at the age of twenty.
He studied under Dr. Edrington, in Baltimore, and was graduated three
years later from Maryland Medical College, Baltimore. "His health
being impaired, he took a sea voyage." When the vessel on which he
traveled arrived at Guatemala, the negroes, in a state of insurrection,
killed all the officers, crew and passengers, except Dr. Hughes and
another physician, sparing them because they were "medicine men."
For seven years he practiced among these savages. One day upon seeing
an American vessel approaching, he secreted himself among some barrels.
Unobserved he reached this vessel and returned to his native land. He
came to Springfield in 1836, engaged in the drug business for a short
time, then practiced for two years in small towns of the county, when he
returned to Springfield and resumed the drug business.

Dr. Meredith Helm, who came from Maryland in 1840, was a grad-
uate of Baltimore Medical College. In addition to being a good physi-
cian, he was a fine Greek scholar. His reputation as an obstetrician
kept him so busy that though he was an active IMason and was elected
Grand Master, he was obliged to relinquish this honor because of more
pressing obligations in his practice.

Dr. B. Greenwood, last known at Edinburgh (Christian County),
leaves a typical pioneer record of achievement after a multitude of
hardships and disappointments that would have discouraged any ordi-
nary man. But like all the really worthwhile personages that have



THE CENTRAL COUNTIES 389

electrified the world of action through their ambition to rise above
mediocrity, this man left his impress upon the community he served.
His history harks back to the days when the red man still disputed
the adoption of Illinois by the more progressive white man, and we
learn about a little of that conflict by the narrator of his history. He
was born in Kentucky in 1810, a son of a Virginian who was on his
way (like many of the easterners) to make a home for himself and
his family in Southern Illinois at Illinoistown (East St. Louis).
Scarcely had they arrived when they were attacked by the red men and
the family was separated. The future doctor, who was only four years
of age, was taken care of by the squaws of the savages. Be it said
to their credit, the savages seldom killed children and many offspring
of the pioneers were tenderly cared for during their childhood by these
Indians. The ignorant mind of the savage conceived this to be his
duty, for he hoped to bring up his charges to become adherents to his
cause by association.

For several years the Greenwood child lived among these aborigines.
In their migrations in 1819 they carried him to where Springfield
now stands and in 1824 he was ransomed by the government. The
need of the government for interpreters gave him employment for
several years, for during his life with the Indians he imbibed their
language and ways.

Embarks in Business

An incident in 1836 determined him to go into business. Having
been engaged by a local firm to drive oxen from Springfield to Phila-
delphia, he proceeded upon the long journey with but little expense
money. While on his way news reached him that his employers had
failed. A calamity that would have crushed the spirit of any ordinary
man had but the effect of bringing forth the qualities that bridged all
obstacles, for to be without money and without friends in a strange
land surely was an ordeal. Working his way back to Springfield, he
arrived there three months later and immediately afterward he decided
to learn the carpenter trade. During his apprenticeship he served as a
mill-wright, and the knowledge so acquired was applied successfully
when he embarked in business, for in the succeeding few years he
established mills in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri.

Studies Medicine

On the lookout for better opportunities, during this period, he de-
cided to study medicine, and with that in view he entered the Missouri



390 HISTORY OF MEDICAL PRACTICE IN ILLINOIS

Medical College, from which institution he received a degree. In 1847,
after graduation, he located again in Springfield. After two years of
routine work in the practice, the wanderlust seized him and he decided
to see the west when the opportunity offered to enlist with Fremont
with an emigration train exploring party going to the interior of
our virgin country. However, he did not stay long, for he returned
in the same j^ear to Springfield, and for a good reason, as it is recorded
that he married Miss Eliza Townsend, a miss from New Jersey.



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