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are of medium vigor. The bunches are very large, conical,
loose, and shouldered; the berries are rotmd, of medium to large
size, sometimes compressed, and pale green or yellowish in
color; the skins are thin and tender; and the flesh is rather soft,
juicy, and sweet. The Palomino is considered a very good
variety for local markets and is shipped to some extent.

22. The Rose of Peru is a very productive variety that is
well adapted for local-market sale, but the fruit does not stand
shipment well. The vines are very vigorous and productive.
The btmches are large, shouldered, and loose; the berries are
large, round, and black; the skins are rather thin and tender;
and the flesh is firm, crackling, sweet, rich, and of the best
quality.

A bunch of grapes of the Rose of Peru variety is shown in
Fig. 8.

23. The Sultana grape was formerly much cultivated in
California but in recent years it has been largely superseded
by Thompson's Seedless variety. The vines are vigorous and
upright growers. The bunches are large, heavily shouldered,
and loose; the berries are small, roimd, firm, of a golden yellow
color, and nearly or entirely seedless ; and the flesh is of a piquant
flavor.

A bimch of Sultana grapes is shown in Fig. 9.

24. Thompson's Seedless variety, which is, as the name
implies, seedless, is now the most popular seedless grape grown
on the Pacific coast, being foimd in vineyards in all parts of
the Vinifera-grape districts. The vines are very vigorous,
having an especially large trunk and long canes; the bunches
are large, cylindrical, and well filled; the berries are below
medium or small in size, and oval; the sldns are rather thick
and of a fine golden-yellow color; the flesh is firm, crisp, juicy,
and of very good quality.

A bimch of Thompson's Seedless grapes is shown in Fig. 10.



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§ 13 GRAPE CULTURE 21

25. The Tokay, or Flame Tokay, is the leading shipping
grape of the Pacific coast. The vines are very vigorous, all
parts being large. The bunches are very large, sometimes
weighing from 8 to 10 potmds, compact, and shouldered; the
berries are very large, oblong, red or reddish, and covered with
heavy bloom ; the skins are thick ; and the flesh is firm, crackling,
and of rather poor quality.

In Fig. 11 is shown a bimch of Tokay grapes.

26. The Verdal grape is grown extensively on the Pacific
coast for local-market sale and somewhat for shipping as a very
late table grape. The vines are hardy and of meditmi vigor;
the bunches are large to very large, irregular, long conical,
often with small shoulders, and compact; the berries are of a
greenish yellow color and large to very large in size; the skins
are thick but tender; the flesh is crisp and juicy but rather
insipid in flavor.

27. The Dattier de Beyroutli grape, a recent intro-
duction into California, gives promise of being extensively
cultivated. The grape is one of the most popular varieties
of Asia Minor. The bunches are large but only slightly
shouldered and never compact; the berries are large, oval in
form, very fleshy, of a beautiful golden-amber color, and arc
covered with a whitish bloom; the flesh is juicy and sweet,
with little or no acidity. The keeping qualities of the fruit
are unsurpassed. The season of this variety is August.

Fig. 12 shows a btmch of Dattier de Beyrouth grapes.

28. The Bronkane is a late shipping grape that is excellent
for table use. The bimches are large and compact ; the berries
are oval shaped, of a metallic-red color, very firm, and highly
flavored. The fruit is of better quality than that of the Emperor.
The variety is not grown extensively in California.

In Fig. 13 is shown a bimch of grapes of the Dronkane
variety.

29. The Gros Gudllaume is a black table grape of excel-
lent quality. The btmches are of medium size ; the berries are
large, often being as large as Damson plums, of the very best



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§ 13 GRAPE CULTURE 25

flavor, and black; the fruit, which has the appearance of having
been molded in wax, ripens early in September but keeps well
imtil the middle of October. The variety is recommended
for trellising.

A bunch of Gros Guillaume grapes is shown in Fig. 14.

30. The Maraville de Malaga is an excellent market
variety of table grape. The bunches are long and loose; the
berries are large, conical, oval, of a reddish color, and when the
fruit is fully matured, they have a bluish tint; the flesh is
crisp and juicy. The fruit of this variety ripens in September
and will keep in good condition until the middle of October.

Fig. 15 shows a btmch of Maraville de Malaga grapes.



LABRUSCA VARIETIES

31. The Labrusca is by far the most important species
of grapes cultivated east of the Rocky Moimtains. To this
group belong more than three-foiuths of the grapes grown in
the region in which the species thrives. The characteristics
that make Labrusca grapes preeminent are : their adaptability
to a wide range of conditions, their vigor and hardiness, their
resistance to disease, their productivity, the ease with which
they can be propagated and cultivated, and the great diversity
of the varieties. Labrusca grapes may be crossed readily with
those of other species; in fact, the Labrusca has been crossed
with the Vinifera grape and with all of the cultivated species
of the United States. The following are the most important
Labrusca varieties and hybrids.

32. The Agawam is the best known of the hybrid grapes
of the Labrusca and the Vinifera species. The quaUties that
commend the Agawam are: the vigor of the vines; the attractive
appearance, fine flavor, and excellent keeping qualities of the
fruit; and the capacity of the variety for self-fertilization.
The btmches are large; the berries, which are large and oval,
are of a beautiful purplish-red color, and have a rich, sweet,
aromatic flavor.

A btmch of Agawam grapes is shown in Fig. 16.



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28 GRAPE CULTURE §13

33. The Brighton is one of the leading varieties for
amateur grape growing and is also important as a commercial
variety, ranking among the ten or twelve leading commercial
grapes of the Middle and Eastern States. The vines are
vigorous and productive but the variety is self -sterile to a
more marked degree than any other native grape. The
Brighton is well adapted to a variety of soils and is noted
for its resistance to fungi. The fruit, which is of a light- to
dark-red color, is very attractive in appearance, but it dete-
riorates in quality very quickly after being picked.

In Fig. 17 is shown a bimch of Brighton grapes.

34. Campbell's Early variety is deficient in not being
adapted to many soils and in being rather unproductive, but
it is an excellent grape for marketing. The fruit ripens early,
usually about 2 weeks before the Concord. It is of large size,
has an attractive appearance, a rich, sweet flavor, and is of high
quality when mature. The berries, which are of a dark-piuple
color, have small seeds that separate readily from the flesh.

Fig. 18 shows the fruit of Campbell's Early variety.

35. The Catawba is one of the leading varieties of grapes
grown east of the Rocky Moimtains. One of its chief points
of excellence is its adaptability to a great variety of soils. The
vines are vigorous, hardy, and productive. The bimches are
large and very attractive; the berries, which are of a dull
purplish-red color, are rich, sweet, and delicious in flavor when
fully ripe; the skins are thick, but not disagreeable; and the
flesh is juicy, fine grained, sweet, and rich. The fruit has
splendid keeping qualities. The chief defects of the Catawba
are that it is susceptible to attacks of fimgi, and the fruit
matures so late that the variety is not well adapted for culti-
vation in northern regions.

In Fig. 19 is showTL a bunch of Catawba grapes.

36. The Concord ranks first among the grapes of the
Middle and the Eastern States. Probably 50 per cent, of the
grapes grown east of the Pacific slope are Concords, and at
least 75 i)er cent, of those jnit on the markets are of this variety.
The qualities of the Concord that make it preeminent are:



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30 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

its adaptability to many soils and climates; its great produc-
tivity; its hardiness; its ability to withstand diseases and
insects; the certainty of the fruit maturing in northern regions;
and the attractiveness of the bunches and berries, the latter
being of a beautiful blue-black color. The Concord is par-
ticularly well adapted to northern regions, because it leafs
out and blossoms late in the season and consequently does not
suffer from spring frosts. Its faults are: mediocre quality and
objectionable seeds and skins; the seeds are large and abundant,
and the skins are tough and astringent. The Concord is groTMi
in the South, but it is essentially a northern grape, as it suffers
from fungi and insects in warm climates. It is not only one
of the best shipping grapes of its class but it is the only grape
from which grape juice is made in any quantity, several thou-
sand tons being used each year in the eastern part of the United
States for this purpose.
A bimch of Concord grapes is shown in Fig. 20.

37» The Diamond is one of the leading green grapes of
the Labrusca group, being surpassed in quality and beauty
by few other grapes. In fact, it rivals Niagara for first place
among the green grapes. It is early, hardy, productive, and
vigorous, and the fruit is of splendid quality. The grapes ship
and keep fairly well and make a good white wine. The chief
fault of the Diamond is its susceptibility to attacks of fungi.

A bimch of Diamond grapes is shown in Fig. 21.

38. The Eaton is an offspring of the Concord, which it
resembles but surpasses in size of bimch and berry but does not
equal in flavor. Its season is a few days earlier than that of
the Concord. The vines are healthy, vigorous, hardy, and pro-
ductive. As the fruit is very soft and juicy and ripens early,
the variety is better suited for local-market sale than for
shipping.

39. The Empire State grape must be classed as being
one of the best of the green grapes. The vines are vigorous,
productive, and free from fungi and insects. The bimches
and berries are large and of good quality, but not quite as
attractive in appearance as those of some other green grapes.



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34 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

The fruit is excellent for wine making and may be shipped to
distant markets, as it keeps and ships well. The chief fault
of the Empire State grape, as compared with other green grapes,
is that it is not very attractive in appearance.

40. The Gaertner, which is a cross between a Vinifera
variety and a Labrusca variety, is not, when at its best, sur-
passed in appearance of the fruit by any other such hybrid.
The clusters and berries are large and handsomely colored,
being a light to dark glossy red. The vines are vigorous,
productive, and as hardy as those of any similar hybrid. The
fruit ripens unevenly and stands shipment rather poorly
because of its fine, tender skin. The Gaertner keeps well,
however, and is a splendid grape for local-market sale.

Fig. 22 shows the fruit of the Gaertner variety.

41. The Herbert has all of the ijierits and the faults of
the Gaertner, differing from it chiefly in being a black grape,
in being possibly a little more productive, and in standing
shipment a little better. It has the fault of being self-sterile
and consequently must be set near other varieties.

In Fig. 23 is shown a bunch of Herbert grapes.

42. The lona grape is unsurpassed in quality by any of
the native grapes, having a delicate and sprightly flavor, which
makes it one of the best grapes for dessert and for wines. The
bunches and berries are of medium size, the fruit being of a
beautiful light-red color. The lona is best adapted for local-
market sale, as it does not ship well and, moreover, must be
cared for much better than commercial grape growers are
willing to care for grapes. To do well it must be planted in a
deep, rather dry, sandy or gravelly soil and in a region that is
fairly free from fungi.

Fig. 24 shows a bunch of lona grapes.

43. The Jefferson grape is a cross between the Concord
and the lona. It resembles, although it does not equal, the
Concord in vigor, productivity, and healthiness of the vines;
in color and quality of fruit it resembles the lona. Two
faults debar it from general cultiu*e: it is a little too late, being



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36 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

2 weeks later than the Concord, and is not quite as hardy as
is desired. The bunches are large, well formed, and compact;
the berries are uniform in size and color, being of a beautiful
attractive red; the flesh is firm, tender, and juicy; the flavor is
sweet, rich, and vinous. The Jeflferson is one of the best grapes
for local-market sale.
Fig. 26 shows the fruit of the Jefferson variety.

44. The Salem is one of the best of the Labrusca and
Vinifera hybrids. The vines are hardy, vigorous, healthy, and
productive of handsome fruit of high quality that is suitable
for both table use and wine making. The bimches and ber-
ries are of large size, the berries being of a beautiful red color.
This variety will doubtless be more widely grown in the future
than it is at present.

45. The Vergennes is the standard late-keeping grape
in northern regions, often being found in markets as late as
January. The vines are productive and vigorotis, seldom fail-
ing to bear a crop. The bimches and berries are attractive,
the latter being of a dark-red color; the quality is not high,
yet it is good, the flavor being agreeable and neither skins
nor seeds are objectionable. This variety is somewhat unpopu-
lar, because the straggling habit of the vines makes vineyard
operations difficult.

46. The Wlnehell is a standard early green grape. The
vines are vigorous, hardy, healthy, and productive; and the
fruit keeps and ships well, remaining of very good quality
throughout the season. Unf ortimately, the bimches and berries
are small, and this, together with the fact that green grapes
are not as popular as black ones, has kept the Winchell from
being extensively i)lanted.

47. The Worden is a seedling of the Concord and has

most of the good qualities of its parent, being equally as hardy,
healthy, vigorous, and productive. It differs from the Concord,
chiefly in having larger bunches and berries, in being better
in quality, and in being a week earlier. The quality that
keeps it from being as popular as the Concord is that it is not



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38 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

as adaptable to different soils, and the berries crack badly.
The flesh of the Worden is a little softer than that of the Con-
cord and the grapes do not keep quite as well, so that the variety
is not as good for shipping. The Worden is one of the best
varieties for local-market sale in northern grape regions.
Fig. 26 shows a bimch of Worden grapes.

48. The Niagara was at one time the leading variety
of green grapes, but plantings of it have so signally failed that
it is now ranked below several other varieties. In vigor and
productiveness, it nearly equals the Concord, but in hardiness
it is far inferior to this variety and to a number of other green
grapes. The fruit, although highly esteemed by many, has
too much foxiness to be of high quaUty. The grapes shell
badly, do not keep well, and have no value for wine making.
The Niagara ripens at about the same time as the Concord.
The bimches are medium to large in size, usually shouldered,
and compact; the berries are large, oval, and of a Ught green or
pale yellow color; the sldn is thin, tender, and astringent; and
the seeds, which separate easily from the flesh, are rather
nimierous and of large size. The defects of the Niagara are
such that the variety should be planted as a commercial grape
in but few regions.

The fruit of the Niagara grape is shown in Fig. 27.



ROTUNDIFOLIA VARBETTES

49. The Rotiindlfolla is the leading grape of the cotton
belt, being grown farther north, however, than cotton. The
vines are resistant to insects, fungi, and heat, but do not
stand drouth well. The grapes of this species grow best on
sandy or alluvial soils, but they are often successful on loams
and clays. Under favorable conditions the vines attain great
size, live long, and are enormously productive. Rotundifolia
grapes part from the cluster when ripe, a drop of juice usually
exuding from the berry at the point of jimcture with the stem,
so that the fruit, if handled in quantity, is badly smeared.
For this reason these grapes are not attractive in the markets



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§ 13 GRAPE CULTURE 41

and are seldom shipped out of the region in which they are
grown, although the demand for them is strong.

50. The James is probably the best general-purpose
Rotundifolia grape for the South. It ripens about the end
of August and remains on the vines 2 or 3 weeks longer. The
vines are vigorous, productive, and healthy; the bimches bear
from four to twelve blue-black grapes of large size; the sldns
are thin; the flesh is sweet and juicy and the quality is very
good.

Fig. 28 shows the fruit of the James.

51. The Thomas grape ripens a little later than the James,
but does not ripen qtiite as uniformly. The vines are as
hardy and vigorous as those of the James, and even more
productive; the bimches usually bear from four to ten reddish-
purple grapes; the berries are sweet and of good quality; and
the skins are thin.

The Thomas grape is illustrated in Fig. 29.

52. The Mlsli grape ripens at about the same season as
the James, but in most qualities it is not as good; the fruit is
of a different color and slightly better quality than that of
the James. The vines are very vigorous and productive, the
bimches bearing from six to fifteen medium-sized reddish-black
grapes; the skins are thin; and the flesh is juicy, tender, and
very sweet.

Fig. 30 shows the fruit of the Mish.

53. The Flowers grape is one of the very late Rotundi-
folias, ripening the last of September and remaining on the
vine until the last of October. The vines are vigorous, healthy,
and exceedingly productive, the bunches bearing from ten to
twenty large, oblong, purplish-black berries; the sldns are
thick and tough; the flesh is tough, acid, and pulpy; and the
quality is good only when the fruit is very ripe.

54. The Memory is considered the best table grape of
the Rotundifolia species. The vines are vigorous and pro-
ductive; the btmches bear from four to twelve large, round.



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42 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

brownish-black berries; the skins are thick and tough; the
flesh is jtdcy, sweet, and tender; and the quality is the best.
The fruit of the Memory grape is shown in Fig. 31.

55. The Scuppemong, which is the oldest of the ctilti-
vated varieties of the Rotundifolia grape, is extensively grown.
The vines are very vigorous, healthy, and productive; the



Pig. 32

bunches bear from six to ten large brownish or amber-colored
berries; the skins are thin; the flesh is sweet, juicy, and vinous,
having a peculiar flavor that is characteristic of the variety;
and the quality is very good. The berries of the Scuppernong
do not hang on nearly as well after ripening as those of the
black varieties.
Fig. 32 shows the Scuppemong grape.



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§ 13 GRAPE CULTURE 43



AESTIVALIS VARIETIES

56. Of the true Aestivalis grape, which is a southern
species, but two varieties — the Cynthiana and the Norton —
are commonly cultivated. The others mentioned belong to the
Bourquiniana division. The Cynthiana and the Norton are
grown only in the South. They are hardy to heat, resistant
to insects, fimgi, and drouth, and otherwise adapted to a wide
range of conditions. In the Bourquiniana division of the
group is foimd one of the most important varieties of grapes
cultivated in America, namely, the Delaware. Aestivalis grapes
have been comparatively little used in breeding, and most of
the varieties are pure bred. In the true species, the grapes are
used almost entirely for wine making, but in the Bourqui-
niana division the varieties are highly suitable for either
dessert or for wine making.

57. The Cyntlilana is so distinctly a Southern variety
that it cannot be grown very far north of the Potomac and
Ohio rivers. The vines are vigorous, healthy, usually pro-
ductive, and hardy in the South. The fruit ripens very late
and keeps well; the bunches are medium to small in size and
compact; the berries are very small, round, and black, with
much bloom; the skins are thin, tough, adherent, and astringent ;
and the flesh is tough, juicy, spicy, and add. The fruit is
too poor in quality for dessert purposes but is splendid for
the making of red wine.

58. The Norton is the leading grape for wine making
east of the Rocky Mountains, but has small value for any
other purposes. The variety has great soil adaptability but
does best in rich alluvial soils. The vines are robust, very
productive, as free, or more so, from diseases than those of
any other native grape, and very resistant to insects. The
bimches are of medium size; the berries are small and almost
black in color; the flesh is firm, rich, spicy, and pure flavored
but acid; and the skins are thick. The fruit keeps well. The
variety is difficult to propagate from cuttings and its vines do
not bear grafting readily.



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46 GRAPE CULTURE § 13

59. The Berckmans grape is a cross between the Dela-
ware variety of the Bourquiniana division and the Clinton
variety of the Riparia species. The vines are very vigorous,
healthy, hardy, and productive. The bunches and berries
are very similar to those of the Delaware, the color being exactly
the same but the size being a trifle larger; the quality of the
fruit is not quite as good as in the case of the Delaware,
the berries lacking somewhat in sweetness and richness. The
vines are not as productive as those of the Clinton. This
variety is likely to prove satisfactory where either of its parents
are successfully grown.

Fig. 33 shows the fruit of the Berckmans variety.

60. Next to the Concord, the Delaware is probably the
most popular grape in the Middle and Eastern States for
local-market sale, for shipping, and for the wine press. It
usually sells at a premitmi, often bringing twice as much as
the Concord. The vines are productive, hardy, and adapted
to a variety of soils and conditions. The fruit mat\u*es suf-
ficiently early to make a crop certain, and keeps and ships
well. The berries are of a handsome red color. The faults
of this grape are: small size of vines, bunches, and berries, and
slowness of growth; also, it suffers very seriously from depre-
dations of robins. The variety is fairly immime to fimgous
diseases.

A bunch of Delaware grapes is shown in Fig. 34.

61. In the South, the Herbemont holds the place that
the Concord holds in the North. The variety cannot be grown
north of the Ohio river and fails in Missouri and Arkansas
because of its tenderness. It is also a little fastidious as to
soil and care. The vines, where the variety succeeds, are very
vigorous, healthy, and productive; the bimches are large and
very attractive; the berries are glossy black in color; the flesh



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