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commercial fertilizer is beneficial on red raspberries, a fact that
many have formerly been inclined to dispute.

On about 26 per cent, of the farms manure only was applied,
and on these farms an average income of $170.50 per acre was
secured, or an increase in income of about 47 per cent, as com-
pared with the farms on which no manure nor commercial
fertilizer was applied. This increase is only slightly less, about
4 per cent, less than that secured by the application of both
manure and commercial fertilizer, showing that, when applied
in coimection with manure, commercial fertilizer is not par-
ticularly effective, and is not economical, because the small
increase in income would not pay for the fertilizer.



RASPBEJIRY PESTS AND INJURIES



INSECT PESTS

25. Saw Fly. — The saw fly is one of the two insect pests
that do the most damage to raspberries. It attacks the bushes
about the time raspberries are in blossom and riddles the leaves
with small holes. The work of the Saw Fly is shown in Fig. 11.
The adult saw fly is about the size of the house fly and has a
dull, reddish spot about the middle of the upper side of the
abdomen. The adult fly pimctures the leaf and lays its eggs
in the tissues, the place of deposit appearing as a small brown
spot. The eggs hatch in about a week. The larvas, which are
small green false caterpillars about ^ inch long, do the most
damage to the leaves. After about a month, or a little less,
the larvas become full grown, fall to the groimd, and spin
small cocoons about themselves beneath the surface of the soil.
There is only one brood during the year.

The saw fly may be controlled by spraying as described
later. The application of white hellebore will kill the insects;
a weak solution of Paris green or arsenate of lead is also
effective. After the fruit is formed, however, it is not safe
to use the last named poisons, and only hellebore should be
used.



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 27

26. Cane Borer. — ^The cane borer is the other of the two
insects that do the most damage to red raspberries. The adult
is a long, slender, black beetle with a yellow thorax, small
head, and long feelers. When the adult female lays her eggs
she will girdle the tip of a cane in two places, from ^ inch to
1 inch apart, as shown at a a in Fig. 12. In the space between
the two girdles she makes a small hole in the cane and lays a
single, long, yellow egg in the cavity. The girdling causes the
tip to die. It begins to droop shortly after the girdling and has
the appearance of the canes shown in Fig. 13. The egg will
hatch in a few days, and the larva, or yoimg borer, that comes



Fig. 11

from it first lives on the pith of the dead tip and then bores
down the center of the stem, eating the pith until it gets to the
crown, taking two seasons in the process. About the latter
part of August the larva becomes full grown but does not
emerge from the cane imtil the second spring after the laying
of the egg, when it changes into a pupa. The adult beetles
may be foimd on the canes in Jime. Canes affected with borers
seldom bear fruit because of their lessened vitality.



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28 RASPBERRIES § 17

The only method of control is to cut out affected canes as
soon as they begin to droop and wilt. An affected cane should
be cut off at a point well below the girdle, so that there will be



Pig. 12 Fig. 13



no danger of leaving the grub in the cane. The prunings from
diseased canes should be taken from the plantation and burned.



FUNGOUS DISEASES

27. Five diseases are commonly foimd to be troublesome
on raspberries, namely, raspberry anthracnose; raspberry wilt,
or cane blight; crown gall, or root knot; red rust, or orange rust;
axid leaf spot.

28. Raspberry Anthracnose. — Raspberry anthracnose is
one of the most troublesome of the diseases of raspberries. It
will first be noted when the yoimg canes are from 12 to 15
inches high and will be found in the form of brownish or purplish
spots and blotches on the yoimg canes and on the leaf stalks.
As the young canes grow the blotches increase in size. By the
end of the season these blotches may grow so much as entirely to
encircle and girdle a cane. This disease is not very serious
on the red raspberry. It is very severe on the black raspberry
and is also found on the blackberry. Canes affected with rasp-
berry anthracnose are shown in Fig. 14.

Spraying, as later described, will reduce the damage from
anthracnose, but it is not entirely satisfactory and often will



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 29

prove to be unprofitable. Preventive measures are the most
desirable, and only plants that are free from anthracnose
should ever be set. If all the old canes, as soon as they have
borne fruit, and the new ones that are badly affected are cut
out and burned, the disease may often be kept in check. If,
however, the disease appears to be persistent, the plantation
should be abandoned before it has become badly diseased.
All the canes should be cut off
and burned and the roots plowed ,
under as deeply as possible.

29. Raspberry Wilt, or
Cane Blight. — Raspberry wilt,
or cane blight, is caused by a
fungus that attacks the canes
at various points and kills both
the bark and the wood. The
part of the cane above the point
of attack will suddenly wait as
shown in Fig. 15. This illustra-
tion clearly shows the difference
in the appearance of the leaves
on healthy and affected shoots.
The disease is one of the most
destructive on red and black
raspberries, but is not found on
blackberries.

No definite methods of con-
trol for this disease are known, ^^^- ^^
except that of eradication and the planting of uninfected plants.
Plants for a new plantation should be taken only from patches
where the disease is not prevalent. The cutting out of the old
canes as soon as the fruit is harvested will help to kccj^ this
trouble in check.

30. Crown Gall, or Root Knot. — CrowTi gall, or root
knot, is caused by a fungus that induces the growth of large
irregular knots about the crowoi and on the roots. In Fig. 16

249—26



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30 RASPBERRIES § 17

is shown a red raspberry bush badly infected with crown gall.
This disease is found on both red and black raspberries, but



Fig. 15



is especially destructive on red raspberries; it is also found on
blackberries.



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 31

Precautionary measures are the only ones that are effective
against crown gall. Brambles should never be planted on land
that has been previously infected with the disease, and no plants
showing crown galls or root knots should ever be set. Crown



Fig. 16

gall is readily communicated, and for this reason no apparently
healthy plant from a diseased plantation should ever be planted
in another.

31. Red Rust, or Orange Rust. — Red rust, or orange
rust, or, as sometimes called yellows, is a fimgous disease that
is so serious in some sections of the coimtry as to make the
growing of raspberries and blackberries impractical, and in
other sections it is not found at all. A raspberry leaf affected
with this disease is shown in Fig. 17. This is particularly
destructive on the black raspberry and blackberry; whole
plantations of black raspberries have been destroyed by red rust.

The only effective method of control for red rust is to pull
up and bum all infected plants as soon as the disease is
detected.



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32 RASPBERRIES §17

32. Leaf Spot. — Leaf spot is caused by a fungus, the
spores of which are spread by wind and rain. This disease
first appears as small brownish spots on the leaves. Later
these spots become lighter at the center and small black lumps



Fig. 17

will be foimd in them. A leaf infected with leaf spot is shown
in Fig. 18. This disease is foimd on both raspberries and
blackberries.

Leaf spot may be controlled by spraying with Bordeaux

mixture as described later.



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 33

33. Control of Fungous Injuries. — Spraying is not
often practiced on raspberries, because the diseases and insects
that trouble them are largely controlled by cutting out dis-
eased and old canes. In fact, the spraying of these plants



Fig. 18



is largely a matter of economy. A certain amoimt of damage
may be prevented by spraying, but it will usually be the case
that the cost of applying the spray will be more than the benefit
secured. For this reason, few commercial growers spray but
prefer to run the chances of a small loss to avoid the expense
and trouble of spraying.



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34 RASPBERRIES § 17



WINTEB INJURIES

34. To prevent the winter killing of red raspberry bushes
in localities where the winters are severe, some form of protec-
tion must be provided. The most satisfactory method of pro-
tection is to loosen the soil on one side of the roots, bend the
top of the bush over until it touches the ground, and cover it
with soil. The canes are usually bent over in the direction
of the row so that the tips of one plant will be over the crown
of the next. The point of the compass toward which the tops
are bent makes little difference, but if there is a preference
they should be turned toward the south. The canes should be
lifted early in the spring, and the soil firmed about the roots
on the loosened side to help support the canes. In a locality
where snow is abundant, this method of treatment is particularly
effective in preventing winter killing.



HARVESTING AXD MARKETING OF RED
RASPBERRIES

35. The fruiting season of the red raspberry in the lati-
tude of New York is from the early to the middle part of July,
following the picking of late strawberries, and often a part or
all of the strawberry pickers can be used in the raspberry patch
to advantage. The red raspberry should not be picked until
it parts readily from the plant and it should be picked shortly
after this stage is reached, because it soon gets so ripe that an
unusual jarring of the canes or a heavy rain, such as are of fre-
quent occurrence at that season of the year, will knock many
of the berries from the canes. The fruit should not be picked
wet, because this injures its shipping qualities.

Red raspberries require much care in picking and subsequent
handling. Girls and women are often the best pickers in the
raspberry patch, not so much because their fingers are nimble
and quick, but because they will naturally handle the berries
lightly and so prevent bruising. A picker with the customar>^
equipment is showTi in Fig. 19. The raspberry is hollow and
will not stand much pressure without practically spoiling it for



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 35

the fancy trade. This is one of the reasons that the fruit is
nearly always sold in shallow pint veneer baskets made so that
they will pack into the regular strawberry crates. Pickers
are usually paid 1^ cents a pint for picking raspberries, the cost
being about ^ cent more than for the picking of strawberries.
The picking of the fruit should be so carefully done that it
will not need to be graded or handled again to prepare it for
market. This is more important in the case of raspberries



Pig. 19

than in the case of almost any other fruit, because of its deli-
cate nature. For the same reason a fruit grower who can sell
his red raspberries in a local market has a considerably greater
advantage over those who must ship by rail. The red rasp-
berries that are taken to market on a spring wagon will arrive
there in better condition, bring more money, and give greater
satisfaction than the berries that must be shipped by rail.

The market price of red raspberries varies from 20 to 25 cents
a pint early in the season to 7 or 8 cents a pint when the market
is well supplied.



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36 RASPBERRIES § 17

36. Drying of Red Raspberries. — Red raspberries are
sometimes dried in the same way that black raspberries are
dried, but such a practice is not profitable. Red raspberries
lose too much weight on being dried because 1 quart of fresh
red raspberries will make only about 14 ounces of dried fruit.
This means a production of but from 7 to 8 pounds of dried
fruit per bushel. In addition to the excessive loss of weight,
the red raspberry when dried, is of an unattractive dull-red
color and is not popular in the market.



BLACK RASPBERRIES



GENERAL DISCUSSION

37. Black raspberries are native to the northern sec-
tions of the United States and thrive under conditions like those
suited to the red raspberries. The black raspberry has been
considerably improved under ctdtivation, the size and quality
of the berries being increased and the bushes yielding larger
crops. The black cap, as the black raspberry is often called,
is more important commercially than the red raspberr>%
although it commonly sells at a lower price.

The black raspberry is gaining in popularity in many sec-
tions for several reasons: It is a heavier yielder than the red
raspberry, can be sold at a good profit for a considerably smaller
price per quart, and some varieties have a very pleasant flavor.
These points make it desirable for selling as a dessert fruit,
but the one point that recommends it particularly to growers
in some sections is the fact that it can be dried and any surplus
fruit thus kept from being wasted. The demand for dried
black raspberries is steadily increasing, and in some sections
the fruit is grown for that purpose alone.

There are some objections to the black raspberry, the prin-
cipal one being that the fruit is more seedy and smaller than
that of the red raspberry. In some sections this has made it
less in demand than the red raspberry.

The black raspberry is hardy and can be grown fairly far
north. It does not, however, have as wide a range as the native



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 37

red raspberries of Canada. It can be planted almost anywhere
in the United States without danger of serious injury from low
temperatures in winter. Like the red raspberry, about half
a crop of fruit can reasonably be expected from a black rasp-
berry plantation the second year. After this about four good
crops on the average can be secured. At the end of this time
the problem of keeping down weeds and of securing a growth
of cane that will be vigorous enough to produce large berries
becomes a serious one, and it is often more profitable to plant
a new plantation after the first one is 6 or 7 years old than it is
to struggle along with an old one.

38. The soil requirements for the black raspberry are
similar to those for the red raspberry. The black raspberry,
however, does not seem to be so particular as to soil as the red
raspberry, but it seems equally at home on any well-drained
sandy loam or clay soil; heavy, compact, cold soils are not
suitable. The general impression is that if the black raspberry
shows any preference at all it is for soils that are rather light
and warm, but Professor Wilson's investigations on the red rasp-
berry in Western New York, as set forth in Table I, would seem
to indicate that the black raspberry, like the red raspberry,
might be foimd to be more productive on the heavier soils.



VARBETTES OF BLACK RASPBERRIES

39. In the selection of varieties of black raspberries suit-
able to a location, the fact should be borne in mind that this
fruit is not as hardy as the red raspberry, and for this reason
none of the black raspberries will do well as far north as the red
raspberries. Hence, the term hardy, as used in the descrip-
tions of the varieties of black raspberries must be considered
as a relative one. The following list of black raspberries
includes the varieties most commonly planted :

The Cumberland black raspberr\% shown in Fig. 20, has a
strong-growing bush and is one of the hardiest and most pro-
ductive varieties. The fruit is large, black, sweet, and of good
flavor. It ripens a little earlier than mid-season. This variety
is highly considered on account of its hardiness.



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Fig. 20



38



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 39

The Gregg black raspberry, shown in Fig. 21, has a very
strong-growing bush; it is not hardy in all localities but is pro-
ductive when not winter killed. The fruit is large to very large,
is black with a gray bloom, is moderately juicy, sweet, and of
good quality. The fruit ripens late in the season. This variety
is one of the most widely planted of the black raspberries.

The Kansas black raspberr>^ has a moderately growing bush;
it is not hardy very far north, but is promising where hardy.
The fruit is above the average in size, is glossy black, and of
good quality. The fruit ripens in mid-season.

The Black Diamond black raspberry has a vigorous-grow-
ing bush that is resistant to disease and very productive. The
fruit is large, black, and a good shipper. It ripens in mid-
season, and a few days later than the Kansas variety.

The Ohio black raspberry has a strong-gro^^dng bush; it is
productive but is not as hardy as the Cimiberland. The fruit
is of medium size, but is very seedy, and for this reason is par-
ticularly desirable for drying, because it will yield a high per-
centage of dried fruit to the bushel. The fruit ripens in mid-
season. This variety is not planted as much now as formerly.

The Palmer black raspberry has a strong-growing bush
that is not always hardy but is usually moderately productive.
The fruit is of mediimi size, black, juicy, sweet, and of good
quality, and ripens early. This variety is probably the best
of the early varieties in localities where it is not winter killed.



SELECTION OF VARIETIES SUITABLE TO A
LOCATION

40. According to information compiled by the American
Pomological Society, varieties of black raspberries, like varieties
of other fruits, vary widely in their adaptability to different
sections of the coimtry. Some varieties of black raspberries
have been found to succeed well in many different parts of the
ccnmtry, though with varying degrees of success in different sec-
tions, and other varieties have been foimd to do well in a cer-
tain few sections only. In the following list, the varieties are
classified in the same divisions as red raspberries, the numbers



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Fig. 21



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§ IT RASPBERRIES 41

of the divisions corresponding with those given on the map
in Fig. 5. The varieties given in each division are known to
do well in that district. The varieties given in Italic are known
to be highly successful in the divisions in which they occur.
The first time the name of a variety is given its less common
name is put after it in parenthesis. Where a division heading
is omitted (Divisions 6, 11, 13, 16, and 17), no varieties of
black raspberries are known to do well in that division. Some
of the varieties included in the list will not be found described
in detail in the description of varieties. Such varieties are
considered not to be entirely desirable from a commercial stand-
point. The other remarks given under red raspberries apply
with equal force to black raspberries.

Division 1: Doolittle (Doolittle's Black Cap), Earhart,
Gregg, Hilbom, Lotta, McCormick (Mammoth Cluster), Ohio,
Older, Palmer, Souhegan, Tyler.

Division 2: Conrath, Cimiberland, Eureka (Mohler), Gregg,
Hilbom, Kansas, Lotta, Mills, Nemaha, Ohio, Older, Palmer,
Souhegan, Tyler.

Division 3: Cimiberland, Gregg, Kansas, Palmer, Souhegan,
Tyler.

Division 4: Cumberland, Eureka, Gregg, Kansas, McCor-
mick, Nemaha, Ohio, Palmer.

Division 5: Conrath, Cimiberland, Gregg.

Division 7: Doolittle.

Division 8: Doolittle, Kansas.

Division 9: Conrath, Cumberland, Eureka, Gregg, Kansas,
Lotta, Nemaha, Ohio, Older, Palmer, Souhegan.

Division 10: Cumberland, Eureka, Gregg, Kansas, Tyler.

Division 12: Gregg, Kansas, McCormick, Nemaha, Ohio,
Palmer, Souhegan, Tyler.

Division 14: Gregg, Kansas, Ohio.

Division 15: Cumberland, Gregg.

Division 18: Gregg.

After a canvass of forty-two commission men in the princi-
pal markets of the country''. Professor Wilson found the most
]X)pular black raspberries to be : Gregg, Cumberland, Kansas,
Tvler, Palmer, Ohio, and Black Diamond.



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42 RASPBERRIES § 17

PROPAGATION OF BLACK RASPBERRIES

4 1 • The black raspberry is propagated by tip layering. This
is done by covering with soil the tips of the canes that droop
close to the ground, as shown in Fig. 22. Those held firmly
in place in the soil will readily take root. Soon after a tip has
begun to send out roots, a crown composed of buds will form
at the surface of the ground and a new cane will grow up from
this. When the tip is well rooted, it is severed from the parent
cane and the new plant is ready to be moved. Tip layers with
part of the old cane attached are shown in Fig. 23; the piece
of old cane serves as a handle for carrying the plant. The



Fig. 22

crown bud is shown at the top of the thick mat of roots. From
this crown bud the new cane of the new plant will be developed.

In the latitude of New York the time for tip layering black
raspberry plants will be about the middle of August or a little
later. Under favorable conditions, these tip layers will be
ready for severing from the parent plant about October 1, but
if so desired can be allowed to remain attached to the parent
plant until the following spring.

Black raspberry canes are allowed to make sufficient grov\i:h
during the summer to bend over and nearly touch the soil.
The tips are then covered with about 2 or 3 inches of soil;
care should be taken not to bury the tips too deep and also to



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§17



RASPBERRIES



43



secure them firmly in place. In a state of nature the black
raspberry tip takes root readily if it no more than touches the
soil, but in commercial propagation tips are secured so that
they will not be blown about by the winds. Some growers
recommend pinning the tip down by means of a wooden stake
or a small rock. This practice might do on a small scale, but
it is not feasible on a large commercial plantation.



—22

—21
—20
—10

— 18
—17
—16
—16

— 14
—13

— 12

— II

— 10

— 9

— 8

— 7

— 6

— 6

— 4

— 3

— 2

— I



(a)



Fig. 23



{Cf



Types of black raspberry nursery plants are shown in Fig. 23.
In (a) is shown a type of plant desirable on accoimt of the
abimdant root system. The plants shown in (6) and {c) are
good plants but do not have as abundant root systems and
hence are not as desirable as the one shown in (a). The scale
in Fig. 23 is the same as that used in Figs. 6, 7, and 8.



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44 RASPBERRIES §17



PLANTING OF BLACK RASPBERRIES

42. On accxnint of their spreading habit of growth, black
raspberries should be planted in rows somewhat farther apart
than red raspberries. Black raspberries should be planted in rows
7 feet apart, although the plants may be spaced 2| feet apart
in the rows. Preferably, they should be planted in the spring.

The method of planting black raspberries should also have
careful attention. The crown bud of a black raspberry tip
layer should not be covered with too much soil or it will verj'
likely be smothered. A depth of soil of less than 2 inches
over the crown bud is all that is necessary. The proper depth



Fig. 24

of planting is shown in Fig. 24. The part of the old cane
attached to the tip layer serves as a handle to use in planting
and may be clipped off after the tip layer is set in place.

43« Supports for Black Raspberries. — Supports fof
black raspberry bushes are sometimes advisable, in order to
keep the bushes within bounds and facilitate cultivation; red
raspberries may also be supported if necessary. Such sup-
ports may be made by setting strong posts from 16 to 20 feet
apart in the rows and extending about 5 feet above the ground.



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§ 17 RASPBERRIES 45

One or two wires should be strung on both sides of these posts,
and if two wires are used on each side they should be about
1 foot apart. The canes are then trained to grow between
these wires. Training the canes in this way makes cultivation
and picking more convenient than they would otherwise be.
This training is not essential, however.



TILLAGE, PRUNING, AND FERTILIZATION OF
BLACK RASPBERRIES

44. Tillage. — ^Frequent and deep tillage is needed to keep
the black raspberry in a thriving condition, as it is likely to



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