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INDIANA



STATE LIBRARY



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DOCUMENTS f



OF THE



GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF INDIANA

AT THE FORTY-TamO SESSION,

BEGUN ON THE ^ffiiffll DAY OF JANUARY, 1863.



pAI^_LIBRAxRi,j ,



INDIANAPOLIS:

BERRY R. SULGROVE, STATE PRINTER.

1863.






4 ^ \^^






INDEX



PACE.

Report of SuperiDtendeut of Public Instruction, 1

Keport of Blind Asylum, 1'59

Kcport of Hospital of Insane 217

Report of Auditor of State 257

Report of Deaf and Dumb Asylum, ■^09

Report of Sinking Fund, 445

Report of Wabash & Erie Canal 453

Report of Condition of Banlv of the State, • 487



I



ELEVENTH REPORT



OP



THE SUPERINTENDENT



OF



PUBLIC INSTRUCTION



FOE THE



STATE OF INDIANA



EEI^^G THE FIEST BI-ENNIAL EEPORT FOR THE TEARS

1861 AND 1862.



TO THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY.



BY SAMUEL L. RUGG,

STATE SUPEHINTENDENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION.



INDIANAPOLIS:

BERRY R. SULGROVE, STATE PRINTER.

1863.



STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION.



OLIVER P. MORTON, Governor.
JAMES S. ATHON, Secretary of State.
JOSEPH RISTINE, Auditor of State.
MATTHEW L. BRET^, Treasurer of State.
OSCAR B. HORD, Attorney General
SAMUEL L. RUGG, SupH of Public Instruction,

and President of the Board.



KrATEllBRARi.i



REPORT.



To the General Assenibhj of the State- of Indiana,

in regular session for A. B., 1863:

Gentlemen: — At the last regular session of the General Assem-
bly the school law underwent a very general revision and re-enact-
ment; and, among other tiings, it was provided, that instead of elab-
orate annual reports, alternating each year in their address between
the Governer and the General Assembly, the Superintendent of Pub-
lic Instruction should, each year in Avhich there was no session of the
General Assembly, make a report in writing to the Governor, indi-
catino; in general terms an enumeration of the children of the State
for school purposes, the additions to the permanent school funds with-
in the year, and amount apportioned and distributed to the several
counties of the State for school purposes. And further, that he shall
present a bi-ennial report to the General Assembly, containing a
brief exhibit of his labors, the result of his experience and observa-
tions, noticing any imperfections in the operation of the school sys-
tem, and suggest the appropriate correction. In compliance with
these requirements I present to you the following report, it being the
eleventn in regular number, but the first bi-ennial report of the Su-
perintendent of Public Instruction.

Since the last session of your body it has pleased Almighty God,
in his mysterious providence, to remove by death from tins Avorld to
that which is to come, an ofiicer representing the head of the Depart-
ment of Public Instruction for the State, in the person of Hon. Miles
J. Fletcher. By his death that department of the State government
has lost an active and zealous chief officer, his family an afiectionate
husband and father, and the community a useful, social and beneA'o-
lent man.

By executive appointment the vacancy in the office thus occasioned
was filled by Snmuel K. Hoshour, D. D., whose official term expired
under the operation of the eighteenth section of the fifth article of
the Constitution, when a successor was elected and qualified. Thus



the duty of reporting to you lias devolved on your obedient servant
within a few days after his initiation into office, without the official
experience and observation as to the operation of the school system
which is necessary to enable him to present to you the great inter-
ests of the department as intelligently as he Avould be glad to do; he
must, therefore, draw upon such reliable data as can be made avail-
able, upon short notice, for so important an undertaking.

Upon assuming the duties of the office I found that my immediate
predecessor. Rev. Mr. Hoshour, had caused to be prepared statistical
tables and abstracts of the materials which have been transmitted to
the office from the respective counties of the State, which tables, ab-
stracts and matter thus furnished was in part printed and going
through the press ; I therefore append it to this report, to which I
respectfully call your attention, as exhibiting in detail the practical
results of our school system for the past two years. Their compari-
son with similar tables last published will exhibit the relative condi-
tion of the Common Schools at the respective dates of said tables.
They will exhibit also, to some extent, the relative condition of the
schools in the different counties of the State. Such a comparison in-
dicates that, notwithstanding the extraordinary excitement which has
prevailed throughout the State and nation for the greater part of that
time, in consequence of the great rebellion, we have made commend-
able progress in the important business of public instruction.

The following are some of the results indicated by such a com-
parison :

Whole number of children between 5 and 21 years 528,583

Increase sincel860 -.... 16,115

Number of School Districts within the State 7,921

Increase since 18G9 612

Number of Primary Schools taught within the past year.... 5,995

Decrease since 1860 943

Number of High Schools taught within the past year 103

Increase since 1860 " 25

Number of pupils attending Primary Schools within the past

year 273,459

Decrease since 1860 24,423

Number attending High Schools within the past year 7,318

Increase since 1860 1,327

The average attendance is not reported.

Number of male teachers employed in primary schools 4,391

Decrease since 1860 1,327

Number of female teachers employed in primary schools

within the year 2,358

Increase since 1860 747

Male teachers employed in high schools within the past

year 102

Increase since 1860 25



7

Number of female teachers employed in high schools with-
in the past year 83

Increase since 1860 28

Average compensation of male teachers in primary schools $1 05

Decrease since 1860 06

Average compensation of female teachers, per day, in pri-
mary schools 63

Average compensation of male teachers, per day, in high

schools $1 88

Decrease since 1860 25

Average compensation, per day, of female teachers in high

schools 98

Decrease since 1860 33

Amount expended for tuition for the year ending Septem-
ber, 1862 $453,899

Decrease since 1860 S31,379

Average length of schools in days 68

Number of school houses erected within the last year 509

Number less than in 1860 241

Value of school houses erected within the last year $208,962

Less than in 1860 r.4115,314

Number of volumes in Township Libraries 298,664

Yolum.es taken out of Libraries within the last year, 136,919

Number of private schools for the year ending September,

1862 r. 1,932

Increase since 1860 1,238

Number of pupils attending private schools, 1862 39,658

Increase since 1860 27,853

Tax collected for building and repair of school houses, &c ,

1862.. $332,398 36

Decrease since 1860 $48,647 21

Number of townships, towns and cities from which there are

no reports of amounts of expenses for tnition for 1861... 48

Number of townships, towns and cities from which there are

no reports of amount of special school tax for 1861 238

Number of townships, towns and cities from which there are

no reports of amount expended for tuition for 1862 203

Number of townships, towns and cities from which there are

no reports of amount of special school tax for 1862 331

Number of civil townships in the State, per reports 966

Number of incorporated towns in the State, per reports 101

Number of cities in the State, per reports 23

SCHOOL FUNDS AND SCPIOOL REVENUES.

The statute reqiiires the Superintendent of Public Instruction,
among other duties, to exhibit in his bi-ennial report to the General
Assembly a statement of all permanent funds and property appro-
priated to purposes of public instruction, and estimates and accounts



8

■of the receipts and expenditures of the Common School revenues; a
statement of the apportionment of said revenues; and the present
plans for the management and improvement of the Common School
funds and revenues, and for the better organization of the Common
Schools.

COMMON SCHOOL FUND.

Amount of Common School fund held by the counties,

June, 1860 ^1,293,818 08

Since added from fines and forfeitures.. 14,850 82

Since added by Commissioners of Sinking Fund 14,G78 18

Since added from all other sources 5,217 16



Total amount of productive Common School fund,

June, 1862 ^1,328,564 24

Add from Sinking Fund, per Commissioners report, (un-
productive,) ..': 3,662,637 97

Total Common School Fund, June, 1862 ^4,991,202 21

CONGRESSIONAL TOWNSHIP SCHOOL FUND.

Amount of fund, June, 1860 $2,047,712 7(t

Since added from sale of lands 20,465 90

Value of unsold school lands 133,775 10

Number of acres of unsold school lands, June, 1862,

20,602. ■

Total amount of Congressional Township School

Fund $2,201,953 70

Add Common School I'und as above 4,991,202 21

Grand total of School Fund, June, 1862 $7,193,154 91

ESTIMATE OF SCHOOL REVENUE FOR TUITION.

If we deduct from the above grand total the two amounts of un-
productive fund, to-wit, the value of the unsold school lands, $133,-
775 10, and the amount held by the Commissioners of the Sinking
Fund, $3,662,637 97, we shall have $3,396,741 84 as the a-moun:
of productive school funds; which, at 7 per cent., at which rate it is
loaned, will vield of school revenue for tuition the sum

of ''. $237,771 93

Revenue from unclaimed feesf (estimated,) 1,216 00

Revenue from liquor licenses, (estimated,) 50,000 00

Revenue from tax on property and polls, (estimated,). . 500,000 '^0
Revenue from State's indebtedness to school revenue.,. 50,000 00

' Total school revenue for tuition for 1863 $838,987 93



It is estimated that under the present provisions of the law there
will probably be about the same amount of revenue realized for tui-
tion in 1864.

REVENUE FROM LIQUOR LICENSES.

The reports of school revenue, made by the County Auditors, for
the year ending March, 1862, show a falling off in amount of revenue
derived from licenses to sell spirituous liquors. Similar reports for
the year ending March, 1861, show there to have been derived from
th*at source, for the year then ending, the sum of $69,359 25. The
reports for the year ending March, 1862, show from that source
$49,766 53. The falling off for the previous year, being $19,592 72.

This falling off is thought to be more due to a disregard of the law
on the subject, or to an evasion of it by those engaged in the business,
than to any diminution in the sale of liquor, or in the number of
places where the traific is carried on. This fact has suggested the
propriety of so amending the law under which the collection of this
kind of revenue is made, as to provide a sure and more summary
mode of collecting it.

The number of licenses to retail spirituous liquors taken out at the
offices of the collectors of United States revenue, under the national
tax law, is very suggestive upon this subject. I have selected a dozen
of the- average counties of the State, and made inquiry in them at the
offices of the collectors of U. S. revenue, and of County Auditors,
and have obtained information upon which to base an estimate of the
approximate amount which ought to annually accrue to the school
revenue, throughout the State, from liquor licenses, by which it ap-
pears that in our best condition, under the present law, we have not
collected as much school revenue from that source as is due and ought
to be collected, by more than one hundred thousand dollars. I think
it is quite clear that if the school revenue from that source was col-
lected up as closely, and in as summary a manner, as the U. S. rev-
enue, from the same source, is collected, we would realize from it a
hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars, instead of forty-nine
thousand dollars, which was the amount collected last year,

I respectfully suggest an amendment of the law under which
licenses are granted, so as to provide a more sure and summary mode
of collecting that kind of revenue. If the General Assembly see fit
to entertain the proposition to amend the law, the necessary details
of the amendatory bill will, I think, rea-dily suggest themselves to the
proper committee.

For details of the receipts and expenditures of the school revenue
and the apportionment of it to the several counties of the State, I will
ask your attention to the tabular statements Nos.. iii, iv, vii, viii, in
the appendix to this report.



10

AMMENDMENTS TO THE LAW.

The revision of the school law at the last regular session of the
General Assembly appears to have been very successful, so far as I
am able to judge, from the measure of information available to me
for that purpose. Of one of the sources of information from which I
judge of its success, I desire to speak more especially and fully, as
being entitled to high consideration and full credit and respect. I
allude to the State Convention of School Examiners, which convened
at the State House, on the 6th day of November last, at the instance
and request of my esteemed predecessor, Mr. Hoshour. One of his
alleged objects of calling on the Examiners, and inviting them to co|i-
vene, was to enable them to consult freely together, and with him, as
to the practical working and .operation of the revised school law, with
a view to ascertain whether or not any amendments were necessary,
and if so, in Avhat particular it ought to be amended. The convention
remained in session two days, and at an early hour of its session com-
mittees were formed to facilitate and expedite its business, among
which was a committee on amendments to the school law. That com-
mittee, after mature deliberation, reported to the convention. The
report was received and generally discussed by the members, and the
following recommendations were adopted by the convention :

1st. That section 11 be so amended as to omit the following
clause : " With the concurrence, of the Board of County Commission-
ers of their respective counties."

2d. That section 35 be so amended as to omit all save the follow-
ing clause: "All licenses granted by the Examiner shall be limited
to the county in which they are granted;" and that, instead, a clause
to b^ embodied stating that "to warrant an Examiner in issuing a
limited license, he must have documentary evidence that such license
is requested by the unanimous wish of all the voters in the district."

3d. "That the time for which schools shall be taught each day
shall be distinctly specified in the law — viz.: six hours."

4th, " That tlie law should make it the duty of the Examiners to
know whether each applicant for license is of good moral character."

5th. ."That section 25 of the school law be respectfully referred
to the Legislature, to be so revised that the difficulties in its present
working be remedied."

The first three of these amendments were sugested by the commit-
tee, and the last two were adopted upon motion of other members of
the convention who were not of the committee.

Thus has a convention of highly intelligent and practical school
Examiners of the State, about thirty in number, who have had a year
and a half experience in the administration of the law, and observa-
tion of its practical results, seen fit, under the most favorable circum-
stances, to suggest but five amendments to it.

When we consider that the present school law consists of 164 sec-
tions, and provides for tlie entire administration of an important de-
partment of the State government, in all the difi'usion of its powers



11

and ramifications throughout the State ; prescribing duties to be per-
formed by and rules for the government of the officers of five dis-
tinct subdivisions of the department, -which officers number in the
aggregate more than seven thousand; and that said amendments thus
suggested are but shght in their nature, and rather immaterial in
their effect upon that part of the system to which they relate, — the
action oi the convention may, I think, very justly be regarded as a
compliment to the Legislature which revised and re-enacted the
law.

When the section to Avhich the first proposed amendment relates,
was under consideration preparatory to its passage, it was thought
that to give to a trustee the uncontrolled power to levy a special
school tax, not exceeding twenty-five cents on each one hundred dol-
lars of taxable property, his acts in that behalf would not be so well
received by the tax-payers, as they would be if such levy of tax had
concurrence of the proper Board of County Commissioners.

Section 35, to which the convention proposed an amendment, was
probably not understood and viewed by that body in the light in
which it was viewed by the Legislature. The section was drawn up
and inserted in the bill at the instance and request of a member of
one of the legislative committees on education, and, I think, the
Representative from Delaware. There were two objects to be accom-
plished under the operation of that section:

First, To provide schools of some kind, if not the best, in remote
and backward districts.

Second, To enable trustees more readily to establish graded schools,
or such modifiications of them, as would be within the reach of the
means at their command.

The first of these objects appears to be well understood, and 1 think
there are but few licenses granted in the State in furtherance of it.
The second object does not appear to have been well understood and
administered as it was intended to be by its originators. For in-
stance, a Trustee has in his township a large school, which he desires
to establish as a graded school, or some modification of one, and em-
ploy two or more teachers in it. If all of them must have full licenses^
and be thoroughly accomplished in all the branches taught in the
common schools, they would probably be able to command $30 per
month each, making the school cost at least sixty dollars per month.
Instead of proceeding thus, he can employ one such teacher to take
enlarge of the school, as principal teacher, and a young lady as an
assistant, who could be employed for ten or twelve dollars per month,
and under the operation of the said section thirty-five, request the
Examiner, in her case, to omit certain branches, but let his examina-
tion be more to test her capacity or faculty to teach and communi-
cate instruction to the primary classes of the school, than to test the
extent and depth of her knowledge and learning. She, under the
general direction of the principal teacher, can make the school quite
as successful as to employ expensive teachers, and thus the Trustee
would add one half to the length of his school. Such a course need



12

not depress the standard of the school, nor be any letting down of
its character for usefulness. It would have the effect to utilize and
economize the expenditure of the school money. Thus, in one case,
the teachers would cost $60 per month, and in the other case |40 per
month, enabling the trustee to add one-half to the length of his school
by grading the teachers as well as the pupils.

The principle of the division of labor which is now being generally
and beneficially applied to mechanical processes, may, in many cases,
be applied with economy and success to intellectual labor, and partic-
ularly so to that which is employed in the Common Schools. By a
proper application of that principle to the expenditure of a given
amount of money for the schools, their terms may be lengthened,
their utility greatly increased, and the measure of knov/ledge and
learning communicated by the teachers, and appropriated and treas-
ured up by the pupils materially augmented.

Upon this subject I beg leave to quote a page from Wayland's Ele-
ments of Political Economy:

"During the period of the French Revolution the Government was
desirous of producing a series of mathematical tables, in order to
facilitate the extension of the decimal system, which had been re-
cently adopted. They directed their mathematicians to construct
such tables on the most extensive scale. The superintendence of the
work was confided to M, Prony. It happened that shortly after he had
undertaken it, he opened, in a bookstore, Adam Smith's " Wealth of
Nations," and, by accident, turned to the chapter on division of labor.
The thought immediately suggested itself, that this might be adopted
in the work in which he was engaged. He immediately followed out
the suggestion and arranged the plan accordingly. He divided the
persons who were to execute the labor into three sections. The find
section was composed of five or six of the most eminent mathemati-
cians of France. Their duty was to ascertain the analytical expres-
sions which were most readily adapted to simple numerical calcula-
tions, and which could be performed by many individuals employed
at the same time. The formulae on the use of which it had decided,
were to be delivered to the second section. The second section con-
sisted of seven or eight persons, of considerable acquaintance Avith
mathematics, whose duty it was to convert into numbers the formulae
put into their hands by the first section, and then to deliver out these
numbers to the members of the third section, and to receive from
them the finished calculations. These they could verify without re*
peating the work. The third section consisted of sixty or eighty per-
sons. They received the numbers from the second section, and, us-
ing nothing more than addition and substraction, returned to that
section the finished tables. Nine-tenths of this class had no know-
ledge of arithmetic beyond its first two rules; and it is remarkable
^hat these were usually found more correct in their calculations than
those who possessed a more extensive knowledge of the subject.
The extent of the labor, which was thus executed in a remarkably
short space of time, may be estimated, when it is stated that the ta-



13

bles thus formed are computed to occupy seventeen large folio vol-
umes. x\nd yet, we see that the greatest part of. the labor was ac-
tually accomplished by persons who might be employed at very small
expense, and who could do the work assigned them as perfectly as
those whose labor was the most expensive."

The third amendment recommended by the Convention of Examin-
ers is as follows, to- wit:

" That the time for which schools shall be taught each day shall be
distinctly specified in the law, to-wit, six hours." That amendment
can be very properly made by adding in the appropriate place section
152 of the old law, which I believe to have been unintentionally omit-
ted in the revision.

The fourth amendment recommended by said Convention is as fol-
lows, to-wit: " That the school law should make it the duty of Ex-
aminers to require applicants for licenses to furnish evidence of good
moral character." This amendment could, I think, be very properly .
added to section 33 of the present school law.

The fifth and last amendment recommended by said Convention,
relates to section twenty-five; but their published proceedings in that
behalf do not clearly indicate what provision of that section needs
amendment. Their resolution upon that amendment respectfully re-
fers that section to the Legislature to be revised so that the difficul-
ties in its present workings be remedied.

These are all the amendments recommended by the Convention.
There are some other portions of the proceedings of said Convention
which are appended to this report, numbered XII, as being well worthy
of notice for the illustration which they furnish of the salutary effect
upon the schools, of the enlargement of the jurisdiction and duties
of the School Examiners, to which I invite your attention. I think
that the portion of the new law which relates to the Examiners has
done and will continue to do great good in elevating the character of
the schools, and in getting a more full and acpurate account of them
as to the manner in which they assist in carrying forward and mak-
ing progress in the great work of public instruction.

There are a few other amendments which it may be proper to make,
mostly to correct certain verbel inaccuracies, which occurred in the
hurry in which the law went through the forms of final enactment.



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