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Annual reports of the officers of state of the State of Indiana online

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desire some practical system that will annually ^uce their debt.
. It will be tiipe aqom^ M> provide a sinkipig ^od wbea we have



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MtA* fMfths tb af>i>i^rfat6 Ih'^hMtt way; toA when yfn nhkW tikve
niliy ftflUMMd and collected the revenue levfbd upon theentir6 wealth
afHd property of the State, we shall have something to set apart M
ihat purpose.

As it wilii however, require time to perfect a system, it is propel
Ihal you enter upon the consideration of this subject. My own
ef^inioa is, that no intricate or per^lested plan of reijucing bm pub^
lie debt ton be b^eficial. Simple taxation is the qply remedy; an^
as neAr as can be, direct application of the money, when coll^tedv
1^ dischlii^ the debt.

In the establishnvent of a board to manage the funds, your oiiiceri
^ State, with the aid of one commissioner elected bv the people,
W^oukl be enUrely Sufficient The power given should be discretion-
ary as to the investment of surplus funds, for obvious reasons.

The financial abitrty of the State may be seen in what we iiave
ftecompKsbed in the lasl nhie years, commencing with the suspension
df our internal iHnprOTement system. In that period, with no other
teeouroe but tairMion, we have liquidated, of our domestic debt, \h
principal and interest, the sum of f3,339,15<, and have paid of in-
terest on our foreign debt, including the January interesti 1851, thu
•fim of fr3:),969; making a total of $8,iE68,49!5, or over $360,000
Iper year, in addition to the ordinary expenses of the State, a sunt
eqpiivalent to one hatf our present State indebtedness.

By the year 1853, with the improtements proposed in our reve^
hu^ iystenn tli6 saving ^Sbcted by biennial sessions of the Legisia*
tore, and the revenue to b6 derived from the Madison and Indianap-
(»lis Railroad, it is estimated that we shall be able within that yeal*
to appropriate the sum of $100,000 to the payment of the prmcr-
pal of the forettta debt. A table has been prepared with great can9»
tad k appended to this miessa^, assuming the t^venue of 1838 to
to §600,000, diat the annual mcrease of revenue will be three per
oemtum, that the surft of 9100,000 may be appropriated the first
year for the payment of i^rincipat ; and that tnis sUm may be in*
creased every year thereafter by the thi^e per c6ntum of increaafc>
ited Ihs amount to'lred \t the interest account Under su6h an esti-
liiale, - *and I belieVe it entimly practicable, th^ ^uUic debt wtH be
Hipridftted \h seventtsen y^rs from the first paytnent. To show stit!
tarther the practicabiRly of wtpteg but the debt tX the State at ah
early day, ia taUe hai been prepared by the Auditor of State, on a
lifi^reat taisits for which you are referred to his rbp6rt.

We are progressing rapidly with works of public improvemeii^t.
hi the past season* we have cotnpleted Four Hundred miles of Plank
Wads, which have cost firom twelve to twentv-five hubdred dollaiii
p^r liiile. Thei« are tome twelve hilindred tonl^ additional survey*
ed and in progress. We have tvro hundi^ and twelve miles of
ndlroaii in sucoessAil operation ; of whfdi, one hiitndred tnA twenty-
$Bf^t we#e Completed the past yekr. There ans tnoft thah xmt
thousawdkniles of Railhead snrvej^ed, And in a slate of progress.
« There is no evfl fo M appr^^Mtd irom Mbb expenditure of me n



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%f Md IftVbt tai})iMl Pfktok Mdds; They tiD lydill bf ^^ *»^ )aB<»
ind eapitth The prote^ to our 0iiM people, nnd ^dnkeqdietiWf
no surplus for the payment of interest on loans, gdes but bf \M
OdttQtrjr.

86 lonir as we confine ottr operations and expendittires dpon Rail^
nnids and work* of a sinriiiar character^ to indirtdoal enterprise ^nd
enpiialt we haire the sorest guaranty ttmt the' investment will W
aaade upon w^t of such a character as will pAy tiberallV for tM
oost of their construction. While ft is not the provinOa of the Btf
ecartiTO to dictate to his feMow citizens to what particnhtr wdrks j|^ri^
mte cnpltml and lenterprne Aould be directed* still it may not M
iasppoper to say, at this 'tiRie> when the mind of the public Is iii
stroaj^ly dtreded to railroad enterprises, that the dAnger to be apL
prsbendad, is, tfaet i^orks ao en'ftr<eiy )c^l In their character as M
dsMppoiYit 1he expectations of the stockholders atid the pnUlCf when
oottstrected, will absorb the cbpitnland energy of the conntiy; and thut
the satne mlffht be appropriated to greater advantage in works of i
more general character. And ft is to be feared that there is tbO
great a dispoMtion to canry on these works by subscriptions of cbr»
porate cities and counties. From the evidence before me, there 11
now one million of dotUirs of corporate stcick taken, in the State^ 01
lailroade, by cities and cbontS^; and from the present exdtemeiit
in diflbt«Bt parts bf this fihate^ the amMmnt wiH be laig^dly tncreauM
the coming season*

Sound policy ittctates that no muhieipal department, howe'^'er
wealthy, shduld become associated with private companies for toy
Ipnrpoae whatever. The appropriation ot the nsvenues of cities and
counties to such purposes, is wholly foreign to the objects for wbidi
municipal corporations are organized, and for which the power bf
cazatibn is grdnted to them | and will lead b local embarrassmbaM
and difficulties aitnilar to those iti which the Stdle became involved
a fbw yeirft ago.

If we shall hold a (brm and steady hand { confine investments itf
ear pnbKu impnyvements to individual capital and enterprise; sho#
dte capitalist at home and dbroadf by our actions tnd words, <bai
we are determined to keep fatthfblly all past engagements $ that %^
regard State and county ck-edit^ not as mere empty sound and proiil*
ite, bat that which is real and substantial and worth preserving M
if we shaH do this, Indiana ViH sieadilv moveforwiird with increaiM
ed energy; her rdsources i^ilt be deveUped at thto proper imd iteM
timet and she wfll be enabled te preednt the greatbsf chain of m^
provemants of any State in th^ Union. But if in this hbiir, tM
turning point in her second history of impro^mehfs, W6 bV9r^
leap the proper botindsii and in the mometit of etcitement, when Ifti
dhMoal cabital is marking Hve whole map of the State #tth rathlMid
Imes, we add miHions of Sib corpdmle stocks of comities, citteii abd
tb#aihipat through 4 IftudAUe but mfirtakea zeal to advance thik da
that ^orkf we shall repent Ibr years to eOHne thai we had pari of
kt m the mMMt. We hdM ted such a lesson on Ihii iafa|eett tUtft



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dill

viB Awfii, k^ jmlHf ^igMble with, a lack of pradenc^ tf we •gaim
fiill into a like difficulty, without having mack some exertion to a?oi4
tuch a disaster.

I recommend to your consideration, the propriety of making effi-
cient provisions by law, for taking ao annual statistical account of
the Agricultural and other industriol products of the State, in their

rat material features. Hardly any subject of domestic policy can
more important, whether we regard its effect upon our internal
policy, or upon the just weight and character of the State as a mem^
ber of the confederacy. The attention of wise men has long been
directed to this subject. ?Vot only has one or more of our sister
States taken some action; but the General Gov^nment is proposing
to lend its aid in accoipplishing the object But while I ap[M'ove
the spirit which we must suppose actuates and influences the Genar*
al Government, I doubt the expediency of relying solely upon its
action. Why should we be continually kicking to the Capital of
the Nation for information as to our own wealth, resources axMl
means! This is a subject of econQm;|r in its largest sense; involving
the certain knowledge of our material iaterest and ability. Such
l^owledge is of the first importance to the successftil jprosecution of
ij|di vidua! and subordinate business affairs; but it is ot vastly great*
er consequence to the just rsgulation of the collective interest of
}he State. It should therefore be acquired by the State, under its
own laws, and through its own officers.

Importapt a$ this measure undoubtedly is, it is easy to accomplish
it, at trifling expense. A bureau of statistics can be engrafted upon
U>e office of Secretary of State, or some other State office, and tiie
prppisr blanks may be prepared by such bureau, and transmitted
thence to the county assessors, or some other county officer, to be by
tkem filled^ as prescribed by law,apd returned to the Central Office^
to be compiled for the information of the General Assemblv. Thus
could be ascertained the number of acres of land under cultivation;
the quantity of cereal grain, and other crops produced ; the number
of hones, cattle, h<)gpi, sheep, Alc^ the number of mills and manu-
fS»ctories ; the amount of capital and value of machinerv employed
therein; and the aggregate annual products, especially in breadstufis;
statistics of the more important branches of mechanical labor; of
the extent and progress of railroads, plank roads, canals, &a; with
their coat and income per mile, together with any other iteme of
creat and essential value. In this way we may receive annual in*
formation on the subject of our schools, number of teachers, num*
ker of pupils in attendance, the number not in attendance^ the
amount of the pav of teachers, the kinds of books used at schools,
the condition of the School Fund, and full details of the operation
ef your entire school system. Thus can be established a system of
fiactical statistical information, relative to the resources and capital
of the State, hij^ly interesUag in a moral and social aspect, and
tery important in its bearing upon our domestk policy, and upqn
im cbaiaeter aad pre4it (4 ti>e State gQiendlyt It would afibrd me



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gnstpleaaiira if Iib)i«M^ wmH Ifad off iii> ^h^ dsnaiB^tkm of meii
a system as a perimaneDt part of our doi|>«3Uc pouoy.

Tbe State Unrviarsityy ai^d the other institutions of learniog, are
io a finarl&liiDg condition/ More than twelve hundred yooag mea
have been in regulc^r attendanoe at the dtferent colleges of the State
during the pasit year. It is gratifying to know that at every sub-
mission of the school question to the ballot box, there has been mao^
ifested by tbe people an* increasing interest for the permanent es-
tablisbmept of an uniform system of common schooU,

Tbe history of the past speaks to us in strong language* — th|it
.where man's moral qultif ation is nf^lected, there, life, liberty and
property are unsafe. It is the obvious and plain duty of ffoverrnnent
to provide for the educatioa of. the whole people; and to secure
general intelligence among men, they should begin to learn while
they are children. \x is therefore bacomiog in us, as representatives
of the people, to concentrate all our efforts for the establishment of
commoa schools in every neighborhood, for the improvement of
every child in the school district, in which should be adopted a uni^
form system, for every class of oar youth, while we leave the county
iostitotions and colleges to individual or associate enterprise. By
sttch a system it is believed tbe object will be best promoted. One
thins is certain : If we pay not for the education of the boy, we shall
surely pay doub}e fpr the ignorance of the man.

Your attention is called to the many valuable suggestions con-
tained in the reports of the Trustees and Superintendents of our
benevolent institutions. Indiana according to her population, this
day educates, free pf all expense, a greater namber of mutes by
thu-ty-three per cent., than any other State in tbe Union*

It is gratifying to knowy thai of the entire number, who faav^
been placed in the Insitne. Asylum within six OK^nths after the attacks
ninety per cent. hav)9 bo(^n cured; and of those who enter the
Institution within one year after becoming insane, eighty per qent
tre restored to their friends clothed^ and in their right mind.

Tbe economy and prudence with which the Blind Asylum is man-
aged, are worthy of all praise* '

The policy adopted by Indiana, in admitting into her benevolent
imUtutions, all classes and cionditions of her unfortunate fellow be*
ings, without regard to property, has been followed b^ other States
iu the West. Thos^ that have not, are now making ^fhvU to occupy
the ssme ground.

These institutions are the monuments of Indiana's benovolenoo,
sod it is your duty, as no doubt it will be. your pleasure, to sustain
them by liberal appropriations* Mo part of the burdens imposed oa
our people is paid with more cheerfulness. It is, however, indis-
pensable, that you provide suitable cJiecks io the eaqpenditure of tbe
public money thus appropriated. It may be worthy of your exam^
inatifm, whether tbe adoptioa of poinis .siMch provisioiis as follow,
would not ha beneficial;

1st That tbe SiiperintandeiMs and otbar.9$coni should g^ve bon4f



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HI

may come into lh6ir hands.

!^* That there should be ttdopud a bniloHh rale for the efocliott
6f Trustees for all the ihstltnttohst and that ho Bdard of Trusteed
should have the power to fill Tac^neies in their own body.

3d. That no Superintendent or oflker of these institutions aho^M
hold the office of Trustee.

4th. That in the dbbursemenl of funds to sustam ilfese institn*
tionsy the money should be paid out upon warrants, drawn by tbi
Auditor upon the Trearareir, to the persbn entitled to receive tiie
same; following the rdei as ftr afS prticticabfey by which payuitetls
tLtb now made to the o^icers of State.

The propriety of insuring these valuable buildihgs is worthy ot
your consideration.

The cultivation and improvement of our isoil is that upon wbidi
the other branches of business rely for support, and is the true souree-
6f all wealth. The system that adds to tfie stock of information iii
Agriculture will promote the welfare of the State, and deserves td
be encouraged by the Lmslative I>epartment

The establishment of a »tAte Board of Agriculture^ to consist, say,
ef nine miembers, for the express purpose of organizing a State A^-
ricoltnral Society, would be calculated to bring intb existence, in mb
seve^til counties of the State, County Societies, that Wbuldbe atrxU-^
inries to the State assoMttion.

We are an agricult\giral peopfo. Our climate, aoil, and isituationi
make us so ; and the adoption of a systeVn that will bring our peo^
pie together annuaHv at some point in the State, Where we can pre-*
sent the most vlilueble specimens of science and art, especially tiM
^efol in^entbns of labor-saving impiements of husbandry $ end6rs:
ing the character of the improvements; awHrding pt(miiums, eiUier
or money, diplomas or medals ; exhibiting the stock, grains, And
productions of 6ur State, would ho doubl create d spirit ^ emula'
tion in our pe<^le, and be well adapted to further the interests of
our growing State.

We are not aware of the amount annnilly ex^iided by our peo«
f4e for stock, implements and productions of 6^er iStates, that can
be saved in a few years by the prqMr orgatriasathm of anch County
and State Agriculrural Societies.

To aid in this enterprise, it h suggested, tftal the tax collected
upon travelling circuses, menageries, and public shoWr, in this States
be paid to the County Treasuiers, thence into the State TrbaSUrV, to
be set apart expressly as a fond at the disposal of the SUite Bbetd of
Agriciulture, to pay premiums at the annual Mrs.

It is believed that you can saMy appropriate one thousand dollaitr
tb this purpose in antici^tton of the receipts (Mia this sotitrce thD
cotriing yeat.

I mention Witti pttasuHs, M Ab oeeiaiM, tM fact that a few ef
the enterpruiuff citizens of Indiana are preparito td attend the gM3
industHal exhibiUen of tH netiM^ tt Leiidott, m May next, and te



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10»

dirry iMrift Uietn spacfmiiifs oF their iUdfi kai labor, add samples o?
tbe proditeti<ms of otr soH. The propriety of etpressihg* in som^
)irop>er itaViher, your approbation of stich ttk ehterprise is worthy
6f yoor cofisidaratioia.

Tout attention til asain earhestty invited to the importance ot

Srovidh^for a tliorou^ geological and topographical survey of the
tate. The interests of agriculture, manufactures and commercef
alike demand it. That Inmana is rich in mineral wealth is a fact
that each succeeding year more and more demonstrates. We havip
vast beds of coal and iron, and recent developments indicate that
we have many of tbe more precioufs metals. When we shall send
oat men of high scientific attainments to explore our hills and our
prairies, to analyse our ores and our soils, and lay barie the hoW
eokicealed riches of our mines, we shall havie takeb the first and
nuist irtiportant step in that great race of industrial progress which
w31 place Iiidiana in her true attitude. Her position oh the map
of thb great valley is commanding; and if, under a kind Provi*
dence, we escape the perils that threaten to separate us from the

G«t sisterhood of States, whose interests are so olended by geoloff:
U geogl^pbical and commerciial affinities, the next ten years will
place her, as an agricultnral and it manufacturing State, by the sidd
of Pennsylvania.

Out ipc»licy is to rely unoh oiir own resources hither than upon
any aid from the General Government* While we do thli, our in-
terests are undisturbed by the shocks isind struggles of political par-
ties. Our strength and our independence He in our great agricultu-
ml and manufacturing resources. ' We wabt more wowledge — vri
Want a map whid)i not ohly defines our t)OunN[aries — pur area— our
corporate subdivisions, and the course of bur rivers; — but we want
a map which will tell us the depth of our coal seams — the best lo-
calities for our iron furnaces-^tne extent and value of our marble
and stone cpiaifies-^the woith of our exhaustless quantities of tim«
ber, and the true cbaractrtr of our soils. We are now groping id
eomparatrve dariAiess ; and while otKei* States, by thd aid of science^
are unfolding neif and hitherto unknown elemek^ts of wealth, wd
are trasting these interests tb chatvce and individual ehterpiise.

I submit to you, "Whethef*, if we regard the measuHe in the light ot
mete revenue alone, it is not worthy of your deliberate and favora^
Me conskleratioii. And while looking at the cost of the work, you
will not fail to see, that in a fbw years it Wotild bring such an in«
crease of population and capital as i^ould reduce the general bur-
thens of the people four-fold the amount of the expenditure. I shall
hiy before you a priuted circular letter addressed tb me on this sub*
jbct, and sigiied by a vt^rv \irg)d number of th6 most intelligent ^hdf
anterpriabg citizens of tro Slate. The Views expressed in this let*'
tisr w31 attract your attention, and, 1 doubt hot^ commahd ybui^
livor.

Some of tho avib of local leaislation have developed tbemselvei
ia the practical efiects of the Act giving exclusive jurisdiction of



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certain crimioal oSboces defined bv the general lawa of the State, to
justices of the peace, in several of the counties. Among these of-
fences is that of assault and batteiy. Under the act concerning
crimes and punishment, in the Revised Code, an assault and battery
may be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars, and
imprisonment for any term of time not exqeeding six months. By
the Act conferring exclusive jurisdiction on justices of the peace, iA
the counties alluded to, no fine can be imposed higher than twenty^
five dollars; and thus, in tliose counties, an assault and battery, no
matter how aggravated, cannot be punished by a fine exceeding that
fimount. Another bad efiect of this Act is, that upon the trial of
an indictment in a Circuit Court for an assault and battery vriib in*
tent to commit a felony, if the mtent to commit a felony is pot, in
the opinion of the jury, proved, the Court has no jurisdiction to in*
flict a punishment for the simple assault aud battery. But when the
case is dismissed for that cause and comes to be re-tried before a

I'ustice of the peace, the justice may think the intent to commit a
elony sufficiently proved, and in that case, he, also, would be divest-
ed of jurisdiction. Thus in bandying the case to and fro, the offend*^
er may escape punishment altogether, and that, too, when his of-
fence is of the most a|;gravated character. This subject requurea
your immediate attention.

The subject of a small appropriation annually to the State Libra-
ry, sufficient to pay for one or more of the newspapers published in
each of the counties of this State, to be regularly filed and bound, 10
worthy of your attention. In this way, we shall, for an inconsider*
able sum, obtain a history of our State, that will be of great advan*
tage in after times. You will then have in detail the general and
local policy of counties, in connection with the opinions of men;
the history of individuals and families ; addresses ; notices of all
kinds; marriages, deaths, &c., besides important local statistics not
easily obtains from other sources. How hijghly would we prize
full files of papers, which have been published in our State since the
year 1804— since 18207 Thev would be more sought after tham
any work found in the State Librar)r. By tliis means, you would
preserve the religious, moral and political history of our State, from
year to year ; and although you would have a vast variety, much,
of but little value ; yet, it u from this alone, in after times, that our
history is. to be written. To this, the historian must go, to do jus-
tice to the men and the age of which he writes.

The work on the Wabash and Erie Canal, under the judicious
QianagementoftheTrusteeSfhas been prosecuted steadily towards com'*
pletion, according to their plan as submitted in their first report to the
General Assembfy. By the contracts which they have made, the
canal will be finished to EvansviUe within the time, after making
lust allowance as provided for in the act, for the delays which have
been occasioned by Providential causes not within the control of the
Trustees.



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Banning the woiic at Coal Creek» irberd the State lert it, they:
kavennished and brought into use seventy-niDe miles from that place,
to Point Commerce.

The Newberrv and Maysville divbion, extending from. Point
Commerce to Blaysville, forty-nine miles, is nearly finished ; and
but for the interruptions occasioned by cholera among the laborers
on the line during the last two seasons, wpuld have been finished iu
dme for the navigation of next spring.

Bvthe report of the Trustees, it appears that one hundred and fifty
of the laborers on the Kne died of cholera during the last summer.

The entire balance of the line from Maysville to Evansville is
under contract, and the work in progress, to be completed by the
first day of November, 1852.

The length of the line now under work from Point Commerce to
Bvansville, is one hundred and eleven and a half miles; upon which
there has been employed, during the past season, an eflicient force
of near two thousand men.

It is gratifying to find from the reports of the Trustees, that not-
withstanding the great advance in the price of labor which has ta«
ken place since they coihmenced the work, the actual cost ot
the completion will not materially exceed the estimates which were
made in 1845, prior to the transfer.

The cost, according to contract prices, from Coal Creek to Evans-
ville, — one hundred and ninety and a half miles, (exclusive of dam-
ages for the right of way,) will not vary much from $3,012,000*
The actual sum cannot be known, until the contracts are closed and
the work paid for.

The certain and speedy completion of this canal, the longest in
the United States, through the territory of Indiana to the Ohio riv-
er; — a work which has ever been regarded with such interest by
oar citizens, and the partial completion of which has already con-
ferred such direct benefits upon so large a portion of those
living along and near to it, and upon the whole State in the addition
whicn it has been the means of making to its population and taxable
property; — is a subject of ffincere congratulation. And when we
consider that this result has been attained by the agency of the hold-
ers of our bonds, and by means advanced by them at a time of great
embarrassment, it would seem to add to the obligation resting upon
OS, if any thing can add to the sacredness of State faith and State



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