International Correspondence Schools.

I.C.S. reference library; a series of textbooks prepared for the students of the International Correspondence Schools, and containing in permanent form the instruction papers, examination questions, and keys used in their various courses (Volume 6) online

. (page 1 of 40)
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I. C. S.
REFERENCE LIBRARY



A SERIES OF TEXTBOOKS PREPARED FOR THE STUDENTS OF THE

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS AND CONTAINING

IN PERMANENT FORM THE INSTRUCTION PAPERS,

EXAMINATION QUESTIONS, AND KEYS USE

IN THEIR VARIOUS COURSES



FORM LETTERS AND FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS

CATALOGS, BOOKLETS, AND FOLDERS

MANAGEMENT OF GENERAL CAMPAIGNS

MANAGEMENT OF MAIL-ORDER CAMPAIGNS

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS OF MANAGEMENT

THE ADVERTISING AGENCY
HOW TO ENTER THE PRACTICAL FIELD



SCRANTON
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY



Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY.
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.



Form Letters and Follow-Up Systems: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXT-
BOOK COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

Catalogs, Booklets, and Folders: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK
COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

Management of General Campaigns: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TBXT-
BOOK COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

Management of Mail-Order Campaigns: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXT-
BOOK COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

Miscellaneous Details of Management: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXT-
BOOK COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

The Advertising Agency: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY.
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.

How to Enter the Practical Field: Copyright, 1909, by INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK
COMPANY. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London.



All rights reserved.



PRESS OF

INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY
SCRANTON, PA.



6,00



.



CONTENTS



FORM LETTERS AND FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS Section Page

Form Letters 18 1

Mechanical Details 18 1

Use of Form Letters 18 10

Follow-Up Systems 18 12

Form Letters to the Trade 18 17

Records and Form Cards 18 19

Mailing Lists 18 25

Postage for Follow-Up Matter 18 28

Folders and Envelope Slips in Follow-Ups 18 29

Writing of Form Letters 18 30

Miscellaneous Information 18 39

Characteristics of Trade Letters .... 18 53

CATALOGS, BOOKLETS, AND FOLDERS

Circular Matter in General 19 1

Classification of Circular Matter .... 19 2

Planning Circular Matter 19 4

Mechanical Details 19 11

Size of Leaf 19 11

Number of Pages 19 13

Binding 19 15

Illustrations 19 17

Paper, Typography, and Color Harmony 19 26

Covers 19 26

Type Cover Designs 19 32

Illustrated Cover Designs 19 34

Color Harmony 19 39



iv CONTENTS

CATALOGS, BOOKLETS, AND FOLDERS

Continued Section Page
Inside Pages of Catalogs, Booklets, and

Folders 19 52

Miscellaneous Points 19 99

Planning, Writing, and Arranging of Cir-
cular Matter 20 1

Seeking Cooperation of Printer .... 20 1

Laying Out the Job 20 3

General Plan of a Circular 20 4

Making Page Layouts 20 13

Writing the Copy 20 16

Logical Treatment of Subjects 20 24

Essentials of Good Copy 20 30

Use of Testimonials 20 32

Arranging Copy for the Printer .... 20 34
Correcting Proof and Making Up Proof

Dummy 20 37

Indexing and Putting in Page Numbers . 20 42

MANAGEMENT OF GENERAL CAMPAIGNS

Introduction 21 . 1

Trade Channels 21 2

Value of the Trade Mark 21 10

Creating a Trade Mark 21 14

Trade-Mark Law and Regulations ... 21 19

Method of Using Trade Marks 21 26

The Selling Plan 22 1

Influence of Article on Sales 22 1

General Advertising Methods 22 3

Getting the Retailer's Cooperation ... 22 7

Factors That Aid in the Selling Plan . . 22 10

Planning the Campaign 22 16

Typical Campaigns 22 20

Ideal Gas-Heated-Iron Campaign .... 22 20

Imperial Coffee Campaign 22 26

Encyclopedia Campaign 22 33

Automobile Campaign 22 47



CONTENTS v

MANAGEMENT OF MAIL-ORDER CAMPAIGNS Section Page

Mail-Order Advertising 23 1

Possibilities of Mail-Order Business . . 23 3

General Mail-Order Advertising .... 23 7

Specialty Mail-Order Advertising . . . . 23 8

Planning a Mail-Order Business .... 23 11

Selling Plan 23 11

Cooperation of Customers 23 25

Fixing Cost of Inquiries and Orders . . 23 26

Preparation of Copy 23 33

Selection of Mediums 23 40

Examples of Campaigns 23 41

Complexion-Remedy Campaign .... 23 42

Smoking-Tobacco Campaign 23 52

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS OF MANAGEMENT

Introduction 24 1

Recording and Checking of Advertising . 24 2

Importance of Checking Advertisements 24 2

Checking of Mail-Order Advertising . . 24 4

Checking of General Advertising .... 24 10

Checking of Retail Advertising .... 24 12

Record Systems for Checking 24 15

Miscellaneous Points for Advertisers . . 24 23

Copyrights 24 39

THE ADVERTISING AGENCY

Agency Service 25 1

Agents' Commissions 25 3

Location 25 10

Organization 25 10

Working Methods of Agencies 25 22

Appropriations for Advertising Cam-
paigns 25 27

Extension of Credit 25 28

Difficulties of Establishing An Agency . 25 29

Relation of Advertiser and Agency ... 25 31

Other Details of Importance 25 33



vi CONTENTS

How TO ENTER THE PRACTICAL FIELD Section Page

Kinds of Positions 26 1

Ad-Writer 26 1

Ad-Solicitor 26 3

Advertising Manager 26 6

Position With an Advertising Agency . . 26 8

Building Up an Ad-Writing Business . . 26 11

General Information 26 11

Soliciting Business by Mail 26 23

How to Get a Position 26 33



FORM LETTERS AND FOLLOW-
UP SYSTEMS



FORM LETTERS



MECHANICAL DETAILS

1. A great deal of effective advertising is done by means
of form letters, which are letters printed in imitation of
typewriting. In most of these letters, the date, the name
and address, and sometimes other lines are inserted with the
typewriter.

In business intercourse, a letter is the best substitute for
personal conversation, and the well-prepared form letter,
though the body matter is printed and precisely the same
communication is sent to thousands, reflects more of the
individuality than any other form of printed matter. The
reason for the effectiveness of a form letter is not difficult
to understand; it is better adapted to"direct talk" than any
other class of advertising matter, and merely because it is a
letter, it is more likely to command attention. A man may
throw ordinary printed matter aside, but he is more than
likely to give some attention to the letters addressed directly
to him.

2. Production of Form Letters . Printing offices in
nearly all of the larger cities can furnish form letters from
typewriter type that are good imitations of typewriting. In
fact, some form letters look so much like typewriting that,

Copyrighted by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

jia



2 FORM LETTERS AND 18

when the names and addresses are inserted carefully, it is
extremely difficult to distinguish the difference.

There are a number of processes for producing form letters,
some of which are much superior to the others. When about
to order form letters, it is a good plan to ask the printer to
show some samples of work of that kind that he has done
for others. Then it may be seen how nearly like typewriting
this printer's work is and how closely inserted names and
addresses can be made to match the shade and general effect
of the printed body of the letter.

3. In Fig. 1 is shown a good example of a form letter
just as the printer would deliver it to a customer. This
letter is printed with ink from set type, the "typewriter"
effect being produced by a thin cloth that is spread over the
type during the printing. With a purple record ribbon on the
typewriter, dates, names, and addresses can be inserted in
letters of this kind so well that a great many persons will
not notice that part is printed and part is typewritten.

Where letters are produced by the "ribbon" process a
process in which printing is done by means of an inked
ribbon, so as to give exactly the effect produced by the type
of a typewriter striking through a ribbon it is customary
for the printer to furnish the customer with a strip of the
ribbon used in printing the job. This strip can then be put
on the typewriter and, by careful operating, the names and
addresses can be inserted in the same shade as the body
matter of the letters.

It is not always easy to match well with a typewritev
the form letters produced by stencil processes, and it is
almost impossible to match those printed direct from se'i
type with no intervening thin cloth or ribbon.

4. Styles of Typewriter Type. Typewriting machines
as a rule are fitted with type that corresponds with the
12-point, or pica, size used in printing, but some are fitted
with a style of type called "61ite," which has a 10-point face.
In Fig. 2 are shown four styles of typewriter type. While
the faces of the pica sizes are about the same, a close




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18 FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS 3

examination will show that the Smith-Premier style is differ-
ent from the Remington, and that the Oliver is slightly
different from each of the others. Therefore, if the inserting
of names and addresses in the form letters is to be done on
a certain typewriter, it will be important to have the letters
printed from type that corresponds. The elite style of type
possesses advantages over the 12-point styles in that it is
very neat and that more words can be put on one sheet by
its use. Large printing houses usually have a number of the
different styles of typewriter type on hand.

5. Stationery for Form Letters. For most classes
of follow-up work, a letterhead printed in a simple style
and on paper of good quality is best. However, illustrated
and special letterheads are coming into use to some extent

Send orders to the nearest smith-premier. Pica
We have printed the above Rem taton,
Sold in weight fonts ,of 25 onver,pi ca
The Elite is one of the most pop Bute do-point)



for form-letter work. A clothier, for instance, may have a
cut made of a new style of coat that will be worn during the
season, and by using a letterhead with this illustration on it,
will combine an advertisement with his form letter. A large
electrical concern has used successfully a dozen or more
special letterheads in its form-letter work. A letterhead
illustrated with the figures of two chefs was used for setting
forth the advantages of the electric current for cooking, and
in each of the other letters an illustration especially adapted
to the subject of the letter was used. Sometimes, a dis-
played catch phrase or an interesting selling point of the
article is printed at the top of the letterhead, the idea being
that with this special feature the letter is more likely to
command attention.



4 FORM LETTERS AND 18

Some advertisers, fearing that their letters will be thrown
away if the usual business card in the corner of the envel-
ope is noticed, use plain envelopes. Others go so far as to
have envelope addresses pen-written by women. Whether
this plan is advisable depends on the character of the solicita-
tion and the class of people to which the letter is directed.

6. Cost of Form .Letters. Where printed letterheads
are furnished by the customer, a 1-page letter of about the
character of that shown in Fig. 1 will cost from $3 to $4 for
a single thousand. For larger orders, the cost per thousand
will be materially reduced; that is, for 2,000 lots, the rate
would probably be from $2.50 to $2.75 a thousand, and for
10,000 lots, the rate would likely be in the neighborhood of
90 cents or $1 a thousand. These prices do not refer to the
ribbon process, which, as a rule, costs about $1 a thousand
more than the cheaper processes; nor, as just mentioned, do
these figures include the cost of letterheads. If the printer
is to furnish the letterheads, that cost will be extra. As in
other classes of printing, prices are by no means uniform
among printers; therefore, the foregoing estimates should be
considered merely as a general guide in determining the
cost of producing form letters.

7. In furnishing the printer with letterheads for form-
letter jobs, it is always advisable to send some extra copies,
say about 15 or 20 on an order for 1,000, and 50 or 75 on an
order for 5,000. In getting the job ready for printing and in
the presswork, a number of letterheads are always spoiled,
and it is necessary for the printer to have some extra copies
if he is to furnish the full count of perfect letters on the
finished job.

8. Arranging Form-Letter Copy for Printing.

The principles that apply to the arrangement of busi-
ness letters in general also apply to form letters; that is,
there should not be so much matter furnished that the letter
will appear crowded. This is a common fault of form let-
ters. In preparing the copy, the letter should be type-
written carefully on a letterhead of the kind that is to be



18 FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS 5

used in printing, in order to be sure that the matter balances
well. Care should also be taken to have a blank margin of
at least f inch at both the left side and the right side of
the sheet. If the names and addresses are to be inserted
afterwards, enough blank space should be left at the top of
the body matter of the letter for that purpose, as in Fig. 1.
If the matter is to be set single-spaced, or solid, as it is
termed in printing, as shown in Fig. 1, a blank space of one
line should be left between paragraphs. A great many form
letters are printed without this blank space between para-
graphs, thus giving a crowded appearance, much unlike good
typewriting, which these letters are supposed to imitate.

As a rule, a full page of typewritten matter should not
consist of less than three paragraphs. Four or even five
paragraphs are still better. Frequent paragraphing adds
materially to the readability of the letter, especially if it is
single-spaced; if it is double-spaced, the need for frequent
paragraphing is not so urgent.

There is no dash on the usual typewriter keyboard, and in
typewriting and printing many stenographers and printers
use one hyphen as a makeshift. This is wrong; two
hyphens must be used, one immediately after the other, so
that there will be some distinction between the hyphen and
the dash.

9. Some form letters are printed with a salutation, such
as Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Friend, or with no saluta-
tion, and are mailed without any names or addresses being
inserted, as shown in Fig. 3. Of course, such letters can be
sent out more quickly and at less expense than those in
which dates, names, and addresses are inserted, but they are
somewhat lacking in directness. If no inserting is to be
done, it is not necessary that the portion of the letter printed
in typewriter type be exactly like original typewriting, but,
as stated previously, where names and addresses are to be
inserted, the printing must be practically a perfect imitation
of the typewriting, so that the average person will imagine
that the entire letter is typewritten.



EDITED BY FRANK SAMTER



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Yours very truly

THE BUSINESS SENSE COMPANY
FIG. 3



18 FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS 7

As form letters are sent out in great quantities by adver-
tisers, persons that receive much mail get so many form let-
ters that they recognize them as such unless the similarity
to original typewriting is unusually good; but even if they do,
a neat form letter with the name and address of the per-
son carefully inserted has a personal feature about it that is
lacking in all other forms of printed matter, and is therefore
more likely to be read. There are, however, thousands that
do not receive a great deal of mail and cannot tell that part
of the letter is printed. Such persons receive such a com-
munication as one written especially to them.

10. How to Provide for the Inserting of Type-
written Matter. There are various ways of making form
letters look exactly like those written on the typewriter.
One plan is to have a word or two printed wrong in the body
of the letter and then have the mistakes corrected on all the
copies with pen and ink.

Another method is to leave several lines blank in the body
of the printed letter, and then, when the name and address is
inserted, to have something of a personal nature typewritten
in these blank lines. This personal matter may include the
person's name or the name of an acquaintance of his. As
an illustration, the first line of the letter shown in Fig. 1
could be omitted in the printing and then, when the name
and address is inserted, a special line could be inserted by
the typewriter-operator as follows: "We learn from Mr.
William Jones, of your town, that you intend to take up the
study of Spanish about September 1." This plan gives a
personal feature to form letters.

Still another plan is to have a letter consist of two sheets,
the first one being printed and the other wholly type-
written. In this case, space is left at the top of the first sheet
for inserting the name and address, while the necessary
personal features are covered by the matter written on the
second sheet.

A common method is to have the printer leave space some-
where in the body of the letter so that the name of the person



8 FORM LETTERS AND 18

addressed, that of a retailer, or that of some other person
may be inserted by means of a typewriter. Suppose, for
instance, that the form letter treats of a new brand of coffee
and it is desired to refer in some way to the local grocer.
The best way to do this would be to leave a blank space near
the end of a line so that the name of the grocer would look
well, no matter if it were short or long. A letter of this kind
could start something like this: "Acting on the suggestion
of our local agent ." The object in all letters

of this kind is to use enough words to bring the blank space
for a name near the end of a line, where it will be conve-
nient for the inserting of the name and at the same time not
detract from the appearance of the letter. Using a person's
name lends a desirable conversational tone to the letter.

11. The Importance of Good Matching, Good
matching is very important in inserting names, addresses,
and other matter in form letters. Most form letters are
poor in this respect. It may seem to be a simple task to
match the body of a form letter printed in purple ink, but it
will be found that there are a great many shades of purple.
The ribbon on the typewriter must be the exact shade of the
ink used in printing, and the operator must be careful to
strike the keys of the typewriter just hard enough to have
the impression of the typewriter type match the work of the
printer. Care must also be taken to insert words and lines
in exactly the right place.

12. Addressing Form Letters. Only operators
experienced in inserting names and addresses in form letters
can do this kind of work rapidly and well. To do it rapidly,
the operator should have practice enough to place the form
letters in the typewriter in the proper position without much
adjusting. To get the best effect, the machine should have
on it several pieces of ribbon, some used more than others,
so that when the printing on the form letters is a little heavy,
or dark, a fresher ribbon may be used, and so on. Even in
a small lot of letters, the printing of some of them will be
darker than that of others.



18 FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS 9

13. In an 8-hour day, an expert operator can insert from
600 to 800 dates, names, and addresses in form letters, and
fold and place these letters in envelopes. If the operator
must address the envelopes in addition, from 300 to 400 let-
ters a day would be considered a good average. Special
paper guides for typewriters are available for use in doing
this work, so that the form letters may be inserted in the



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