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in different localities and in the case of differ-
ent varieties, it is advisable for a grower to
consult the nearest experiment station
regarding the exact procedure to follow in
pruning and training his vines.

In the long-pruning system, it is impor-
tant to see that the canes left are not water
sprouts, that is, do not arise from wood
more than 2 years old.

56. Training to Arbors and Bowers .

Little skill is needed to train the grape as a
covering for arbors and bowers. When it
is desired to train vines for this purpose, the
permanent trunks should be trained to the
top of the arbor or bower, and from year
to year, at intervals of about 2 feet, canes
shotdd be led out from the trunk; this is
possible only by leaving spurs for renewals.
The vines should stand from 6 to 10 feet
apart, and the canes shotdd be cut to half
the distance between the vines, the canes of
two adjoining vines meeting in the mid-
dle of the dividing space. The shoots ^'°- ^®
springing from the canes will cover the arbor or bower.
The object of this sort of training is to secure shade, and it
is not to be expected that fine grapes can be grown; but, if the
vines are severely cut back from year to year, grapes of fair
quality and in considerable quantity may be produced.



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46 GRAPE CULTURE §14



MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION ABO€T PRUNING AND
TRAINING

57. Summer Pruning. — Summer pruning of grapes is
practiced much less now than formerly, the tendency being to
discontinue the practice entirely. Grapes are pruned in sum-
mer in two wajrs, namely, by removing superfluous shoots and
by cutting back, or heading in, the canes.

Often shoots grow from weak buds on the fruiting canes
to the detriment of stronger shoots. These weaklings should
be rubbed off. Again, shoots often spring from arms, from
spurs, or even from the trunk, and are, in the main, not wanted.
These too, should be removed. Secondary shoots often appear
on the fruiting shoots, especially in the axils of the latter, and
must be removed. The sooner all of these superfluous shoots
are removed the better; indeed, many should be rubbed off in
the bud before they begin to grow. Here, for the most part,
stunmer pruning should end.

Cutting back of the main canes, although sometimes neces-
sary to keep them within proper bounds, is, in general, a poor
practice. Two troubles arise from this kind of summer pru-
ning : First, it often causes a growth of laterals which cover the
vine with foliage that does not ripen, and is, therefore, a detri-
ment; second, in the case of some varieties, imder some systems
of training, it prevents the development of a suflSdent quantity
of foliage properly to nourish the vines. In either case, the
vines are much weakened. If summer pruning of this kind
seems absolutely necessary, it should be done lightly and as
late in the season as possible, so that lateral growths will not
be so likely to start. In the majority of cases if it seems neces-
sary, because of climatic or soil conditions, to head in vines
annually in order to keep them within proper bounds, the neces-
sity can be obviated in three ways: First, by having a greater
distance between vines; second, by the adoption of a drooping
system of training; and third, by training the vines very high.
It may be necessary to head in the cane tips of the vines of
strong-growing varieties that, under a drooping system, reach
the groimd; this heading is best done with a sickle.



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GRAPE CULTURE



47



58. Pruning and Training of Neglected Vines.

Occasionally, an old vineyard is found in which the vines have
never been pruned or have been pruned improperly. The
viiies in such a vineyard can seldom be made over. If they
are healthy and vigorous, new vines shotild be grown from
canes taken from the roots. The old trunks shotild be allowed
to remain until the new ones are strong enough to be tied to
the wires. In order to induce vigorous growth in the new
trunks, the old trunks should then be rigorously cut back.





Fig. 20



If the new canes are vigorous and mature well, they can be
tied to the wires at the end of the first season. More often,
however, they will be so weak in growth that they shotild be
cut back in the winter to about three buds, from one of which
the permanent trunk can be grown the second season. The
new trunks may then be treated as if they were young \anes.
The old stumps should, if possible, be cut off below the ground
and covered with earth to prevent the excessive formation of
suckers; all suckers, as they arise, should be removed.

24&— 18



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48 GRAPE CULTURE § 14

The remodeling of old vines is worth while only when the
vines are strong and healthy. In many cases it is far better
to graft neglected vines rather than to attempt to train them.
The method of grafting has already been described.

59. Method of Pruning and Stripping. — Grapes are
pruned with small, light, specially made shears, two fomis of
which are shown in Fig. 20. Usually the canes are allowed to
remain tied to the wires or stakes imtil the pruning is done,
although in the KniflFen systems the strings may be cut. The
actual pruning is done by a skilled man who does nothing but
make the cuts, this work being called blocking out. After a
vineyard has been blocked out, the wires must be stripped.
Stripping is done by boys or tmskilled low-priced laborers
any time after the pruning has been done until spring. The
prunings are hatiled from the vineyard by a horse or horses
attached to any one of a score or more devices. One of the
best devices for this purpose is a pole a little smaller than the
pole used to bind a load of hay. A horse is hitched to the pole
by means of a rope drawn through a hole about 4 feet from
the large end. The small end of the pole is held in the hand
as the butt is pulled along the ground. After the first vines
between two rows are caught, the rest of the brush clings to
the wood until a load is secured. Stripping and hauling must
be done before the buds swell in the spring, otherwise many
yoimg buds will be broken off of the pruned vines.

60. Tying of Vines. — ^The tying of canes and shoots to
trellises is a task requiring quickness, skill, and some judgment.
Canes are tied in the spring before the buds begin to s^'ell;
shoots are tied, or **put up," as vineyardists say, during the
summer. In both operations the work is light and can be done
by boys, girls, women, or other low-priced laborers. The
materials used for tying, as has already been explained, are
wrapping t\\dne, wire, raffia, rye straw, etc. At the present
time wire is almost always used for the tying of canes and twine
or raffia for the growing shoots. The wire should be annealed,
preferably of about 18 gauge, and cut into lengths of about
4 inches. In tying, the workman stands on the opposite side



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 49

of the wire from the cane. The tie is usually made by making
a double loop about the trellis wire and the cane, the object
being to bind the cane securely so that there will be no chafing.
Any method of tying that accomplishes this ptupose and is
convenient will be satisfactory. Where soft annealed wire is
used for tying, the work may be done in cold weather, as mit-
tens can be worn. In the tying of shoots, the tie is made very
loose in order to allow the shoot to grow in diameter.

61. Ringing of Vines. — ^Ringing of grape vines is a
common practice in some regions. It consists in removing from
the bearing canes a ring of bark about an inch wide, or of suf-
ficient width that the bark will not heal over the woimd. The
girdling is done when the grapes are about the size of a pea.
Usually, ringing causes the vines to produce larger bunches
and berries and the fruit to ripen earlier. The seciuing of
good results depends on several factors, among which are the
variety, the season, the abtmdance of healthy foliage, the cul-
ture, and the quantity of fruit the vine is allowed to mature.
The fruit of some varieties suffers a loss of quality when the
vines are ringed; that of others is not at all affected. Cutting
back the new growth on ringed arms appears to give better
quality to the fruit.

Ringing is more or less devitalizing in its effect on the vine,
depending, in part at least, on the factors mentioned in the
previous paragraph. It has been foimd in practice, however,
that some varieties, when judiciously managed, may be ringed
for a number of years in succession with little injury to the
vine; the Concord, the Catawba, the Niagara, and the Worden
are often ringed. Vines grown on one of the renewal systems
are better adapted to ringing than those grown on the Kniffen
systems, as in the case of the former more wood can be left
to support the vine than is possible in the case of the latter.



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50 GRAPE CULTURE § 14



SPRAYING OF GRAl^ES

62. It is impossible to give a spray calendar for grapes that
will apply in all sections of the country, as, fortunately, but a
few of the many insect enemies and diseases of this fruit are
commonly found in any particular locality. A grower must
be guided in his spraying operations entirely by the insects
and diseases that are prevalent in his community. Just what
these are may be learned by experience, by inquiring of other
growers, or by communicating with authorities.
I The different diseases and insects of the grape and the treat-
ments and control measiu"es for each have already been dis-
cussed in the preceding Section. It is not the purpose here
to repeat the information given there; the present discussion
will be confined to the chronological order for applying various
sprays. The following, although perhaps subject to modi-
fication in different localities, will serve as a guide for spraying.

1. For the control of the grape-vine flea beetle, spray
thoroughly just before the buds begin to swell with arsenate-
of-lead solution (4 poimds of arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of
water). Later in the season, when the worms appear on the
leaves, arsenate of lead should be added to one of the BordeaiLX
sprayings (8 pounds of arsenate of lead to 150 gallons of Bor-
deaux mixture) .

2. If anthracnose has to be combated, apply to the sur-
face of the canes when the buds are swelling, but before they
begin to open, a warm, saturated solution of iron sulphate,
to which may be added, if necessary to make it stronger, 1 per
cent, of sulphuric acid. This solution is very caustic and should
be handled with care. If the saturated solution of iron sul-
phate is used alone the solution may be sprayed on, but if the
sulphuric acid has been added, it is safer to apply it to the canes
with a swab.

3. For the control of black rot, and incidentally for the
control of downy mildew and powdery mildew, spray vnth
Bordeaux mixture (4 pounds of copper sulphate, 4 pounds of
lime water, and 50 gallons of water) just as the pink tips of
the first leaves appear.



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 51

4. From 10 to 14 days after the spraying described in
paragraph 3, spray again with the same Bordeaux for the
same troubles.

5. Repeat the spraying just after blossoming.

6. Repeat the spraying in from 10 to 14 days later.

7. Repeat the spraying in from 10 to 14 days later.

8. For the control of the grape-vine fidia, or grape root
worm, while the beetles are feeding on the foliage about the
middle of June, spray with a molasses-arsenical mixture (1 gal-
lon of molasses, 6 pounds of arsenate of lead, and 100 gallons of
water).

9. For the control of the grape leaf hopper, when the hop-
pers appear spray with a nicotine preparation guaranteed to
contain at least 2.7 per cent, nicotine diluted with from 65 to
100 parts of water.

10. For the control of the rose chafer, when the insects
are present, spray with glucose-arsenate mixture (10 pounds
of arsenate of lead, 25 poimds of glucose, and 100 gallons of
water).

11. If the sprayings for black rot are not necessary, other
means of control must be applied for powdery mildew. In
such cases in dry climates, dusting the vines with flowers of
sulphiu" is effective.

12. If the vines are suffering from chlorosis, or yellow
leaf, this trouble is thought by some persons to be overcome
by applying a small quantity of iron sulphate to the soil about
the vine. But as a niunber of the American varieties are
known to be free from this trouble, planting of such varieties
is probably the wiser course.



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52 GRAPE CULTURE § U



HARVESTING, PACKING, AND MARKETING OF
GRAPES



HARVEBTINO

63. Time for Picking of Grapes. — Grapes must not
be picked until they are fully ripe, as they do not mature any
after being separated from the vine. Large quantities of grapes
are sent to the market much too green, the shipper being under
the erroneous impression that because they are fully colored
they are ripe. Although the color is somewhat of a guide as to
whether grapes are ripe, the only conclusive evidence of ripe-
ness is the texture of the pulp and the taste of the fruit. It is
impossible to give specific instructions with reference to these



Fic. 21

points, but a grower soon learns by experience what the color,
texture of the pulp, and taste shotild be.

64, Appliances for Picking of Grapes. — ^The appli-
ances for picking grapes are few and simple. As soon as full
maturity has been reached, the grapes should be cut from the
vines by means of grape scissors, a desirable form of which is
shown in Fig. 21. Such scissors are inexpensive and may be
had from almost any dealer in orchard and vineyard tools.
The bunches should be handled as little as possible, in order to
avoid injuring the bloom of the fruit. Sometimes, immediately



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 53

after being picked, grapes are placed in the receptacles in
which they are to go to market. This gives almost no oppor-
ttinity for grading and is, therefore, often a poor practice.
More generally, and far better, the fruit is put in trays, which
may be of several sizes and shapes, usually holding from 25 to
35 poimds, and is conveyed in these to the packing house.
A desirable form of tray for this purpose, with dimensions,
is shown in Fig. 22. The picked fruit must be handled very
carefully and should be conveyed from the field to the pack-
ing shed in a wagon provided with flexible springs. In com-
mercial vineyards one-horse platform wagons, the front wheels
of which will pass under the platform, are used for this purpose.



Fig. 22

65. Managing of Pickers. — ^Picking is done in grape
regions by transient help, mostly foreign men, women, and
children, from neighboring towns and cities. As a rule, the
best results are obtained if pickers are hired to work by the
piece rather than by the day. When paid by the piece, pickers
usually do more and better work. In a large vineyard there
must be one or several competent persons in charge of the
pickers to see that the work is done properly, and to keep
them from wasting time. A good foreman can often double
the average picking capacity of a gang of pickers. Some
growers pay their pickers each day; others pay less frequently.
In either case, a part of the pay should be reserved imtil the
close of the season, otherwise the pickers may leave when
unpleasant weather comes or when the grapes for any reason
become scarce or hard to pick.

There are many ways of keeping accounts with pickers.
Probably the most common is to give a ticket when the recep-



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54



GRAPE CULTURE



§14



tacle of grapes is delivered. A form of ticket often used for
this purpose is shown in Fig. 23, the ticket at the right being
the original and the one at the left a duplicate. When such
tickets are used the grower keeps either the original or the dupli-
cate and gives the picker the other half. One objection to the
ticket system is that the pickers often lose them, exchange
them with other pickers, or are irregular in redeeming them.
Some growers use tags, each one of which bears the picker's
name and is attached to the person. The tags have marginal
ntmibers or other divisions that are canceled by a pimch as









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Pig. 23

the pickers deliver the grapes. Some growers prefer to keep a
book account with each picker; often, in this case, payment
is made by the pound, each receptacle being put on the scales
as it is brought in from the field and credit being given for the
number of pounds. This method has many advantages over
the others mentioned.

66. Grading of Grapes. — In commercial vineyarding,
only good fruit, in many seasons only the best, is worth grading;
it is more profitable to sell poor fruit by the ton than to grade
it. The higher the price, the more special the market, the



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 55

better the fruit, and the more carefvdly the crop is picked,
the more profitable it is to grade and pack it well.

As compared with other fruits, grapes are easily graded.
There are usually but two grades, firsts and culls. Firsts are
grapes that are free from insect and fungous injuries and of a
xmiform degree of ripeness; berries must not be missing from
the stems, and the bunches must be approximately imiform in
size. Grapes not conforming to these specifications are culls.



PACKING

67. Packages for Grapes. — In the East and South, table
grapes are always invariably packed for market in 4-poimd or



(b)
Fig. 24



8-pound baskets like those illustrated in Fig. 24; in (a) is shown
an 8-pound basket and in (6) a 4-pound basket. The sizes
given are for gross weight. Unfortunately, no way has been



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56 GRAPE CULTURE § 14

found for securing uniformity in the size of these baskets,
consequently much variation is found in different grape-grow-
ing regions. Occasionally, grapes are packed in 2-pound and
12-potmd baskets of the style illustrated. Also, they are
sometimes packed in trays made so as to fit in cases.

On the Pacific coast, large quantities of table grapes are
packed in kegs, the bunches being protected by ground cork
or other material. Trays of various sizes are also extensively
used. Fig. 25 shows an attractive tray of Western grapes.
Whatever package is used, it should be clean, of a natural color,
of sound wood, and well made.



Fig. 25

Grapes for wine, grape juice, and raisins are usually sold by
the ton to establishments manufacturing these products. In
this case the grapes are usually delivered in trays holding
I bushel or thereabouts. At the present time there is consider-
able demand for grapes for home wine making and where sales
are made for this purpose the grapes are usually packed in
either |-bushel trays or 12-pound baskets.

68. Packing Houses for Grai>es. — ^Two general types
of packing houses are commonly foimd in commercial vine-
yards. One type is a combined packing and storage house



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 57

and the other is strictly a packing house, being merely a sort
of half-way station between the vineyard and the shipping
station. In a house of the first type grapes may be stored
for some time after being picked; in one of the second type,
no provision is made for storage.

A desirable packing house of the combined packing and stor-
age t\T3e is illustrated in Fig. 26. This house is provided with
a cellar for the storage of the grapes; the first floor is used for
packing and storage, and the second floor, or attic, is used for
the storage of baskets, crates, and the like. The building is



Fig. 26

25 feet by 60 feet. The foundation walls are 24 inches thick,
and windows are provided in them for ventilating the cellar;
ventilation is also secured by means of a chimney that extends
from nearly the middle of the cellar up through the roof. If
attention is paid to the ventilation, the temperature of the
cellar can be kept as low as 50° F. or lower during September
and October. The cellar floor is of dirt. The first floor is
divided into two rooms, the front one, which is 25 feet square,
being used for packing, and the back one, which is 25 feet by
35 feet, being used as a shipping room. The floor between the
cellar and the first floor rooms is double and made of 1 J -inch



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58 GRAPE CULTURE § 14

matched pine with an air space between the two layers. Such
a building can be constructed for about $1,200.

If cold-storage facilities are convenient and the rates are
reasonable, there is little need of going to the expense of making
the packing house a storage house. Under such conditions,
a house of the second type mentioned will be satisfactory.
Such houses are so simple to construct and of so many differ-



Fic. 27

ent designs that it is neither necessary nor possible to describe
them in detail. Any sort of a substantial building that will
protect the packers and afford convenience in packing w411
serve the purpose.

In every packing house there shotild be a dry, airy room
in which the baskets may be stored when packed, otherwise
the fruit may become moldy. This room should be darkened,
as light causes the baskets to become of an undesirable color.



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§ 14 GRAPE CULTURE 59

A packing house must have a packing table of some kind.
A very convenient form of packing table is illustrated in
Fig. 27. This table extends the length of the room, passages
being left at the ends. The trays of grapes from the field are
set before the packers, who pack the fruit into a basket at their
left. When a basket is filled it is placed on a shelf at the back
and above the inclined table. Empty trays are slid through an



Fig. 28

opening at the back onto a shelf. An attendant with a truck
keeps the packers supplied with trays of grapes, removes the
filled baskets, and keeps up the supply of empty baskets.

69. Method of Packing. — In order for grapes to pack
well they should be allowed to stand for from 12 to 24 hours
after being picked; this will give them time to wilt. Unless
grapes are wilted when packed they will shrink and the package



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60 GRAPE CULTURE §U

will not be full when it reaches the market. In addition,
grapes do not handle well in packing unless wilted. In pack-
ing in baskets, each bimch of grapes is placed separately in
the basket, and the bimches are arranged in concentric tiers.
The top layer should be placed with special care. The bunches
should all be clean and fresh, free from spraying material,
imbroken, and with the bloom on the berries disturbed as little
as possible. When the basket is completely filled, the lid
should be put on, care being taken not to crush the grapes.
Much the same method is used when the grapes are packed in
trays, except that a lid is not used. When grapes are packed
in kegs, enough of the groimd cork or other packing material
is used to separate the btmches.

70. Labeling of Grape Packages. — ^A commercial grape
grower will often find it of great advantage to use a label on
his packages of fruit. A label adds to the attractiveness of
a package and should be a guarantee of the contents, both as
to the name of the variety and the quality of the fruit. A
label is a sign by which a grower's fruit may be distinguished,
and consequently is a valuable advertising mediiun. It is
not worth while to label poor grapes. Many growers have
their labels registered in the United States Patent Office in
order to prevent unscrupulous persons from using them. In
Fig. 28 is illustrated the labels used by two commercial vine-
yardists; the upper label is registered.



MARKETINO

71. Many of the table grapes grown on the Pacific coast
are sold through cooperative associations. This is true, too,
of much of the product grown in Western New York, the largest
grape-growing region of the East. There are a few cooperative



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