International Correspondence Schools.

Peach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... online

. (page 24 of 35)
Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 24 of 35)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


adapted, because of its natural conditions, to the growing of
fruits. In making up these districts due consideration was
given to the influence of latitude, elevation, prevailing winds,
and the nearness to oceans and lakes. These eighteen districts
are plainly outlined and numbered on the map that is shown
in Fig. 5.

The following list of varieties, arranged by districts, gives
imder each division the varieties of red raspberries that are
known to succeed in that division, or district. The varieties
given in Italic are known to be highly successful in the divisions
in which they occur. The first time the name of a variety is
given its less common name is put after it in parenthesis.
Where a division heading is omitted (Divisions 6, 11, and 13),
no varieties of red raspberries are known to do well in that
division. Some of the varieties included in the list will not be
foimd described in detail in the descriptions of varieties. Such
varieties are considered to be not entirely desirable from a
commercial standpoint. The information given in this list
should not, however, be regarded as infallible, although it
has been compiled with the greatest possible accuracy from the
statements of the leading red raspberry growers within each
division. When the planting of any particular plot of ground
is considered, the experiences of local growers and the recom-
mendations of the local agriculttiral experiment stations should
receive careful consideration.

Division 1: Blair, Cuthbert, Golden (Golden Queen), Han-
sell, Loudon, Marlboro, Miller, Turner.

Division 2: Brandywine (Wilmington), Golden, Hansell,
Loudon, Marlboro, Miller, Turner.

Division 3: Brandywine, Cuthbert, Marlboro, Miller, Turner.

Division 4' Cuthbert, Golden, Loudon, Miller, Turner.

Division 5: Cuthbert, Golden, Loudon.

Division 7: Cuthbert.



Digitized by



Google



§ 17 RASPBERRIES 13

Division 9: Brandywine, Cuthbert, King (Early King),
Loudon, Marlboro, Miller, Turner,

Division 10: Cuthbert, Marlboro.

Division 12: Brandywine, Cuthbert, Golden, Loudon, Marl-
boro, Tiimer.

Division 14' Cuthbert, Loudon, Marlboro.

Division 15: Cuthbert, Miller,

Division 16: Cuthbert, Hansell.

Division 17: Cuthbert.

Division 18: Cuthbert, Loudon.

12. Comparatively few varieties of red raspberries are
grown in large quantities. The Cuthbert is the variety most
generally grown. According to Prof. Charles S. Wilson, who
conducted an investigation among the commission men of the
principal cities of the United States, the following varieties
are the most largely sold in the principal markets: Cuthbert,
Loudon, Marlboro, Miller, King, Brandywine, and Tiuner.



PROPAGATION OF RED RASPBERRIES

13. Red raspberries are propagated from suckers and from
root cuttings. These two methods of propagation are really
very nearly the same, because, in a certain sense, the suckers
are also root cuttings. Suckers are sprouts which may be
developed from the roots near the surface of the groimd, both
naturally and as result of injury to the roots. They are often
induced to grow in abtmdance when red raspberry roots are
injured in cultivation. Such injury may be done when a patch
is cultivated too deeply. In some patches root injury by cul-
tivation is very common, because the roots have been allowed
to grow too near the surface, as a restdt of too shallow cultiva-
tion when the plants were young. The method of propaga-
tion by suckers is the most common one, and when they are
to be used for propagation they are dug up with a spade with
from 3 to 5 inches of roots adhering, or with as much more as
can be conveniently detached, and immediately set in the place
where they are to stand permanently. The method of propa-
gating red raspberries by suckers is the most common, because

249—25



Digitized by



Google



14



RASPBERRIES



§17



most varieties sucker freely, and no other method of propa-
gation is needed. A few varieties, however, send up suckers
sparingly, and these are propagated by what may be strictly
termed root cuttings.

When red raspberries are to be propagated by root cuttings,
pieces of roots from 4 to 5 inches long and about as thick as a
lead pencil are cut from a vigorous plant, usually in the fall,




1—23

22
—21
1-20
—101
—18
—17

16
—16
—14
—13

12

II
—10



—7

6

—5



—3

—2



Fig. 6

and are bedded in sand over the winter. By spring, the cut
ends will have calloused over and the root cuttings may be
placed in a shallow furrow and covered over with 2 or 3 inches
of dirt until they each develop one or two good canes. After
this they will be ready for setting in their permanent places
in a plantation.

Red raspberry plants from yotmg bushes are preferable, as
they are likely to have greater vigor than plants taken from
older bushes, and will be less likely to carry disease.



Digitized by



Google




—22

—21

—20

— 19

—18

—17

—16

—15

—14

—13

^12

—II

—10

^9

—8

—7

—6

—5

~*
—3

~2
—I



Pig. 7




Fig. 8



Digitized by



Google



16 RASPBERRIES § 17

The character, or individtiality, of the parent bush is usually
disregarded when selecting the bushes from which to produce
yoting plants for new plantations. Such a practice does not
produce the best results, because the vigor and fruit-bearing
qualities of the parent bush may be the factor that determines
the profitableness of the offspring. It is a great waste of time
and money to plant yoimg plants from inferior parent bushes
and give them all the care needed to bring them to fruit-
bearing age, only to find after all this expense that they will
not bear sufficient fruit to pay expenses.

14. Red raspberry nursery plants of different grades are
shown in Figs. 6, 7, and 8. All those in Fig. 6 are considered
to be of the first grade, and were sold as such; those shown
in (a) and (6), however, have a much better fibrous root system,
are more vigorous, and in every way are more desirable than
those shown in (c) and (cf); this illustrates the fact that a
personal selection of nursery plants is more desirable than
buying on the grading of the niu-seryman, even if a premiimi
must be paid for the privilege of purchasing in this way. The
red raspberry nursery plants in Fig. 7 are second-grade plants,
and those in Fig. 8 are culls.

The scale in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 is graduated in inches in order
more clearly to indicate the actual size of the nursery plants.
The same scale is used in Figs. 23 and 29.



PLANTING OF RED RASPBERRIES

15. Red raspberries may be planted either in the fall or
in the spring; spring planting is the more common. The
distances at which red raspberries are planted vary consider-
ably. Some growers prefer to plant them in rows 6 or 7 feet
apart and to space the bushes from 4 to 6 feet apart in the
rows. Other growers plant the bushes as close as 4 feet each
way, cultivate them both ways of the field, and restrict the
plants to a limited space. J. H. Hale claims to have secured
the best yields by setting the plants in hills from 7 to 8 feet
apart. The average commercial grower of red raspberries



Digitized by



Google



§ 17 RASPBERRIES 17

usually finds that setting the bushes ki rows 6 feet apart and
spacing the plants 3 feet apart in the rows to be satisfactory
and that the crop wiU be larger than when planted at any of
the other distances given. If the bushes begin to crowd too
much when planted in this way, they may be thinned out
somewhat in the rows, even to the extent of removing every
other bush if necessary.

In preparing the groimd for planting red raspberry bushes
in rows of 6 feet apart and spaced 3 feet in the rows, straight
furrows should be opened up in one direction across the field
at distances of 6 feet apart and about 3 inches deep.

16. The small raspberry plants should be kept heeled-in
near at hand, and when preparations for planting are complete
a small bundle of the plants should be taken out of the ground
at a time and the roots kept moist with a wet burlap sack.
Often some pnming of the plant is necessary before it is set,
and in such cases the pruning is done immediately before
the plant is put in the grotmd. Any long, straggly roots should
be trimmed back, and any broken roots that have ragged ends
should be trimmed to a smooth surface, so that the cut will
heal well. The cane should be cut back to a strong bud 12 to
15 inches from the crown. Most of the new growth should
come from new buds at the crown of the root, and it is usual
to cut out the old cane entirely the following spring after
planting.

Two men should work together in planting red raspberries;
one man should have a spade to open up the holes for the
plants and the other should carry the plants, see to it that their
roots are kept moist, prune them, and set them in the holes.
When the rows are marked out by a shallow furrow, the setters
can work rapidly. The one with the spade .should sink that
implement in the groimd about 4 inches below the bottom of
the furrow and press it to one side to make an opening for the
plant; the other should set the plant in the hole in the center
of the furrow, and both men should simultaneously push the
soil against the cane from opposite sides and firm it. Then
a little loose soil should be kicked over the firmed soil to form a



Digitized by



Google



18 RASPBERRIES § 17

mulch. Sometimes it is difficult to get a perfect alinement
of the plants in the row, and the use of a line to set the plants
against may facilitate matters. The getting of red raspberry
plants into perfect alinement is not, however, very important
for after the first year the canes spread out in a row 1 or more
feet in width, and minor irregularities are not as noticeable as
they would be with many other plants.



TILLAGE FOR RED RASPBERRIES

17. In an average humid climate, the tillage of a red
raspberry plantation should begin as soon as possible in the
spring and continue until midsummer, when a cover crop
should be sown between the rows. Preferably such a cover
crop should be one that will kill out during the winter, for
then there will be no necessity for subduing it in the spring
to the detriment of the raspberry bushes. Cover crops such
as rye are not suitable, because they will live through the winter;
cowpeas and similar crops will be more suitable. In dry
climates it may be advisable to continue to cultivate through-
out the entire season.

Plowing between the rows in a red raspberry plantation in
the spring is not a good practice, as it injures the roots and
induces the growth of too many suckers; this excessive wood
growth will lessen the power of the bushes to produce an
abundant crop of fruit. Spring plowing, moreover, is not
necessary if the ground was properly tilled throughout the
previous season.

Cross-cultivation, that is cultivation in two directions on
a field, whenever possible, is particularly beneficial to a red
raspberry plantation. This should be done as early as possible
in the spring, and again after the fruit has been picked and the
old canes cut out. Without such cross-cultivation it will be
diflficult to prevent a red raspberry plantation from quickly
forming thick hedgerows. The cultivator used in a red rasp-
berry plantation should be equipped with some form of cutting
blades that will cut off suckers; such a device will save con-
siderable work in pruning.



Digitized by



Google



§ 17 RASPBERRIES 19

18. Unless a red raspberry plantation is well taken care
of it will be better if it is not intercropped. If, however, the
plantation is to be handled in a painstaking manner, inter-
cropping may be practiced to advantage during the first season.
Preferably, such a crop should be one that will allow of horse
cultivation, so that the surface soil may be stirred 2 or 3 inches
deep and the root growth of the raspberries kept well below
the surface. A second crop of some small vegetable may also
sometimes be satisfactorily grown between the rows in the
late summer and fall.



PRUNING OF RED RASPBERRIES

19. In order to prune red raspberries properly it is impor-
tant to imderstand that the canes of this plant are biennial —
that is, live for two seasons only — ^but that the roots are peren-
nial — that is, live through many years. The canes, or shoots,
grow up from the roots one season, bear fruit the next season, and
die at the end of the second season. Hence, on each raspberry
bush, after it is 1 year old, will normally be foimd some canes
that are bearing fruit, and others that are developing for the
production of fruit the next year. The objects of pruning are
to thin and train the young canes so that they will bear a large
crop of good-sized berries, and to cut out the old canes after
they have fruited in order to supply sufficient space for the
growth of new canes.

The first year after planting red raspberries, and during
subsequent years, a certain amoimt of pruning of the young
canes is essential and should be done systematically. The
tendency of the plant is to grow more canes than are desirable
for the production of fruit of good quality, and to produce
the best results the extension of the plants must be restricted.
The first year from four to five canes should be allowed to
develop in each hill. The time and the method of pruning the
young red raspberry canes varies with different growers and in
different parts of the country. Some growers allow the young
canes to grow at will during the first summer and cut thern
back the following winter or early in the spring; other growers



Digitized by



Google



20 RASPBERRIES § 17

advocate the pinching off of the terminal buds of the young canes
in the summer, so as to force the growth of lateral, or side,
branches before winter. In most cases, the best practice has
been found to allow the yovmg red raspberry canes to grow at
will during their first summer and then early in the following
spring, after there is no more danger that they will be winter
killed, to cut back all the canes that are expected to fruit that
season.

The second spring, the 1-year-old canes that were allowed
to grow at will the first summer are cut back to a height of
3 or 4 feet, or in the case of low-growing varieties to a height
of 2 feet. The fruiting canes that are cut back in this way
in the spring will throw out a large nxmiber of strong side
branches as soon as growth starts. These laterals will produce
all the fruit that one cane should bear. This pruning should
be delayed until there is no more danger that they will be winter
killed.

The commonly approved method of pruning a red raspberry
bush is illustrated in Fig. 9. In (a) is shown a bush at the
beginning of the second spring in which the canes have been
allowed to grow at will; in (6) is shown the same bush properly
cut back to a height of 3 or 4 feet; and in (c) is shown the same
bush a little later in the spring after it has sent out the side
branches that are to bear the fruit.

The younger canes that come up the second season should
be thinned out to from five to seven in a hill. As soon as the
fruit has been harvested from the canes developed the pre-
vious summer, these canes should be cut out, but in doing this
care should be taken not to remove too many of the younger
canes, along with the old ones, for this will have the same
effect as an excessive thinning of the fruit and will lessen the
possibility for a large crop the following season. The best
practice is to remove the older canes as soon as they have
finished fruiting, because: (1) the old canes can be cut easier
at this time than in the winter, when they become toughened;
(2) all subsequent growth during the summer will go into the
canes that will bear fruit the following year; (3) it will allow
of cross-cultivation and a good general cleaning up of the



Digitized by



Google



§ 17 RASPBERRIES 21

plantation, provided the bushes are planted far enough apart
in the rows; and (4) the early removal of old canes, if they are
at once taken out of the plantation and btuned, may also
help to check the spread of insect and fungous troubles.

20. In cases when it is deemed advisable to prune yoimg
red raspberry canes during the summer, the tender tips are



(b) (e)

Fig. 9

pinched off, when they reach a height of about 18 inches, by
the thxmib and finger. If the pinching off is done at this height
it will allow the side branches produced by the lower buds
to make a good growth early in the season and become as well
ripened as possible before they are frozen in the winter. The



Digitized by



Google



99



RASPBERRIES



§17



most experienced growers, however, are now beginning to doubt
the advisability of this summer pruning of the yoimg red
raspberry canes, because: (1) it seems to have a tendency to
increase the number of suckers thrown up by the roots, and this
excessive growth of wood lessens the ability of the bush to
produce fruit; (2) the pinching out of the terminal buds of the
young canes does not lead to the growth of strong, vigorous
side branches from the lower buds but to the production of
weak branches that are more or less liable to be winter killed;
(3) preferably, the side branches that are forced into the pro-
duction of wood early the first
simmier should remain dormant
imtil the following spring, when
they may be developed into good
fruiting branches by the method
of pruning previously described.
In some exceptional cases, how-
ever, it may be more advisable
to prune red raspberries in the
simimer than to prune them early
in the spring before growi;h starts.
For example, very rapdily grow-
ing varieties of red raspberries or
red raspberries planted on ver}'
strong soil may need pruning in
the summer; oth«*wise, most of
the energies of the plant may go
to wood production and the yield
of fruit may not be abimdant.
Red raspberries, how^ever, should
not be pruncxi as much in the summer as black raspberries.



Fig. 10



21. As a red-raspberry plantation grows older, unless it is
carefully pruned, the spaces between the plants gradually
become filled and the rows become nearly a solid hedge. To
facilitate picking and cultivation and to keep up the vigor of
the plants, too many canes should not be allowed to grow.
The number that should be allowed to grow can be determined



Digitized by



Google



§ 17 RASPBERRIES 23

only by experience, as local conditions will greatly influence
the growth of the bushes. The rows should be kept as narrow
as possible, without pruning the plants too much, so that
cultivation will be possible over most of the surface of the
groimd and so that hand hoeing in the rows will not be too
difficult.

22. Implements for Pruning. — ^The canes of red rasp-
berries, and of all brambles, are so well supplied with spines,
or thorns, that, at the best, pruning them is impleasant work,
and the pruner should wear leather gloves and use tools that
will facilitate the work as much as possible. Pruning hooks, two
t>i>es of which are shown in Fig. 10, are the most useful tools
for the pruning of brambles. They consist of a handle about
3 or 4 feet long with a hooked-knife blade at the end. They
are strongly constructed and by means of them the bases of the
canes can be readily reached and the canes sheared off with
little difficulty. Hand pruning shears are also necessary for
the pruning off of winter-killed wood and the trimming back
of the canes in the spring.



FERTILIZATION OF RED RASPBERRIES

23. The economical fertilization of red raspberries is a
problem that must be worked out on each plantation, because
a wasteful application of fertilizers is just as likely to be
made as an insufficient application. On some soils, such as
those that have been wdl cultivated and fertilized for a
number of years in the raising of other crops, the addition of
nitrogen and other plant-foods does not produce a pronotmced
effect on red raspberries. Hence, the application of liberal
quantities of fertilizer on such soils would be a waste of money.

Stable manure is a good fertilizer for raspberries in general,
but when applied to red raspberries that are growing on moist,
rich soil, it may force too much growi:h. Cover crops are
valuable on red raspberry plantations because of the humus
they add to the soil, and leguminous cover crops may furnish
all the nitrogen needed for the growth of the bushes. Crimson



Digitized by



Google



24 RASPBERRIES § 17

clover, where it succeeds, is a good leguminous cover crop for
raspberries, but it is somewhat difficult to uproot in the spring.

Floats, ground bone, and basic slag are good materials for
supplying phosphoric acid to raspberries, and wood ashes and
muriate of potash are suitable for supplying potash.

A newly set raspberry plantation should be fertilized to
induce a vigorous wood growth early in the season. When
land is being prepared for the setting out of a raspberry planta-
tion, it should be heavily manured the fall previous, or should
be heavily dressed with well-rotted manure in the spring.
After the plants have started to grow, an application of from
500 to 800 poimds of a high-grade 5-8-8 commercial fertilizer
should be made. Preferably most of the nitrogen in this
fertilizer should be in a readily soluble form, such as nitrate of
soda. This fertilizer should be applied broadcast and culti-
vated in. It should induce a strong, healthy growth of cane
early enough in the season so that the wood will have plenty
of time to ripen before winter.

24. Although red raspberries do not respond to fertilizers
as much as many other fruits, an investigation by the Cornell
Department of Pomology in Western New York in 1910 brought
out the fact that the use of fertilizers, as well as manure, was
profitable. In this investigation it was foimd that the most
common practice of growers was to apply fertilizers in the form
of stable manure or commercial mixtures before the plants were
set out. After the plants had come into bearing some growers
applied stable manure, others applied commercial fertilizers,
and many applied no fertilizer at all. Table II gives a stmimary
of the information gathered in this survey, and shows the num-
ber of farms, the total number of acres, the average >deld per
acre, and the average income per acre for the farms examined
on which red raspberries were grown imder four conditions:
(1) On ground on which neither manure nor commercial fer-
tilizer was applied; (2) on ground on which both manure and
commercial fertilizer were used; (3) on grotmd on which only
commercial fertilizer was applied ; and (4) on ground on which
only manure was used as a fertilizer. As this survey included



Digitized by



Google



§1T



RASPBERRIES



25



an examination of eighty-three farms on which 98 acres of red
raspberries were planted, the data may be considered as very
useful.

On about 47 per cent, of the farms neither manure nor com-
mercial fertilizer was applied and still the average income was
$116.69 per acre, which indicates the possibilities of red rasp-
berry cultxire even under adverse circimistances.

On about 15 per cent, of the farms both manxire and commer-
cial fertilizers were used, and on these farms an average income
of $176.69 per acre was secured, or an increase in income of

TABLE n
INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON RED RASPBERRIES



Fertilizer Used



No. of I No. of
Farms ' Acres



No manxire or commer- ]
cial fertilizer ! 39

Manure and commer- '
cial fertilizer I 13

Commercial fertilizer I
only I 10

Manure only ' 21



31

30
23



Average

Yield Per

Acre

Quarts



Average

Income Per

Acre



1,162.35 ' $116.69
1,526.70 ' 176.69



I



1,439.00
1.472.00



142.85
170.50



more than 51 per cent, over that from farms on which no fer-
tilizer was used; no figures are available as to the cost of the
manure and fertilizer applied per acre, but a reasonable estimate
would not place the cost of these materials at more than half
of the extra income secured.

On about 12 per cent, of the farms commercial fertilizer only
was applied, and on these farms an average income of $142.85
per acre was secured, or an increase in income of about 22 per
cent, as compared with the 51 per cent, increase secured by
the application of both manure and commercial fertilizer;
these two sets of figures, however, indicate very clearly that



Digitized by



Google



26 RASPBERRIES § 17



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 24 of 35)