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Mine haulage ; Hoisting and hoisting appliances ; Surface arrangements at bituminous mines ; Surface arrangements at anthracite mines ; Percussive and rotary boring ; Compressed-air coal-cutting machinery online

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Mine Haulage ; Hoisting and
Hoisting Appliances ; Surface .

nternational Correspondence Schools

UW COLLEGE O-^ ^ •* ■-'■
215 N. RANT-'^! ' /-


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Copyright. 1898, 1899, 1900, by The Colliery Engineer Company.
Copyright, 1908, by International Textbook Company.

Mine Haulage : Copyright, 1885, 1898, by THE COLLIERY Engineer Company.
Hoisting and Hoisting Appliances : Copyright, 1806, by The COLLIERY ENGINEER

Surface Arrangements at Bituminous Mines : Copyright, 1886, by THE COLLIERY

Engineer Company.
Surface Arrangements at Anthracite Mines : Copyright, 1896, by The Colliery

Engineer Company.
Percussive and Rotary Boring: Copyright, 1899, by THE COLLIERY ENGINEER

Compressed-Air Coal-Cutting Machinery : Copyright, 1900, by THE COLLIERY

Engineer Company.

All rights reserved.





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SEP 2 ^ 1903


The International Library of Technology is the outgrowth
of a large and increasing demand that has arisen for the
Reference Libraries of the International Correspondence
Schools on the part of those who are not students of the
Schools. As the volumes composing this Library are all
printed from the same plates'used in printing the Reference
Libraries above mentioned, a few words are necessary
regarding the scope and purpose of the instruction imparted
to the students of — and the class of students taught by —
these Schools, in order to afford a clear understanding of
their salient and unique features.

The only requirement for admission to any of the courses
offered by the International Correspondence Schools is that
the .ipplicant shall be able to read the English language and
to write it sufficiently well to make his written answers to
the questions asked him intelligible. Each course is com-
plete in itself, and no textbooks are required other than
those prepared by the Schools for the particular course
selected. The students themselves are from every class,
trade, and profession and from every country; they are,
almost without exception, busily engaged in some vocation,
and can spare but little time for study, and that usually
outside of their regular working hours. The information
desired is such as can be immediately applied in practice,
so that the student may be enabled to exchange his
present vocation for a more congenial one or to rise to a
higher level in the one he now pursues. Furthermore, he


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wishes to obtain a good working knowledge of the subjects
treated in the shortest time and in the most direct manner

In meeting these requirements, we have produced a set of
books that in many respects, and particularly in the general
plan followed, are absolutely unique. In the majority of
subjects treated the knowledge of mathematics required is
limited to the simplest principles of arithmetic and men-
suration, and in no case is any greater knowledge of
mathematics needed than the simplest elementary principles
of algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, with a thorough,
practical acquaintance with the use of the logarithmic
table. To effect this result, derivations of rules and
formulas are omitted, but thorough and complete instruc-
tions are given regarding how, when, and under what
circumstances any particular rule, formula, or process
should be applied; and whenever possible one or more
examples, such as would be likely to arise in actual practice
— together with their solutions — are given to illustrate and
explain its application.

In preparing these textbooks, it has been our constant
endeavor to view the matter from the student's standpoint,
and to try and anticipate everything that would cause him
trouble. The utmost pains have been taken to avoid and
correct any and all ambiguous expressions — both those due
to faulty rhetoric and those due to insufficiency of statement
or explanation. As the best way to make a statement,
explanation, or description clear is to give a picture or a
diagram in connection with it, illustrations have been used
almost without limit. The illustrations have in all cases
been adapted to the requirements of the text, and projec-
tions and sections or outline, partially shaded, or full-shaded
perspectives have been used^ according to which will best
produce the desired results. Half-tones have been used
rather sparingly, except in those cases where the general
effect is desired rather than the actual details.

It is obvious that books prepared along the lines men-
tioned must not only be clear and concise beyond anything

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heretofore attempted, but they niust also possess unequaled
value for reference purposes. They not only give the
maximum of information in a minimum space, but this
information is so ingeniously arranged and correlated, and
the indexes are so full and complete, that it can at once be
made available to the reader. The numerous examples and
ex[)lanatory remarks, together with the absence of long
demonstrations and abstruse mathematical calculations, are
of great assistance in helping one to select the proper
formula, method, or process and in teaching him how and
when it should be used.

The present is the second of a series of three volumes
devoted to mining engineering and treats on the subjects of
hauling coal from the workings by the various systems in
use, of hoisting it to the surface, of the different methods of
handling it at the breaker and rendering it suitable for
marketing, together with a thorough description of the
arrangement of buildings, machinery, etc. at the surface of
both bituminous and anthracite mines. The various kinds
of percussive drills and their operation and coal-cutting
machinery operated by compressed air are also treated.
The volume will prove of value to any one interested in any
way in the subject of mechanical engineering of collieries.

The method of numbering the pages, cuts, articles, etc.
is such that each subject or part, when the subject is divided
into two or more parts, is complete in itself; hence, in order
to make the index intelligible, it was necessary to give each
subject or part a number. This number is placed at the top
of each page, on the headline, opposite the page number;
and to distinguish it from the page number it is pre-
ceded by the printer's section mark (§). Consequently, a
reference such as § 37, page 26, will be readily found by
looking along the inside edges of the headlines until § 37 is
found, and then through § 37 until page 26 is found.

International Textbook Company.

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Mine Haulage. Section,

Haulage Systems 22

Gravity-Planes 22

Engine-Planes 22

Tail-Rope System 22

Endless-Rope System 22

Wire Ropes 22

The Roadbed 22

Track Details 22

Underground Haulage 22

Haulage by Mine Locomotives .... 22

Hoisting and Hoisting Appliances.

Electric Motors 23

Engines 23

Drums 23

Rope Wheels 23

Brakes 23

Clutches 23

Indicators 23

Ropes 23

Buckets 23

Cages 23

Rope Carriers 23

Tracks and Appliances 23

Surface Arrangements op Bituminous Mines.

Surface Arrangements at a Shaft Mine . 24

Arrangement of Tracks 24

Surface Arrangements at a Mine Opened

at a Point Below the Tipple Level . . 24

Arrangement of Surface Works r^ . . 24


















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Surface Arrangements of Bituminous Mines

— Continued. Section. Page.
Surface Arrangements at Mines Opened

by Drifts 2-1: 43

Arrangement of Tipple Structure and

Fittings 2-t 63

Railroad Tracks 24 85

Mine-Car Tracks 24 87

Coke Ovens 24 91

Water-Supply 24 93

Buildings, Shops, etc 24 99

Surface Arrangements of Anthracite Minks.

General Plan of Arrangements .... 25 1

The Design of a Plant 25 9

Breakers 25 9

Boiler House 25 14

Hoisting-Engines 25 15

Breaker Engine 25 21

Drainage and Pumping Machinery . . 25 24

Head-Frames 25 25

Inclined Planes 25 28

Fans 25 32

Sundry Buildings and Other Equipments 25 35

Tracks 25 52

Water-Supply 25 54

The Preparation of Coal 25 57

The Anthracite Coal-Breaker .... 25 60

Machinery for Preparation of Coal . . 25 79

Description of Anthracite Breaker . . 25 130

Preparation of Coal in the Breaker . . 25 160

Percussive and Rotary Borincj.

Percussive Boring 26 2

Kinds of Bits 26 5

The Weights of Drills and Hammers . . 26 8
The Effect of Velocity and Weight in

Boring 26 10

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Percussive and Rotary Borinc; — CoJitinued,

Classes and Use of Hammers .... 26 12

Tempering Drills 2G 13

Power Percussive. Drills 26 17

Methods and Appliances for Deep Boring 26 30

Portable Percussive-Boring Machines . 26 42

Rotary Boring 26 45

Auger Hand-Drilling Machines .... 26 47

Auger Power Drills 26 52

The Ratchet 26 54

Appliances Used in Diamond Drilling . 26 56

Machines Used in Diamond Drilling . ' . 26 66
The Value of the Record Furnished by

the Diamond Drill 26 75

Practical Notes on Diamond Drilling . 26 86
Special Methods and Devices for Diamond

Drilling in Soft or Soluble Materials . 26 106
Special Advantages Possessed by the

Diamond Drill 26 109

The Davis Calyx Drill 26 110


Compressed-Air Coal-Cutting Machines . 27 1

Compressed-Air Power 27 2

Pick Machines 27 5

Chain-Cutter Machines 27 19

Cutter-Bar Machines 27 27

The Longwall Mining Machine .... 27 28

The Auger Mining Machine . .... 27 28

The Stanley Header 27 29

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2298. Underground haulage, whether done by wire rope
or otherwise, is always carried on in two distinct stages.
The first or local haulage is done by drawing the cars from
the working face to a gathering-up or central station, from
which the general haulage begins. From the latter station
the loaded cars are hauled in trains to the bottom of the shaft
or slope, or out of the drift, as the case may be. To secure
economy and despatch, it is necessary that the local haulage
be made as short as possible, as this work is generally done
by mules, and is more costly than mechanical haulage. For
the same reason, the general or mechanical haulage is made
as long as possible.

2299. This section deals principally with wire-rope
haulage. There are four classes of wire-rope haulage which
will constitute the principal divisions of the discussion.
They are :

1. Gravity-planes;

2. Engine-planes;

3. Tail-rope systems;

4. Endless-rope systems.



2300. This system of haulage is done by gravitation,
and, as far as the motive power is concerned, it might be
supposed that it is cheap and economical, but such a con-
clusion is not always the correct one, for very important
reasons, which should be known.

■ §22

For notice of the copyright, see page immediately following the title page.

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A prominent railway company for some years did its coal
haulage on the surface by a series of gravity-planes or self-
acting inclines. In course of time, it was found that the
work between the terminals could be more cheaply done on
a properly graded road by steam-locomotive haulage than by
gravitation. The reason for this was that many of the in-
cline roads were short, and the number of persons employed
on each short incline made in the aggregate a great number;
the repeated stoppages for detaching one set of ropes and
attaching another entailed a considerable waste of time, and
it was found impossible to keep all the inclines running in
such accord that the train from one would arrive in time to
follow that of another. The result was that the quantity of
coal hauled per day was relatively small, being only about
one-fourth of what could be hauled by steam-locomotive
haulage. It was also found that the cost of ropes, rollers,
and the services of the men employed far more than counter-
balanced the cost of fuel and other expenses incidental to
locomotive haulage. These same conditions occur in the
mine, and in the same way the limitations of a costless power
sometimes cause stoppages that reduce the output to such
an extent that either direct steam-power or transmitted
power is found to be better and cheaper. There are con-
ditions under which gravity-planes are cheap and effective,
but these are seldom found in the principal or primary haul-
age, excepting when the self-acting incline haulage is done
with an endless rope.

2301* The haulage on self-acting inclines where the
pitch is heavy is done with a pair of ropes and a pair of
drums, by which arrangement the trains can be kept under
perfect control with the brake, as no slipping of the rope on
the drums can occur. Where the pitch is light, a single
rope is used, in which case the rope is given one turn
upon the head-wheel. This is found to be quite sufficient,
for under such conditions it is not necessary for the brake
to be so tightly applied as to cause the one coil of rope
to slip.

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2302. Until quite recently, the only self-acting inclines
in use were those just noticed, but now self-acting inclines
with endless ropes are fast displacing them. Each of the
two rope systems is subject to very sharply defined limits,
because the rope reaching to the bottom of the incline soon
weighs as much as the descending coal, and then the gravity
of the coal ceases to supply the required motive power.

2303. For exahiple, if on an incline with 4 per cent,
grade, the rope reaching to the foot weighs 2,000 lb., a
loa(ied car 4,000 lb., and an empty car 1,500 lb., the loaded
car will not exert force enough to pull the empty car up, for
the following reasons :

First, the friction, which amounts to about -jV ^^ the load,
must be considered; second, the fact that the descending
car balances the ascending car must be borne in mind ; there-
fore, the force is exerted only by the Coal in the loaded car.

The resistance offered by the rope is caused by (a) its

weight, and (6) the friction due to its weight. To move the

rope up the incline regardless of friction requires 2,000 X .04,

or 80 lb. To this must be added the friction, which amounts

2 000
to * , or 50 lb., making the total force required to move

the rope equal to 80 + 50 = 130 lb.

Now, the force required to move the rope must all come
from the weight of the coal in the loaded car. On a 4 per
cent, incline the 2,500 lb. would exert a force parallel to the
incline equal to 4 per cent, of 2,500 lb., or 100 lb. From this
must be subtracted the friction due to both the loaded and

4,000-1-1,500 -.o«r^,u XT 1 *u .

empty cars, or-^ j- = 137.5 lb. Now, we know that

we can not subtract 137.5 from 100, and, therefore, it is evi-
dent that the loaded car is entirely too light to start the
empty car and rope from the bottom.

To make the matter more clear, let the grade be 6 per
cent., and the weights of rope, cars, and coal be the same as
in the previous example. Now, the force required to move

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the rope will be equal to (2,000 X .06) + ^^^^—- = 1701b.

The pull exerted by the 2,500 lb. of coal will be 2,500 X
.06 = 150 lb. The friction due to the coal and the two cars

will be ^^^^^ + '^y^^^ = 137.5 ib. This must be subtracted

from the 150 lb. to obtain the net force due to the weight of

the coal; thus, 150 — 137.5 = 12.5 lb. Since the coal in

one loaded car, under the conditions given, exerts a working

force of but 12.5 lb., it is plain that it will be necessary to

run several cars in a trip to get force enough to overcome

the friction of the rope. As the force necessary to move

the rope is 170 lb., it will require in each trip -r^r-z^ 13.6,

or 14 cars.

2304. When gravity-planes are run with a pair of ropes,
the grade should increase as the length increases. This in-
crease, however, can not always be secured, because we
must take a grade as we find it. The length of an incline
may be increased until the number of cars in the train can
not lift the heavy rope. This conclusion is apparent when
it is understood that if the weight of the rope per foot
remains the same, and if the length of the incline is double,
the number of cars in a train must be doubled. This state-
ment, however, still falls short of the exact truth, for as the
number of cars in a train increases in number, the weight per
foot of the rope for such trains must also increase, and the
result is that gravity-planes exceeding half a mile in length
are seldom found, except where the pitch is SO*' or more.

It is now clear that for an incline to be self-acting the use-
ful gravity force (or the force that remains after the friction
due to the weights of a double train of cars and the load in
one of them has been subtracted from the weight that
gravitates) must exceed the gravity weight of the rope and
the friction due to its weight.

2305. There are cases in the local or secondary haulage
of a mine where a gravity-plane is of great value. For

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instance, where the working face is advancing up grade,
self-acting inclines called '*jigs" are adopted. These are
self-acting inclines in which a balance-weight is pulled up
by the descending full car, and the empty car in turn is
pulled up to the working face by the balance-weight, or jig-
weight, as it is generally called. In some of these, the loaded
truck or jig runs on narrow-gauge rails between the rails of
the ordinary track, and in other cases the jig is made to run
on a track in a parallel opening. Short, self-acting inclines
are also used to advantage in running loaded cars from a
counter gangway to the main gangway, driven at a lower


2306* Fig. 811 shows an ordinary self-acting incline, or
one in which the weight of the coal in a loaded train acts
as a motive force. At the head of the incline is seen the
drum, or reel A, around which the ropes wind. When a
single drum of this character is used, one of the ropes runs
off the top side, and the other runs off the bottom side
of the drum; a moment's consideration will explain the
reason for this. If both ropes were on one side of the drum,
they would both run off or on together, but as they coil on
opposite sides of the drum, one runs on while the other
runs off.

2307« The incline shown in Fig. 811 is provided with
double tracks, to allow the empty trains to pass each other
without danger of colliding. Between the rails are seen the
rope-rollers /, /, used to prevent the ropes trailing on the
ground. Trains on a self-acting incline begin to accelerate
in speed at a point midway in the plane, and after the
loaded cars have reached the lower side, instead of the
weight of the rope reacting against the gravity force of
the coal, it now supplements that force, and the result is an
increased speed. Unless something is done to provide for
checking the acceleration of the cars, dangers of a manifold

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character may occur. For this reason, a brake J is provided,
which is applied by an attendant at the drum. For running
the full cars onto the incline and the empty ones off of it,
proper branch tracks and switches are necessary. For ex-
ample, an automatic switch is placed at the head of the
double tracks in such a way that the loaded cars, on reach-
ing the top of the incline, may alternately take the tracks
/]/ and N, When the empty train // // reaches the head of
the incline passing out of the track iV, it passes on to the
empty car line 0\ then two loaded cars passing out of L are
automatically switched onto Ny for the empty cars, in pass-
ing out of Ny set the switch for the loaded cars to run onto N.

2308. A vertical section of the incline is seen in the
lower portion of Fig. 811. The loaded cars are descending
at F Fy and the empty cars are ascending at // H, The
rope from the top of the reel is attached to the full cars 7% F^
and the rope from the under side of the reel is attached to
the empty cars H^ H\ consequently, the drum, as seen in
the end view, is turning in the direction of the hands of a
watch; that is, running the rope off the top and running it
on at the bottom. The head-frame for carrying the drums
is such as may sometinies be seen on the surface, and also
in the mine. Grip-wheels and fleet-wheels have in a great
many cases displaced the head-frame, but there are cases in

Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsMine haulage ; Hoisting and hoisting appliances ; Surface arrangements at bituminous mines ; Surface arrangements at anthracite mines ; Percussive and rotary boring ; Compressed-air coal-cutting machinery → online text (page 1 of 46)