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Annual reports of the officers of state of the State of Indiana online

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Camparaiive statement of the shipments by River of Pork, Lard^
Bulkmeat and Bacon, for the years 1848, 1849 and 1850, from
Zjqfayetle to Perry smUe^ both inclusive,

1848. Pounds.

14,648 Barrels Pork, 4,394,400

1,309 Hogsheads, Hams and Shoulders, 1,178,100

2,747 Kegs Lard, 164,820

4843 Barrels Lard, 1,283,395

Pounds Bulkmeat, 2,181,679

Total pooads, 9,202,394

Total tons, 4,601


10,779 Barrels Pork, 3,233,700

742 Hogsheads Hams and Sho«xIders, 667,800

4,141 BarrelsLard, 1,097,365

3,456 Kegs Lard, 307,860

Founds Bulkmeat, 1,789,825

Total pomkls, 6,996,050

Total tons, 3498


11,548 Barrels Pork, 3,464,400

1,045 Hogsheads Hams and Sboolders, 940,500

I»746 Kegs Lard, 104,760

2»024 BarrelsLard, 536,360

Pounds Bttlkmeat, • 904,029

Total pounds, 5,950,049

Total tons, : . 2,975

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Tbeeb-Hautb, Nov. 25th, 1850. )

To J. L. Williams Esq., Chief Engineer:

Sir ; It again becomes my duty to report the condition of the
work under my charge as Resident Engineer.

The Eel river Division of the Wabash and Erie Canal, extending
from Terre- Haute to Point Commerce, a distance of 42 miles and i
chains, was completed the Ist of June last and filled with water.
On the 7th of that month, a boat arrived at Point Commerce, since
which time there has been regular navigation for light draught boats,
except during the extreme drought of August and September, whea
Eel river failed to afford an ample supply of water.

In common with all the streams in the western part of the State
Eel river has been much lower the past season than it has ever been
known. The drought has been most extraordinary, commenceing
as early as June and continuing to the first of November, with bat
an occasional shower, which made little if any impression on the fee-
ders. During all this period there was but one rbe in Eel river cau«
sing the water to flow over the Dam in any considerable quantity,
and at this time the pool is from 18 inches to 2 feet below the comb
of the Dam.

Considering the unusual drought of the season, the fact that a
new Canal had to be filled and supplied, it may be reasonable to con-
clude that there will not again be so great a deficiency of water on
the Summit Level of the J^l river Division, as seriously to interrupt
the navigation. But should it be deemed advisable not to run this
risk, the difficulty may be entirely obviated by the construction of
the Morgan county Reservoir, as contemplated in the original sur-

From the Locks just below the junction of the Eel river feeder
and main line to Point Commerce, or Worthington, the Canal has
been filled, and amply supplied during the season, with water from
the Splunge Creek Reservoir. The levels have generally stood at

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from 2i to 3 feet above bottom, which is as much water as was need-
ed for the navigation, This portion of the line is 31 miles and 30
chains long, and all the water required on it, has been passed through
an area of five-tenths of a foot under an average pressure of 5i feet,
together with the leakage through the Locks «t the sou'h end of the
iSummit level. The former cannot exceed 300 cubic feet per min-
ute, and the latter may be as much as 400 cubic feet. This would
be at the rate of 32 cubic feet per minute, per mile, which is about
i the usual allowance, and probably not more than oneiifth thequan-
tity that has been required during the past season on the line from
Sugar Creek to Terre-Haute. The great difference arises from the
nature of the soil, in the two districts of country. North of Terre-
Haute, we encounter much coarse gravel and sand, but South the
excavations and embankments are made almost entirely in a UHigh
tenacious clay, which is quite impervious to water.

There has been paid on this Division for
construction. $376,626 54

For damages by floods on the Eel river
Feeder Dam. 2,001 60

For damages by floods last winter on oth-
er portions of the line. 2,516 C7

For repairs and expenses incidental to

filling the Canal with water, 2,640 42

'^^^SS 69

Total amount paid and charged to con-
struction up to the time of opening
navigation the 1st of June, 1850, $283, 785 23

There has been paid for repairs, ordinary
and extraordinary, for June and July, - - $1,323 51

For the months of August and September, 908 19

Total $2,231 70

In future, it is believed the cost of repairs on this Division may be
considerably reduced ; but should the sum of $908 19 be taken as a
i>)ean, the average cost per mile would be $115 00.

It will be seen, by reference to former reports^ that the amount
paid up to the opening of navigation on the Eel river Divisicm, vk-
coeds the original estimate, the sum of $10,154 12 which is a much
less excess than might reaaonably have been expectedt considering

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the damages by floods and the advance of the wnges or labor,
amounting in some sections on this Division to fully 50 per cent.-
It was worked on during the winter under great disadvantage, and
completed for the sum above stated, only by the extraordinary ex-
ertion of all concerned.

The Newberry Division, extending from Worthington and Point
Commerce, a distance of 17 miles and 1 chain, is so far advanced is
to give reasonable assurance of its entire completion in time for the
opening for navigation next season. Thirteen miles of the opper
portion of this Division, extending to the commencement of Slack
Water on White river, is now very nearly finished, and may certain-
ly be opened for navigation in the Sprint; and should we succeed in
completing the Newberry Dam, before the floods come npon os, the
remaining four miles, extending to Newberry, may be opened for
navigation at the same time. The payments on this Division for
construction have amounted to $132,4^25 01, and it is estimated that
$35,499 99 will be required to complete it, including the sum of
$5,640 which is the amount of per cent retained on sections not
yet finished.

On^the Maysville Division, extending from Newberry to Maysville,
a distance of 23 miles and 1 1 chains, the estimated value of work
done on the 15th of October, amounted to $104,117 19. The esti-
mated value of work then to be done amounted to $64,670 01. The
payments on construction have amounted to $95»560 80, showing
per cent retained on estimate to contractors to the amonnt of
$S,556 39. Since the estimate was made the 15th of October, there
has probably been $30,000 worth of work done on this Di vision,
reducing the value of work yet to be done to about $34,670 01.

The estimates on the Petersburgh Division have ainoanted to
$186,854 05, leaving the estimated value of work yet to be done
$160,359 27. The paymenU have amounted to $170,048 05,shov-
ing retained per cent to the amount of $16,806*

On the Evansville Division, there bare been no estimates afi^
but preparations are making to commence nearly all the sectioosi
and it is probable that, by the 1st of January, work may be dooito
the amount of $20,000.


In view of the importance of completing the Newberry Damaw
the Majrsville Division this season, measures were eariy taken to«^
cure that object. In June last, the contractors were notified ^
time was of the essence of their contracts, and that the work 00|
be r^ularly prosecuted at 8Qch rate as to Misure the coaipletioD<)^
eaoh job by the time stipulated. It was intended to follow this i^P
by frequent personal importunity, and, if possible, avoid tbedifficultj
and expense of finishing up a Division of work during the wint^'

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: our anticipations were entirely frustrated by the breakiag out of
I cholera amongst the laborers on the line.
The cholera first made its appearance on the Canal about the
ihof May; apparently leaving fora time, it again appeared the
th of June, inducing many laborers to leave the line. By the 10th
July it had attained such malignancy as to cause a total suspen-
m of operationst which were not again generally resumed until af«

the 30th of August. The cholera prevailed on the Canal for not
)re than two months^ but the loss of time from this cause could not
ve been less than four months.

Oo the first appearance of cholera on the line, the laborers became
irroed,and commenced leaving. Soon the panic was such that all
ho could get away bad abandoned the work; and it was not until
me weeks after the cholera bad entirely ceased in the i*q^on of the
laal that laborers could be induced to return slowly and cautious-
to the work. The deaths amongst those engaged on the Canal
nounted to about 150. Id addition to the delay caused by cholera,
ther sickness has prevailed to considerable extent on the line, so
At it has been extremely difficult to get or keep a tolerably good
Tce, on many of the most backward jobs.

No less than 33 sections have been declared abandoned and relet
t advanced prices; and we have been thus far favored with an unu-
)ally fine falli but still so much remains to be done at this late peri-
d» that I cannot give any positive assurance of the completion of
M Canal from Newberry to Mays villa in time for the opening of
avigation early next season. Every effort is now making to ae-
omplish this object, and should the weather continue favorable an-
il late in the winter, we may be able to finish up before the work i^
uspended by the rains and floods.

On the Petersburg Division, the work has been retarded as much
s possib'e, except on a few jobs, with a view to concentrate the
>rce on the Maysville Division* Contractors having work on both
)ivtsions were directed to suspend operations on the lower, until
heir jobs were completed on the upper; and in all the relettings a
:ondition of the new contracts was, that nothing should be done be-
ow, until the work then relet, on the Maysville Division, was en-
irely completed^ These means have been efficient; but the difficul-
yof getting laborers has been so great, and so much time was lost
«fore a respectable force could be collected, that I fear we may be
overtaken by bad weather before all is accomplished. Most of the
i^ork remaining to be done is such that it cannot be progressed with,
o any tolerable advantage, except during the dry season. Even af-
er this unusually long continuance of dry weather, it has been very
expensive and difficult to get in the Lock and Culvert foundations.
The expense of bailing and pumping has been a very heavy item of
H)st to ail contractors having such work.

In endeavoring to i*etanl the work on the Petersburg Division,

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the White river Aqueduct was made an exception. It was deemed
advisable to have the foundations of this important structure put in
and secured, thi9 season, and the contractor has been directed to do
this if practicable. But the interruption and delay from cholera
and other causes, has been so serious, that we shall only succeed in

Three of the piers are expected to be founded on the solid rock —
the first two from the south side have been without difficulty, as the
water was not deep; but for the third it was finally determined to
build a coffer dam and excavate the sand, nine feet under water,
down to the solid rock. From the solid rock in the bed of the river
to within one foot of low-water mark> this pier will be raised by a
platform of hewn timbers, laid alternately cross-wise and longitudi-
nally with the stream, one foot apart, the spaces to be filled with
small stone to prevent a current of water through the foundation. —
This timber pJatform has an average batter of 9 inches to the foot
all around, giving it a width at the base of 15 feet. The two re>
mainiog piers will be founded on piles, driven firmly into the bed of
the river, and securely protected with stone and brush. Ordinarily, a
piled foundation does not require protection, but in this case the sand
in the river bed, extending down many feet, is of such a light char-
acter, that it might in some causality be washed out to so great a
depth, without it was protected, as to endanger the stability of the

When my last report was made, the White river Aqueduct was
intended to consist of five spans of 85 feet in the clear. Since that
time it has been ^determined to add another span, making five piers
and giving the Aqueduct trunk a total length of 558 feet, extending
it 6i feet on to each abutment, and allowing 7 feet to each pier. —
When this work was first let out, it was expected to procure the
stone for the masonry from the limestone formation of Lawrmce
county, and boat them down White river. After opening the quar-
ries, near Wood's Ferry, which proved a failure, some sand stone
within seven miles of the Aqueduct were examined ; and it was fi-
nally determined to abandon the former, and use the latter, for the
masonry of the Aqueduct. A new contract was made, and a inai
saving will result from the change, of sonoetbing over $3,000.
But the oddiUonai pier and increased length of AquMuct-trunk will
add to the cost of this structure some $7,000, leaving a net ex-
cess of cost, resulting from these changes, of about $4,000. The
sand stone now being used are believed to be entirely durable, and
the additional length of the Aqueduct will give it greater security.

Th^ entire line now under contract, embracing the work recently
let to Messrs. Forrer, Hosmer & Go., is llli miles in length, extend-
ing from Point Commerce or Worthington, to EvansvilTe. The ef-
fective force on that portion of this line under contract last year, is
equal to 1,989 men. On the new letting, the force may equal 500

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len. Wages have raogdd fromSTi cents to $1 per day for men, in-
luding their board.


Last spring a locating party was employed to make the final lo-
tation of all that portion of the line not then under contract, be-
ween Petersburg and Evansvillet and prepare it for letting. Al-
:hough several experimental surveys had been made in this resion of
country ,the lines having become almost utterly obliterated, and inaoy
3f the field notes lost, it was a work of much labor to prepare a final
ocation. The party took the field early in the Spring, and the seas-
on proving to be wet and inclement, the difficulties and labors of the
service were much increased, but the work wa^ completed and the
party disbanded by the 12th of June.


After crossing the main road leading south from Petersburg a
short distance, the line is curved to the right, abruptly, and a straight
line run across the valley of Pride's Creek, striking the high ground
on the opposite side, in the shortest distance. The embankment
across the valley of this stream will be about IS feet high, but it is
not long. The surface of low water of the creek is 18 feet B, and
an arched timber culvert, of 21 feet chord, is estimated to pass the
stream. After crossing Pride's Creek, the Canal is located along the
west slope, up to the north end of Patoka Summit, ana a cheap line
is obtained. The north half of the Patoka deep cut, remaining then
to be put under contract, was as carefully examined and sounded as
our limited time would admit of. In this cut we estimate 81,539
cubic yards of earth excavation, including about 4,260 cubic yards
of shale and slaty rock, and 17,735 cubic yards of solid limestone
rock in the bottom of the cut. This section is one mile and five
chains long, and at the north end the cutting is 230 feet, in the cen«
tre 650 feet, and at the south end 23,60, which is the deepest point
on the section. We pass over the portion of this deep cut, let out
November I5th, 1848, and commence again at the south end. From
this point the location follows the valley of Flat Creek, and a cheap
line is obtained for about two miles, A Lock of 7.90 feet lift is in-
troduced one mile below the south end of the Summit, and from this
point the level is maintained until after crossing Pigeon Summit.

The valley of Flat Creek descends very rapidly. We soon run out
of cutting and find it necessary to trace the line along the hill sides.
There are no large streams crossed until we reach Patoka river, but
the branches and small streams have remarkably wide valleys, and
the level being high, the embankments are quite expensive.

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Little Flat Creek is the first branch of ibis kind* Its valley is 13
chains wide: average height of embanlcment 14 feet: surface of low
water of creek 14 feet B . A rectangular submerged culvert equal
to an arch of fifteen feet chord is estimated. We next encounter a
small branchy whose valley is 13 chains wide: average height of em-
bankment 18i feet, and surface of low water 15 feet B. A square
cornered wooden culvert equal to an arch of 8 feet chord is estima-
ted for this branch. The third and last stream of this character
north of Patoka river, has a valley 18 chains wide, requiring an em-
bankment of 20i feet average height, and a culvert similar to the
former of 8 feet chord : the low water surface being 19 feet B.

Thus far we have generally had single bank along the steep and
broken hill sides, except at the valleys above mentioned. We now
come to the wide and expensive valley of Patoka. The embank-
ments across this valley will be in all 66 chains lon^ ; 45 chains of this
length, is based on the old embankment, made in 1838 and 1839, and
the remaining 21 chains, on the natural surface. The first portion
will have an average height of about 12 feet, and the second 21 feet.
The first portion will contain 94,981 cubic yards, and the second
101,331) cubic yards. The surface of low water of Patoka river was
found to be SOiM) feet B.; but this is the pool of a dam. The bed of
the stream is 36 feet B. It is intended to cross Patoka by means of
a plain aqueduct — an open trunk, 18 feet wide, consisting of one
span in the middle, of 50 feet, and two on each side of 36 feet each.
The trunk will terminate at each end, in the bank, on a timber abut-
ment, extending down below bottom 6 feet. In front of this, the
embankment will have an ordinary slope, and will be protected with
a pavement of stone. For the middle span, two piers will be built
of timber, in crib form, and filled with stone. Their bases will be
about 36 feet B, and total height 42 feet The* other spans will be
sustained by strong framed bents, resting on the banks of the creek.
Patoka is a very favorable stream for this kind of crossing. The
banks are bold and strong, being composed of a hard tough clay,
which has worn very gradually for years, by the action of the water;
and they can easily be preserved in the present form and shape, by a
cheap protection of stone. The current of this stream is also very
moderate. The saving in cost between this plan, and that originally
contemplated, is. very great.

After crossing Patoka, our line continues crooked and expensive,
until we approach the Pigeon Summit, except at short intervals, be-
tween the crossings of the creek. One mile only, before entering
the deep cut, is cheap. Below Patoka, we first encounter the valley
of Hurricane Creek, which is 13 chains wide, and 18 feet below bot-
tom of canal, requiring, in round numbers, 65,000 cubic yards of
embankment. The surface of low water is 21 feet B. A rectangu-
lar submerged timber culvert, equal to 10 feet chord, is provided
tor in the estimates. About one mile below Hurricane, a small
branch is crossed, having a valley 9 chains long, 7 feet below boltom

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ofcaMlItiDd r>f ifiag 19,000 atdno yanis dFimktuAmmU Th*
caWert is 6 feet chord, rectangular. Buck Creek k next encooirtHw
ed, whose valley is 17 chaitts wide, 13 feet below bottom of eaoaU
reqairtDff 56,700 cubic 3rards of embankment. Surface of low water
90 feet 5. A rectangular culvert* equal to 13 feet chord, is estima*
ted. We next come to Ke^a Greek, whieh is the largest stream croes-
ad between Patoka and Pigeon Summit. The valley of this stream
18 43 chains wide, mnd averages about 17 feet below bottom of caaal^
requiring 318,000 cubic yank of embankment. Low water surface
of the creek is 30iM) feet B. A culvert of 18 feet chord, rectangulaft
b provided.

The last stream of any importance, we ernes North of P^eot
Sammit, is Lost Ci-eek. Its valley is 31 chains wide, and 7 feet be«
low bottom of canal. A plain rectan^lar timber culvert« of. 18
&etdM>rd, is estimated, and 47,700 cubic yards of embankment are

Next, in order« comes the Piceon Summit deep cut. This emhra^
ces a dbtance of 3 miles and 60 chains, extending from 5 feet cutting
at one end, to the same at the other. The deepest cutting on the
summit is 30.30 feet. There are estimated 308,6d8 cubic yards of
earth excavation, and 16,133 cubic yards of solid sand'Stone rock*
Nearly the whole of the work embraced in this deep cut was once
under contract, and 360,000 cubic yards had been estimated to the
contractors before the State suspended operations. A great many
soundings were made in this deep cut, hoik with a view to determine
the quantity of rock, and the quality o( earth excavation, but still it
most not be supposed that our estimate of the quantity of rock exca«
vation is absolutely o^rrect The total number of cubic yards of
material in. the deep cut, has been calculated from cross sedionSb
accurately, but the proportion of this thai shonld be estimated at
rock, cannot be determined with certainty, until the earth is stripped
oSt or great expense incurred, in sounding and digging weUs. A
conmderable outlay has already been incurred, giving us only a tol^
rabb idM in r^ni to thb matter. But I am con vanoed the quantity
of rock excavation will not finally be found greaier than is now esti*

After getting through the deep cutting at Pigeon Summit, the line
is run down on the East side of rigeon Creek, and the level kept up
for the distanff^ of 3} miles, through the Pi^n Creek Reservoir*
The description of this reservoir, together with sundry calculatioM
in regard to it* will be ^ven hereafter. Just below the reservoir a
Lock, of 7 feet lift, is mtroduced, but as it is intmded to raise the
imrface of the reservoir to 7 feet> At thb lock will lance in lift from 7
to 10 feet. Lock No. 3, of 6 feet lift, is located 13 chains heiow
lock No. 3, and 3} miles bek>w the Summit. Lock No. 4, of 8i feet
lift, is 4} miles below the Summit. Six miles and a quarter below
the Summit, we cross Snake Run. The surface, at low water of this


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««n of le ffeCcboHi.

8«ven milei M0W tfie Sainmit Lock No. 5, of 7^ ftel Kfv « lo-
wIm), trod from this poibt the levoi k mainttiDed imtil after cronig
Smiths Fork, a disunca of about 3 miles. Tbo lurfec^ of wattr in
amith'a Fork, wfaen wa oTMsad it,*was2.40 foot B, bat this is the pool
of a Dam on main Pigeon. The bed of the stream is 13^ B. It
iskKended to crom ibiscroek by m«aas of a limber aixdHMl eoHort of
tA feat dioid. Lock No. €, of 6 feet Kft, is located 9^ mibs below
tbe SwDmtt. Ona mile and three fourths below Smith's Pork we
cross Big Creek: Surface of water 2.50 B, io pool of Dam on main
Wgeott: bed **( stream 9.9 J B. Thisstream will be caressed by means
of a small A«fueduct.

Thirty chains below Big creek. Lock No* 7, of 7 feet lift, is inuo-
diicedt and at station 81S, thirty tind a half mikos from Patcka Sum-
mit, we unite with the old work, done by the State. Our amrvey
^as extmuied dcmn this oM work two miles, to a point a short dis-
tance betow Pigeon Dam. On the old work, onamila and 10 chains
Irom its commencement, Lock No. 8, of i.30 feet lift, is located. Oar

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