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K.F. WENDT LIBRARY

UW COLLEGE OF ENGR.

215 N. RANDALL AVENUE

MADISON Wl 53706




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K.R WENDT LIBRARY

UW COLLEGE OF ENGR.

215 N. RANDALL AVENUE

MADISON Wl 53706



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INTERNATIONAL
LIBRARY OF TECHNOLOGY



A SERIES OF TEXTBOOKS FOR PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE ENGINEERING

PROFESSIONS AND TRADES OR FOR THOSE WHO DESIRE

INFORMATION CONCERNING THEM. FULLY ILLUSTRATED

AND CONTAINING NUMEROUS PRACTICAL

EXAMPLES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS



PEACH CULTURE

PLUM CULTURE

GRAPE CULTURE

STRAWBERRIES

RASPBERRIES

BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES

CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES



6130oX



SCRANTON:

INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY

125



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Peach Colttire: Copyright, 1918, by International Textbook Company.
Plum Culture: Copyrisrht, 1918. by International Textbook Company.
Grape Culture: Copyright, 1918, by International Textbook Company.
Strawberries: Copyright, 1918, by International Textbook Company.
Raspberries: Copyright, 1918, by International Textbook Company.
Blackberries and Dewberries: Copyright, 1913, by International Textbook

Company.
Currants and Gooseberries: Copyright, 1918. by International Textbook

Company

Copyright In Great Britain.



All rights reserved.



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125



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182225

FEB 27 I9i4



PREFACE



The International Library of Technology is the outgrowth
of a large and increasing demand that has arisen for the
Reference Libraries of the International Correspondence
Schools on the part of those who are not students of the
Schools. As the volumes composing this Library are all
printed from the same plates used in printing the Reference
Libraries above mentioned, a few words are necessary
regarding the scope and purpose of the instruction imparted
to the students of — ^and the class of students taught by —
these Schools, in order to afford a clear understanding of
their salient and unique features.

The only requirement for admission to any of the courses
offered by the International Correspondence Schools, is that
the applicant shall be able to read the English language and
to write it sufficiently well to make his written answers to
the questions asked him intelligible. Each course is com-
plete in itself, and no textbooks are required other than
those prepared by the Schools for the particular course
selected. The students themselves are from every class,
trade, and profession and from every country; they are,
almost without exception, busily engaged in some vocation,
and can spare but little time for study, and that usually
outside of their regular working hours. The information
desired is such as can be immediately applied in practice, so
that the student may be enabled to exchange his present
vocation for a more congenial one, or to rise to a higher level
in the one he now pursues. Furthermore, he wishes to
obtain a good working knowledge of the subjects treated in
the shortest time and in the most direct manner possible.

iii



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iv PREFACE

In meeting these requirements, we have produced a set of
books that in many respects, and particularly in the general
plan followed, are absolutely unique. In the majority of
subjects treated the knowledge of mathematics required is
limited to the simplest principles of arithmetic and mensu-
ration, and in no case is any greater knowledge of mathe-
matics needed than the simplest elementary principles of
algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, with a thorough,
practical acquaintance with the use of the logarithmic table.
To effect this result, derivations of rules and formulas are
omitted, but thorough and complete instructions are given
regarding how, when, and under what circumstances any
particular rule, formula, or process should be applied; and
whenever possible one or more examples, such as would be
likely to arise in actual practice — together with their solu-
tions — are given to illustrate and explain its application.

In preparing these textbooks, it has been our constant
endeavor to view the matter from the student's standpoint,
and to try and anticipate everything that would cause him
trouble. The utmost pains have been taken to avoid and
correct any and all ambiguous expressions — both those due
to faulty rhetoric and those due to insufficiency of statement
or explanation. As the best way to make a statement,
explanation, or description clear is to give a picture or a
diagram in connection with it, illustrations have been used
almost without limit. The illustrations have in all cases
been adapted to the requirements of the text, and projec-
tions and sections or outline, partially shaded, or full-shaded
perspectives have been used, according to which will best
produce the desired results. Half-tones have been used
rather sparingly, except in those cases where the general
effect is desired rather than the actual details.

It is obvious that books prepared along the lines men-
tioned must not only be clear and concise beyond anything
heretofore attempted, but they must also possess unequaled
value for reference purposes. They not only give the maxi-
mum of information in a minimum space, but this infor-
mation is so ingeniously arranged and correlated, and the



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PREFACE V

indexes are so full and complete, that it can at once be made
available to the reader. The numerous examples and explan-
atory remarks, together with the absence of long demonstra-
tions and abstruse mathematical calculations, are of great
assistance in helping one to select the proper formula, method,
or process and in teaching him how and when it should be used.

This volume, which is the second in this library on fruit
growing, deals with peaches, plimis, grapes, and the small fruits,
including strawberries, red, black, and purple-cane raspberries,
blackberries, dewberries, currants, and gooseberries. These
fruits are accorded the same completeness of treatment that
marked the discussion of the fruits in the first voltmie. For
each fruit, the topics covered include a thorough description
of varieties, sjrstems of planting, the methods of management,
harvesting, storage, and marketing, and the insect pests,
diseases, and miscellaneous injuries, with a full description
of each and a discussion of the best methods of control or
prevention. In the consideration of the peach, the renova-
tion of old orchards is treated at some length. The many
systems of pruning and training grapes are fully and expUcitly
described and illustrated. Emphasis is placed on the commer-
cial possibilities of small fruit growing, and every effort has
been made to present in a simple and concise form the some-
what complicated methods of producing these fruits. The
volume is profusely illustrated and many of the fruits are shown
in colors.

The method of niunbering the pages, cuts, articles, etc. is
such that each subject or part, when the subject is divided
into two or more parts, is complete in itself; hence, in order
to make the index inteUigible, it was necessary to give each
subject or part a number. This number is placed at the top
of each page, on the headline, opposite the page nimiber;
and to distinguish it from the page ntmiber it is preceded by
the printer's section mark (§). Consequenty, a reference
such as § 16, page 26, wiU be readily foimd by looking along
the inside edges of the headlines imtil § 16 is found, and then
through § 16 tmtil page 26 is found.

International Textbook Company



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CONTENTS



Peach Culture Section Page

Introduction 10 1

Varieties of Peaches 10 3

Peach Pests and Injtiries 10 3

Diseases of Peaches 10 8

Insects Attacking Peaches 10 20

Miscellaneous Injuries 10 29

Peach-Orchard Establishment 11 1

Size and Location for a Peach Orchard ... 11 1

Selection of Varieties 11 7

Procuring of TVees 11 7

Planting of Trees 11 13

Peach-Orchard Management 11 17

Management During the First Year .... 11 17

Management After the First Year 11 18

Pruning of Peach Trees 11 18

Spraying of Peach Trees 11 27

Fertilizing of Bearing Peach Orchards ... 11 28

Cultivating of Peach Orchards 11 30

Growing of Cover Crops in Peach Orchards . 11 31

Thinning of Peaches 11 33

Renovation of Neglected Peach Orchards . .11 34

Harvesting of Peaches 11 36

Marketing of Peaches 11 48

Plum Culture

Species and Important Varieties of Plums . 12 1

Importance of Plum Growing 12 1

Classification of Plums 12 2

Important Varieties of Pltmis 12 8

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iv CONTENTS

Plum Culture — (Continued) Section Page

Nursery Trees 12 22

Establishment of the Orchard 12 26

Orchard Operations 12 29

Handling of the Plxun Crop 12 33

Plum Pests and Injuries 12 35

Grape Culture

Introduction 13 1

Species of Grapes 13 3

Varieties of Grapes 13 7

Vinifera Varieties 13 7

Labrusca Varieties 13 25

Rotimdifolia Varieties 13 38

Aestivalis Varieties 13 43

Riparia Varieties 13 47

Diseases of Grapes 13 55

Insect Pests Attacking Grapes 13 64

Miscellaneous Troubles 13 76

Vineyard Establishment 14 1

Choosing of a Location 14 1

Selection of Varieties 14 8

Procuring of Vines for Planting 14 9

Planting of a Vineyard 14 15

Vineyard Management 14 20

General Cultural Operations 14 20

Pruning and Training of Grapes 14 28

Spraying of Grapes 14 50

Harvesting, Packing, and Marketing of

Grapes 14 52

Grape By-Products 14 62

Strawberries

Introduction 15 1

Selection of Varieties 15 8

Varieties of Strawberries 15 9

Varieties Suitable to a Location 16 18

Selection of Nursery Stock 15 24

Propagation From Runners 15 24



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CONTENTS V

Strawbbrribs — (Contintied) Section Page

Propagaticwi From Seed 15 28

Selection of Nursery Plants 15 30

Strawberry Planting 16 1

Strawberry-Plantation Management ... 16 14

Cultivation 16 14

Water Supply for Strawberries 16 17

Irrigation of Strawberries 16 18

Mulching of Strawberries 16 19

Rotation for Strawberries 16 22

Fertilization of Strawberries 16 23

Thinning of Strawberry Runners 16 25

Insect Pests 16 26

Diseases 16 27

Frost Injuries and Frost Protection .... 16 29

Winter Killing 16 30

Causes of Poorly Shaped Strawberries ... 16 30

Harvesting and Marketing 16 31

Raspberries

Red Raspberries 17 1

Size, Soil, and Exposure for a Red Raspberry

Plantation 17 3

Varieties of Red Raspberries 17 8

Selection of Varieties Suitable to a Location 17 10

Propagation of Red Raspberries 17 13

Planting of Red Raspberries 17 16

Tillage for Red Raspberries 17 18

Pruning of Red Raspberries 17 19

Fertilization of Red Raspberries 17 23

Raspberry Pests and Injuries 17 26

Harvesting and Marketing of Red Rasp-
berries 17 34

Black Raspberries 17 36

Varieties of Black Raspberries 17 37

Sdection of Varieties Suitable to a Location 17 39

Propagation of Black Raspberries 17 42

Planting of Black Raspberries 17 44



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vi CONTENTS

Raspberries — (Continued) Section Page
Tillage, Pruning, and Fertilization of Black

Raspberries 17 45

Harvesting and Marketing of Black Rasp-
berries 17 48

Purple-Cane Raspberries 17 62

Blackberries and Dewberries

Blackbenies 18 1

Varieties of Blackberries 18 4

Selection of Nursery Stock 18 11

Planting of Blackberries 18 14

Blackberry-Plantation Culture 18 16

Insect Pests and Injuries 18 23

Harvesting and Marketing of Blackberries . 18 24

Dewberries 18 26

Varieties of Dewberries and Nursery Stock . 18 26
Planting, Cultivation, Pruning, and Harvest-
ing of Dewberries 18 29

Blackberry-Raspberry Hybrids 18 34

The Loganberry 18 38

Currants and Gooseberries

Currants 19 1

Size and Location of a Currant Plantation .19 4

Selection of Varieties 19 10

Propagation of Currants 19 18

Selection of Nursery Stock 19 26

Planting of Currants 19 27

Currant Plantation Culture 19 30

Insects Attacking Currants 19 38

Diseases of Currants 19 41

Harvesting, Storing, and Marketing .... 19 45

Gooseberries 19 49

Selection of Varieties 19 52

Selection of Nursery Stock 19 65

Planting, Pruning, and Fertilization .... 19 65

Insects and Diseases of Gooseberries .... 19 69

Harvesting and Marketing 19 71



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PEACH CULTURE

(PART 1)



INTRODUCTION

1. The peach was introduced into America sometime pre-
vious to 1633, and apparently thrived immediately. The
Indians assisted greatly in its distribution, and by 1733 it was
being grown rather extensively in Georgia; by 1758 it was well
known in Louisiana. Peach growing became of commercial
importance about 1830, at which time extensive plantings were
made in Southern New Jersey, in Delaware, and on the eastern
shore of Maryland. About 1848, the commercial production
of peaches was started in Michigan along the shore of Lake
Michigan. The industry soon extended from Massachusetts
to Georgia and westward to the Mississippi River. In recent
years, the introduction of hardy varieties and the practice of
efficient methods of orchard management have greatly increased
the possibilities in peach growing, and today the fruit is grown
commercially in many sections from the Great Lakes to the
Gulf of Mexico and from New Jersey to California.

Notwithstanding the fact that peach growing as an industry
is now widespread, certain districts have, because of favorable
conditions of climate, soil, markets, labor, and other such
factors,' become centers for the commercial production of the
fruit. There are, in general, only four great peach-growing
districts in North America, although there are many regions
in which small areas are favorable to the industry. The four
districts are: the Atlantic-coast region, the Great Lakes region,
the Gtdf States region, and the Pacific-coast region. Within
each of these districts there are small areas that are not

COPYRiaHTID BY INTKRNATIONAL TKXTBOOK COMPANY. ALL RIOHTS RKSKRVKO

§10

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2 PEACH CULTURE § 10

favorable to peach production. These areas are usually low,
stony, rough, or otherwise unfit for cultivation, or the trans-
portation facilities are such that peaches, if grown, could not
be profitably transported to market. Also, within each district
there are areas that are favorable to the production of peaches
but in which the industry has not been developed.

The Atlantic-coast peach-growing district includes the
southern part of Massachusetts, all of Connecticut with the
exception of a small area along the seashore, certain counties
in Eastern Pennsylvania and Southern New York, all of New
Jersey with the exception of a narrow area along the ocean
front, the greater part of Delaware and Maryland, the eastern
part of West Virginia, practically the whole of the Piedmont
region in Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia, and a few scat-
tered regions in the northern part of Florida. The coastal
plains of the Atlantic coast are not suited for peach growing.

The Gulf States peach-growing district includes the greater
part of Alabama, a large area in Mississippi, the northern and
western parts of Louisiana, the northeastern part of Texas, and
areas in Tennessee, Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas. A few
peaches are grown in Kentucky and in New M«dco, but the
industry in these states is conducted on a small scale. In Mis-
sissippi and Louisiana peach growing is largely confined to home
orchards, and is of little commercial importance. The peach
industry in the Gulf States district is developing most rapidly
in Alabama, Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri, where nimierous
orchards are being planted.

The Great Lakes peach-growing district is a narrow belt
along the shores of the Great Lakes in the states of New York,
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan, and in the province of
Ontario, Canada. The tempering effect of the water of the
lakes is responsible for the climatic condition that makes
possible the production of peaches in this district.

The Pacific-coast peach-growing district includes principally
areas in California, Washington, and Oregon, and limited
areas in Idaho, Colorado, Utah, and Nevada. Bepause of the
mountainous conditions in this district the fruit is produced
chiefly in small but specially favored areas.



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Fig. 2 §10 24909



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§ 10 PEACH CULTURE



VARIETIES OF PEACHES

2. The varieties of peaches may be classified, in a general
way, as early, mid-season, and laie, depending on the time the
fruit ripens. They may be classified, also, as clingstone and
freestone. In clingstone varieties the flesh, when the fruit is
mature, adheres more or less closely to the pit. In freestone
varieties the flesh separates readily from the pit.

A great many varieties of peadies have been propagated in
America but only a few have become of commercial importance.
The following discussion will be confined to varieties that are
grown commercially.

3, Early Varieties. — ^The following varieties may be
classed as early; they are described in about the order of their
ripening.

The Greensboro, which is the best market variety of its
season, is a good variety to plant where an early peach is in
demand. The trees are hardy and productive. The fruit ripens
very early; it is white fleshed, of medium to large size, oblong
oval, often somewhat flattened, of fair flavor, and rather soft for
long-distance shipping. The Greensboro is a clingstone variety.

The Waddell variety, illustrated in Fig. 1 , is from 8 to 10 days
later than the Greensboro, but the fruit is of more desirable flavor
and stands shipment better than that of the latter. The trees
are hardy and productive. The fruit is white fleshed, of mediimi
size, and oblong conic in shape. It is necessary, in order to
obtain good size in the fruit, to thin a crop severely. The Wad-
dell is a semiclingstone variety. It is not extensively planted.

The Carman variety, illustrated in Fig. 2, ripens a few days
after the Waddell. It is regarded as being the first important
early shipping variety, but the fruit is not of high enough flavor
for canning. The trees are hardy and bear well. The fruit
is white fleshed, large, roimdish oval in shape, and of fair flavor
for shipping piuposes. The Carman is a semiclingstone peach.



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4 PEACH CULTURE § 10

The St. Jolin is the earliest yellow-fleshed market peach
and is very acceptable for family use. A peach of this variety
is shown in Fig. 3. The trees are fairly hardy and bear well
in some localities. The fruit is of medium size, roimd, and of
high flavor, but is rather soft for long-distance shipment. The
St. John is a freestone peach.

The Mountain Rose variety, illustrated in Fig. 4, is mediiun
early, the fruit ripening from about 7 to 9 days after that of
the Carman. The trees are fairly hardy and in favorable sea-
sons bear satisfactorily. The fruit is white fleshed, of mediiun
size, nearly round, of high flavor, and has fair shipping qualities.
The variety is an old one and is rather extensively grown.
The Moimtain Rose is a freestone variety.

The Hi ley, or Early Belle, variety has displaced the
Mountain Rose peach in some localities, as the trees are hardier
and the fruit is of better shipping quality; both varieties ripen
at about the same time. The fruit of the Hiley is white fleshed,
large, oblong conic, and of high quality and flavor. The
Hiley is a freestone variety.

4. Mid-Sea«on Varieties. — The following varieties ripen
in mid-season; they are described in about the order of their
ripening.

The Clianipion variety ripens from about 5 to 8 days after
the Moimtain Rose and the Hiley. It is an especially desirable
variety for home orchards. The trees are hardy and bear well.
The fruit is white fleshed, large, round, and of the highest
flavor; it is rather soft for shipping a long distance, but otherwise
is valuable for market purposes. The Champion is a freestone
variety.

The Belle, or Belle of Georgia^ variety, illustrated in Fig. 5,
ripens a few days after the Champion. It is valuable for both
commercial and home orchards. The trees are productive and
hardy. The Belle is a freestone variety and the fruit is white
fleshed, large, oblong conic, of high flavor, very firm, and of
excellent shipping qualities.

The Reeves variety, illustrated in Fig. 6, ripens at about
the same time as the Belle. It is in much demand for home



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Fig. 6 § 10 24009



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Fig. 8



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§ 10 PEACH CULTURE 5

orchards. The trees are fairly hardy but as generally grown
are not very productive. The fruit is yellow fleshed, very
large, round, of high flavor, and has good shipping quaUties.
The Reeves is a freestone variety.

The Early Crawford variety is losing favor for commercial
orchards, except in a few localities where yellow-fleshed peaches
are extensively grown. The trees are rather tender in bud but
are productive in favorable seasons. The fruit is yellow
fleshed, of meditmi size, roimdish oval in shape, and of high
quality; it is rather too tender for shipping. The Early Craw-
ford is a freestone peach.



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 1 of 35)