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July they bring as high as $3.25 per thousand.

An old-style strawberry box is shown in Fig. 23. Such a
box is usually bought in the flat and tacked together by the

grower. About 1
pound of tacks will do
for putting together
1,000 boxes. A mag-
netic hammer is use-
ful for this work.
Some firms furnish a
form which facilitates
the work of putting
the boxes together.
The building of 1,000
to 1,200 boxes is con-
sidered a good day's
work. The box shown
Pig. 24 in Fig. 23 is used in

the crate shown in Fig. 28; it will not fit in all crates. It is
not now used so extensively as baskets in the marketing of
strawberries.



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40 STRAWBERRIES § 16

39. strawberry Crates. — Strawberry crates are made in
several styles. A strong, dtirable type of crate in common



Pic. 25

use is that shown in Fig. 24. This crate will hold thirty-two
1 -quart baskets, but it is also made in a size to hold twenty-
four l-quart baskets. This crate is built of strong wood, is iron
bound, and is hinged with wire hinges. Such a crate is com-
monly not given with the fruit, but is given only to customers
on the agreement that it will be returned after the fruit has

been sold. In large
quantities, such crates
will cost more than
50 cents each.

A cheaper crate,

commonly called a

gift crate, because it is

I not returned to the

I ' grower, is shown in

I Fig. 25. This crate is

similar to the one
F'G- 26 shown in Fig. 24, but

is built of lighter material and lacks the iron reinforcement and
the hinges, and in large quantities sell for 30 cents each.



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§ 16 STRAWBERRIES 41

A type of strawberry crate less substantially made than
those illustrated in Figs. 24 and 25, but supplied with a hinged
lid, is shown in Fig. 26.
• A low type of straw-
berry crate, used to
some extent in the
West, is shown in Fig.
27. This is built to
hoik twenty-four
1-quart baskets.

An old style of crate
used with the box il- ^^^- 27

lustrated in Fig. 23, is shown in Fig. 28. This crate is usually-
made to hold twenty-four or thirty-six 1-quart boxes, and may
be most cheaply purchased in the flat with the covers ready made.

The strawberry crates shown in Figs. 24, 25, 26, 27, and 28,
are all used for shipping the fruit short 'distances or for selling
in a local market.

A refrigerator shipping crate for strawberries is shown in
Fig. 29. This crate is strongly and solidly built to stand long-
distance shipments. At a is shown a deep pan that fits in the
upper part of the crate and is used for holding ice. The lid of

the crate is shown at b,

40. Labels for
Strawberry Crates.

Every strawberry
grower who aims to
sell and establish a
market for high-grade
berries should sell all
such fancy fruit under

I a distinctive label.

Fruit of an inferior

grade should not be

^'^•^ sold under the same

label; it would be best not to sell it under a label of any kind.

The producer never gets the most advantage out of a sale of



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42 STRAWBERRIES § 16

fine fruit unless the buyer knows who the producer is. The
securing of a high price for fruit that is worth it is not all that
is to be considered. The most profit can be secured only from
the advertising that a label will secure, as this will usually



Pig. 29

result in other orders. The label serves as a means of iden-
tification, and its value is being recognized more and more
every day. The selling of inferior fruit under a label is, how-
ever, very inadvisable, as this will tend to keep buyers away
from it.



STORAGE

41. The cold storage of strawberries is ordinarily not very
satisfactory. At the best it is not possible to store strawberries
for any length of time, as they very quickly go to pieces when
removed from cold storage. The usual practice is to bring
them instantly from the cold temperattire of the storage plant
into the warmer temperature outside, which causes them to
sweat quickly, and this spoils their appearance and makes
conditions favorable for rapid decay. Under ideal conditions
of cold storage it might be possible to store strawberries satis-
factorily, but with this fruit the practice is ver>'' risky. A
temperature of about 40° F. is as cold as it is desirable to have
in a storage place for strawberries.



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§ 16 STRAWBERRIES 43

Some varieties will keep or stand up much better than others.
A notable example of this is the Klondike, a variety that is
popular with the truckers in the South, because when it reaches
Northern markets it is bright and attractive in appearance.



MARKETING

42. Classes of Strawberry Buyers. — Considered from
the viewpoint of the strawberry grower, the buying pubUc may
be classed in three groups: (1) Those persons who want
nothing but the best strawberries procurable — commonly called
the fancy trade; (2) those persons who desire good strawberries
at a fair price and who will go without rather than use poor
fruit; and (3) those persons who buy only when the fruit is
cheap and who pay Uttle attention to quality.

The demand of .those of the first group is very rarely sup-
plied. Strawberry and other fruit .growers have had difficulty
in getting into direct commimication with this class of pur-
chasers and as a rule have not put forth sufficient effort to
produce, pack, and advertise the best grade of fruit properly.

Those of the second group form a large consimiing class
and they absorb large quantities of fruit when good strawberries
are obtainable at a fair price, which is from 10 to 15 cents per
quart at retail.

Those of the third group usually buy strawberries and other
fruits only when the market is flooded and when the quality
of the fruit is below that desired by those of the second group.
When the market gluts with poor berries these are usually
disposed of at a very low price to peddlers and hucksters,
who retail them from house to house and supply the largest
part of the third group with their fruit.

43. Time Strawberry Crops Enter the Market. — The

Florida strawberry crop reaches the New Yoik and New Eng-
land markets late in February and early in March. Crops
from similarly located states inland are harvested at approx-
imately the same time. Strawberries are not obtained in large
quantities in the Northern markets at this time, but continue

249—24



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44 STRAWBERRIES § 16

in light supply until May, when the Carolinas and Maryland
begin to ship their crops. These are closely followed by the
strawberry crops from Delaware and New Jersey.

The strawberry crops of the Middle Western and Far Western
states are marketed locally, with the exception of those sections
shipping to the St. Louis and Chicago markets, and the crops
of the states of Washington and Oregon. Texas and Louisiana
get early strawberries into the large markets of the Central
States at approximately the same dates as the states in the
same latitude on the Atlantic coast, that is, late in February
and early in March.

The strawberry crop of Washington and Oregon, where
strawberries grow to great perfection, are marketed along the
Pacific coast late in April and during May.

44. Factors Affecting Strawberry Prices. — The ques-
tion of whether the early, mid-season, or late crop of straw-
berries will prove the most profitable in any particular locahty,
depends entirely on the market catered to and on the season.
Often the grower of fancy strawberries gets the best prices
after the season is well advanced.

Earliness is of more importance to the Florida and Carolina
than to the New Jersey and New England strawberry
growers. In the case of the first-named growers, the market
is in the large cities and the trade catered to there is the trade
always hunting for the imseasonable product and willing to
pay an extra price to secure it. In the case of the New Jersey
and New England growers, their crops come into the market
when strawberries have ceased to be a novelty, and hence
quality is of the utmost importance. Early in the season
very inferior berries will often sell for much higher prices than
berries of the highest quality later in the season.

A continuous supply of strawberries, which may be obtained
by planting a proper assortment of varieties, is desirable where
the grower caters to a retail trade, but when the grower sells
his berries in a wholesale market it is not so necessary. The
main advantage that the man selling in the wholesale market
can obtain from a succession of strawberries is that if part of



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§ 16 STRAWBERRIES 45

his crop happens to strike a glut in the market and brings low
prices he will still have another crop which will probably bring
better prices.

When shipments must be made to distant markets there is
less likelihood of receiving prices equally as high as those that
may be obtained in the home market, unless large quantities
of strawberries can be shipped at one time and the matter of
marketing is skilfully conducted. The rapidity with which
strawberries deteriorate in quality after picking makes it essen-
tial to move them promptly and handle them carefully, and also
makes it often necessary to reduce the price of the fruit to the
consumer in order to increase the consumption and prevent
loss. The markets of the larger cities of the United States
rarely pass through a season without a glut in strawberries,
and when this occurs prices fall to a point where the producer
can seciwe no profit. Gluts may be of long or of short dura-
tion, depending principally on the skill with which the growers
distribute their berries. Organized selling agencies have done
much to lessen this trouble.

Seasonal conditions are often important in causing gluts
in the strawberry market. In 1912, for instance, the straw-
berries from both the Carolinas and Maryland arrived in the
Northern markets by the carloads at the same time; in normal
seasons the strawberries from the Carolinas are out of the
market before the Maryland berries are shipped in any
quantities.

The best strawberry markets are not always in the largest
cities. Frequently, berry markets for a limited quantity of
berries may be found in the smaller centers of population,
principally because such markets are often neglected and do
not receive their shipments from a wide territory. Very
fancy fruit, however, will usually bring more money in the
markets of the larger cities than elsewhere.

45. During 1912 strawberries expressed to Northern mar-
kets from the Southern States, sold for from 5 to 7 cents per
quart at wholesale for a nimiber of weeks, and at this price,
considering the long shipment, the grower could have secured



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46 STRAWBERRIES § 16

but small returns. The same condition of affairs has existed
more or less every 2 or 3 years, since strawberries have been
extensively grown in the South and for shipment North early
in the season.

Local markets frequently experience times of oversupply,
principally because the bulk of the strawberries received in
them is of poor quality, and to be disposed of they must be sold
at any price they will bring.

Growers of fancy strawberries pay little attention to the
general market prices, because they are usually able to secure
the prices they ask. The average strawberry grower receives
from 5 to 9 or 10 cents per quart for his berries.



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RASPBERRIES



RED RASPBERRIES



GENERAL DISCUSSION

1. Red raspberries are highly prized by consumers of
small fruit, chiefly on accotmt of their flavor.. They are not,
however, so popular with fruit growers for several important
reasons: (1) The red raspberry plants, as a rule, are not pro-
ductive in all localities; (2) certain diseases that attack the
raspberry are difficult to control and work serious and per-
manent injury; (3) red raspberry bushes are not heavy yielders
and the expense of harvesting is considerable; (4) red raspberries
ship poorly, the structure and delicacy of the berry making
it difficult to handle and ship them without considerable
deterioration.

In spite of the disadvantages connected with the raising of
red raspberries, there are several good points in their favor
that make their culture profitable to many growers: (1) The
red raspberry usually commands a very satisfactory price in
the market; (2) the demand for red raspberries is active and
the crop may be disposed of quickly; (3) good yields of red
raspberries may be obtained by careful attention to the loca-
tion of the plantation, the culture, and the fertilization; and
(4) the ready salability of the red raspberry makes it a desir-
able addition to the fruit product of a grower near a good
market, because it will give him cash early in the season and
will help him to secure customers for his later crops of fruit.

COPYRIOMTBD BY INTBRNATIONAI. TKXTBOOK COMPANY. ALL RIOHTS RBSBRVBD

§17



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2 RASPBERRIES § 17

The life of the average raspberry patch, of either the red
or the black varieties, is from 8 to 15 years unless some disease
such as cane blight or orange rust makes serious inroads.

2. The raspberry crop, including both red and black rasp-
berries, is about one-third as large as the strawberry crop, and
red raspberries are a Httle more than half of the total raspberry
crop. According to the 1910 census there was produced in the
United States, during 1909, 60,918,196 quarts of raspberries
and loganberries (the value of the latter being imimportant),
valued at $5,132,277. The states that produce the bulk of the
raspberry crop are New York, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
and Indiana.

There is no immediate prospect of overproduction of red rasp-
berries. The market demand for the fruit is very good, and
the supply of berries of good quality has always been far short
of the demand. Red raspberries are the most popular of the
bush fruits, and, as they begin to ripen from 3 to 4 weeks after
strawberries, they come into market at a very favorable time.

Red raspberries are eaten raw, are canned, are preserved in
jams, and are ntiade into a vinegar that is diluted with water
and used as a drink; it is similar to grape juice.

3. Red raspberries are hardy plants, and practically all
varieties are hardy in the United States. The red raspberry
is the most popular bush fruit in Canada, due to a considerable
extent to the fact that so many varieties succeed well in that
coimtry. The red raspberry is hardy over a greater territory
in Canada than the black raspberry, and is grown much farther
north. In Canada, the native red raspberries grow in abund-
ance as far north as the Yukon and have been picked on motm-
tains at an altitude of 7,000 feet.

The injury that often occurs to red raspberries in winter is
frequently due to other causes than cold, such, for instance,
as a weakened condition of the plant due to disease, drought,
or too much moisture.

4. Under favorable conditions, a half crop of fruit may be
expected from a red raspberry plantation the second year, and
a total of eight or ten profitable crops may be secured during



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES' 3

the life of a plantation. From the third to the fifth years, a
plantation should produce a somewhat larger crop each year,
but imder normal conditions no material increase can be
expected after the fifth year. A jdeld of about 1,500 quarts per
acre may be considered a full crop, and at an average price of
10 cents per quart this will give an income of about $150 per
acre.

5. Red raspberries are not as productive as black rasp-
berries, but with good culture red raspberries should yield
about 75 bushels to the acre. A low average price would be
$5 a bushel of 64 pints, and at this yield and price the returns
would be very satisfactory, especially since there is a possi-
bility of securing a much greater return by getting the fruit
on the market early.

6. Fred W. Card estimates the cost of producing a crop
of red raspberries from an acre that is in bearing to be about
$50. In addition to this there will be a cost of from 2 to 4 cents
per quart for picking and marketing. Red raspberries are
commonly sold by the pint, and they should net the grower
about 5 cents per pint after deducting the cost of picking and
marketing. At 75 bushels per acre, this would mean a gross
income of about $240, from which the cost of production will
have to be deducted. Many growers secure a net of only $60
per acre, but it can be readily seen that, imder proper manage-
ment, about three times this amount may be secured.



SIZE, SOIL, AXD EXPOSURE FOR A RED RASPBERRY
PLANTATION

7. Units for a Plantation. — The average plantation of
red raspberries for 115 growers, as shown in the Section on
strawberries, is 1.58 acres. This means that the average grower
of red raspberries is in the business principally for supplying
a local market, and he usually raises a ntimber of other bush
or orchard fruits.

A plantation of a size suitable for a grower who expects to
sell in a wholesale market would be 10 acres.



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RASPBERRIES



§17



8. Soils for Red Raspberries. — ^Red raspberries do well
on a great many different varieties of soil, but they thrive
best in a deep, moist, humus-fiUed soil that is well drained.
Good drainage is essential, but the soil must be able to with-
stand drought, because a soil too dry is as bad as one too wet.

Generally, the soils on which a fruit is planted commercially
indicate the types of soils on which the fruit does best, although
the statistics given in Table I show that this is not always the
case. The information given in Table I is a summary of the
data collected during a survey of Western New York in 1910
by the Cornell Department of Pomology, and shows the nimi-
ber of acres of red raspberries planted on the different kinds of

TABLE I
YIELD OF BED BASPBERBIE8 ON DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOIL



Kind of Soil


Acres


Farms


Average

YieldPer

Acre

Quarts


Average

Income Per

Acre


Gravelly loam

Sandy loam

Clay loam


63.5
30.6

7-4


40
21

7


1,414
1,306
2,007


$141.43
147.29







soil on the different farms examined, the average yield per acre,
and the average income per acre. The farms included in this
survey had red raspberries planted on three types of soil —
gravelly loam, sandy loam, and clay loam, and although the
general impression has been that red rasplxaries do best on
gravelly and sandy soils, it was found that the clay loam soils
in this section produced crops that were about 54 per cent,
larger than those produced on the lighter soils, and that further-
more the crops on heavier soils brought an income about 64 per
cent, greater than the crops from the lighter soils. This is a
convincing argument in favor of planting red raspberries on
the heavier soils, a fact that has heretofore not been appre-
ciated. The total acreage of red raspberries included in this
stirvey was not as large as might be desired, being only about



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 5

111 acres, but as it was divided among 68 farms the data should
be considered sufficient to indicate the kind of soil best suited
to red raspberries in Western New York. Doubtless the same
soil would also be found most suitable in other sections of the
country.

Soil that is not naturally drought resistant may be improved in
this respect, if the subsoil is hard, by underdraining or by sub-
soiling; or if it lacks humus, by adding this in the form of manure
or green cover crops. The process of adding humus to a soil
should, however, be gradual. The sudden addition of too
much tmdecayed vegetable matter may reduce the quantity
of capillary moisture in a soil for a time and thus reduce the
quantity of moisture available for the growing plants. Bram-
bles such as the red raspberry thrive well in a virgin soil because
of the large quantity of humus in such a soil.

Land that is to be used for red raspberries should be free from
such pernicious and hardy weeds as sorrel and crab grass,
because the tillage of red raspberry bushes on account of the
thorns, is attended with more difficulty than the tillage of most
crops. In fact, weeds will always be a most serious trouble
in any plantation of perennial plants where there is no oppor-
tunity to plow up the surface of the groimd.

9. Exposure. — ^The red raspberry does best on a northern
or a western exposure, and hence such exposures are preferable
for commercial plantations. The best and sweetest fruit grows
in the cool, shady places, such as can be secured on northern
and western exposures, and this is true even of different parts
of the bush — ^the largest and sweetest berries are foimd in the
center of the bush, which is the most shaded part. For plant-
ing in the home garden, where a choice of exposure is not often
possible, a cool spot such as may be found in the shadow of
a wall or of a tree is preferable.



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Fig. 1



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Fig. 2



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RASPBERRIES § 17



VARIETIES OF RED RASPBERRIES

10. The varieties of red raspberries that are widely planted
are as follows:

The Cuthbert red raspberry, shown in Fig. 1, has a strong-
growing bush, but it is only moderately hardy; where this
variety is hardy it is productive and is usually the main crop
variety. The fruit is large, of a dtdl-red color, moderately
juicy, of good quality, and a good shipper. The fruit ripens in
mid-season.

The Herbert red raspberry, shown in Fig. 2, has a strong-
growing bush that is hardy and very productive. This variety



Fig. 3

is likely to replace the Cuthbert in localities where the latter
variety is not sufficiently hardy. The fruit is bright red,
sweet, juicy, and of good quality. The fruit ripens in mid-
season. This variety has all the good points required in a berry
for a local market.

The Loudon red raspberry, shown in Fig. 3, has a bush that
is only a medium grower but that is hardy. This variety is not



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Fig. 4



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10 RASPBERRIES § 17

sufficiently productive in all localities to be generally profit-
able for market. The fruit is large, bright red, and of good
flavor. The fruit ripens in mid-season.

The Marlboro red raspberry, shown in Fig. 4, has a fairly
strong-growing bush that is hardy and productive in most
localities. The fruit is of medium size or a little larger, and is
bright red, firm, and of medium quality. This is the best
early variety.

The Miller red raspberry has a bush that is a moderate
grower and tender, and that is not productive in northern
localities. The fruit is of medium size, bright to dark red,
juicy, and of fairly good quality. This variety is not as good
as many other varieties.

The King, or Early King, red raspberry has a fairly strong-
growing bush that is moderately hardy and productive in local-
ities where it is not winter killed. The fruit is of fair size,
bright red, and of medium quality. The fruit ripens early.
This variety is not as promising as many others.

The Brandywlne, or Wilmington, red raspberry has a
strong-growing bush, but, owing to its susceptibility to being
winter killed it is not productive in northern localities. The
fruit is of medium quality, and ripens in mid-season.

The Turner red raspberry has a very strong-growing and
very hardy bush. The fruit is rather small in size, of a deep
red color, and of good flavor. The fruit ripens early in the
season. This variety is very much like a wild raspberry and
is useful in home gardens in localities where the winters are
unusually severe, but the fruit is too small to grow for market.



SELECTION OF VARIETIES SUITABLE TO A
LOCATION

11. According to information compiled by the American
Pomological Society, varieties of red raspberries, like varieties
of other fruits, vary widely in their adaptability to different
sections of the country. Some varieties have been foimd to
succeed well in many different parts of the coimtry, although
with varying degrees of success in different sections, and other



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12 RASPBERRIES § 17

varieties have been foimd to do well in a few sections only.
To simplify matters, the Society has divided the United States
and the lower part of Canada into eighteen pomological divi-
sions, or districts. These districts have nothing to do vnth
the state or provincial boundaries but consist of territory



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 23 of 35)