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the tips of the canes touch the groimd and then cover them
with soil. Bend the next plant over so that the tips of the canes
will come over the roots of the first plant, cover with earth,
and continue this process throughout each row. In compara-
tively mild climates this covering of the tips of the canes is
sufficient, but in localities where the winters are severe the
whole plant should be covered. The cost of this operation
should not/ exceed $10 per acre.

Some growers run over a blackberry row with a low-axle
wagon to bend down the plants and then throw earth or some
other covering over them. This, however, is a rather rigorous
treatment.

HARVESTTING AND MARKETING OP BLACK-
BERRIES

17. Blackberries ripen during the latter part of July and
in the early part of August in the latitude of New York. They
are not ripe when they first ttim black and should be allowed
to remain on the bush for some time after this, in order to give
them time to ripen; preferably they should be allowed to remain
until they will drop off when the bush is shaken. If the fruit
is to be shipped to a near-by market, the berries should be



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 25

allowed to mature on the bush, for a blackberry is at its best
only when allowed to ripen on the plant. For long-distance
shipments, the berries should be picked when well colored but
while still firm.

A well-grown blackberry fruit should measure f to 1 inch in
length, and the diameter should be about half the length. The
fruit is borne at a convenient height, is solid, and the jdeld is
usually large, so that blackberries are easier to pick than rasp-
berries. This, however, should not be taken to mean that
the blackberry should not be carefully handled. Though the
fruit is solid and will not crush as readily between the fingers
as a raspberry, the outer skin of the blackberry, when the fruit
is fully ripe, is very tender, more so in some varieties than in
others, and if this skin is broken the appearance of the fiiiit
will be greatly injtired, and the fruit will not stand up well in
shipment or in the market.

Blackberries should not be exposed to the sun after they are
picked, because they will spoil quickly.

The first season no fruit should be expected from a black-
berry plantation, but the second year there should be half a
crop, and the third year a fxill crop. The blackberry is nattirally
prolific and under equally good culture it will generally outyield
the raspberries; usually it is the most profitable bramble to
grow, provided the climate and other general conditions are
favorable.

Blackberries are packed in strawberry baskets and handled
in the strawberry crate.

The price in the markets varies from 7 to 18 cents a quart,
depending on the quality, season, and supply.



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1



26 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 818



DEWBERRIES



GENERAL DISCUSSION

18. The dewberry is distinguished from the blackberry
by its trailing habit of growth, by the manner in which it repro-
duces, and by its fewer flower clusters. The dewberry is of
value, because it ripens earlier than the blackberry and is
sweeter.

The dewberry crop is profitable in years when the fruit
matures. Due to its susceptibility to being winter killed it
is an tmcertain crop in some localities, especially in the north
and in exposed locations, and for this reason it is not more
extensively planted. The dewberry has been cultivated
extensively only dtuing the last 25 years.

An average yield of dewberries is from 300 to 400 Colorado
crates, or from 3,600 to 6,000 quarts per acre. The average
price received by the Colorado growers is about $2.25 per
crate, or from 18 to 19 cents per quart.

Dewberries do not do well in the scorching sun and therefore
should be planted on a slope with a northern or northwestern
exposure or in a shady place. ,

Dewberries do well on any soil, but do best on a light sandy
soil.

VARIETIES OF DEWBERRIES AND NURSERY STOCK

19. The varieties of dewberries most generally grown are
the Lucretia and the Mayes. In the market dewberries are
usually classed as blackberries. The Lucretia, the more
popular of the two, is commonly called a blackberry and ranks
as one of the blackberries most in demand in the markets.
Dewberries ripen earlier than blackberries and for this reason
are looked on as early blackberries. The dewberries are not
as hardy as the blackberries.



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 27

The Lucretia dewberry has a good-growing bush but is not
hardy in northern localities. The fruit is large, glossy black,
sweet, juicy, and of good quality. The fruit ripens early.

The Mayes dewberry, or Austin dewberry, or Austin-Mayes
dewberry, has a strong-growing bush but lacks hardiness.
The fruit is very large, glossy black, juicy, and of good quality.
The fruit ripens very early in the season.

20. Selection of Varieties Suitable to Location.

According to information compiled by the American Pomo-
logical Society, -varieties of dewberries, like varieties of other
fruits, vary widely in their adaptability to different sections
of the coimtry. Some varieties of dewberries have been foimd
to succeed well in many different parts of the country, though
with varying degrees of success in different sections, and other
varieties have been found to do well in a certain few sections
only. The following list of varieties are classified in the same
divisions as blackberries, the nimibers of the divisions corre-
sponding with those given on the map of Fig. 5. The varieties
given in each division are known to do well in that district.
The varieties given in Italic are known to be highly successful
in the divisions in which they occur. The first time the name
of a variety is given its less common name is put after it in
parenthesis. Where a division heading is omitted from the list
(Divisions 1, 6, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17), no varieties of dewberries
are known to do well in that division. The other remarks
given tmder blackberries apply with equal force to dewberries.

Division 2 : Lucretia.

Division S: Lucretia, Mayes (Austin, Austin-Mayes).

Division 4' Lucretia, Mayes.

Division 6: Lucretia, Mayes.

Division 7: Lucretia, Mayes.

Division 8: Lucretia, Mayes.

Division 10: Lucretia.

Division 12: Lucretia.

Division 14: Lucretia.

Division 16: Lucretia.

Division 18: Lucretia.



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28



BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES



§18



21. Proimgatlon. — Dewberries are propagated from tips
in the same way that black raspberries are propagated. These
tips root very readily when they come in contact with the soil.

In the spring before dewberries are pruned, the tips that have
taken root from the yoimg growth that has fallen to the ground
the previous simimer will be developed enough for transplanting,
and any that are needed to replace old hills or to set a new
plantation should be secured at this time.

22. Selection of Nursery Stock. — In Fig. 11 are shown




-32

-31

-3a
-2g

-28
-27
-26
-25
-24
-23



-21
-20
-lO

-18
-17
-16
-15
-14
-13
-12
-II
-lO
-9
-8
-7
-6
-6
-4
-3
-2
- I



Fig. 11

examples of desirable dewberry nursery plants. These plants
are large and well developed and are sturdy for dewberry
bushes. In Fi>^. 12 are shown examples of imdesirable, imder-
sized dewberr}^ bushes. The scale in Figs. 11 and 12 is the
same as that used in Figs. 6 and 7.



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§18



BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES



29



PLANTING, CULTIVATTON, PRUNING, AND
HARVESTING

23. Planting. — Spring planting usually produces the best
results with dewberries. Different varieties should be planted



-23

-22

-21

-20

-19

H8

-17

-16

-\&

-14

-13

-12

-11

-10

-O

-8

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-I





Fig. 12

together to secure proper fertilization. The method of planting
is the same as for blackberries. Dewberries are planted at a
variety of distances. When they are to be trained to a stake
a common distance for planting is 4 feet by 4 feet and the canes
are tied to the stakes about 3 feet above the ground. At' this
distance about 2,722 plants may be set per acre. Some growers



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30 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES § 18

prefer to plant dewberries in -rows 5 feet apart and to space
the plants 2^ feet apart in the rows, which gives about 3,484
plants per acre. Whether this close planting will produce a
greater net profit is a local problem depending largely on
soil conditions. When dewberries are planted in this way the
stakes are often put in the rows in the spring about 5 feet
apart, b^inning half way between the first two hills and con-
tinuing in like manner down each row. This arrangement
will permit the plants in two hills to be tied to one stake and is
economical in the matter of stakes.

When dewberries are to be trained on a wire trellis they are
commonly planted in rows 6 feet apart and the plants spaced
3 feet apart in the rows. At these distances about 2,420 plants
will be set per acre.

Only the bearing canes are tied up on stakes or on a trellis,
new growth being allowed to lie on the ground tmtil spring.

In some instances dewberries have been found not to fruit
well, owing to poor pollination, and for this reason the recom-
mendation is often made to plant more than one variety in a
block, in order to insure consistant crops of good fruit. Some
varieties in particular are self -sterile when planted alone.

24. Cultivation. — ^The cultivation of dewberries is prac-
tically the same as for the other bush fruits. It should begin
early in the spring, be discontinued before the time when the
passing back and forth between the rows will damage the fruit,
and, in order to stimulate the yotmg canes into a vigorous
growth, should be resumed again and continued for some time
after the fruit has been harvested and the old canes pruned out.
Clean cultivation should be practiced tmtil the new canes
become too thick. Then the new canes are allowed to cover
the ground as a mulch during the fall and winter tmtil they
are ready to be pruned and tied up in the spring.

25. Pruning. — Dewberries are pnmed similarly to black-
berries, except that on accoimt of their trailing habit of growth
and limbemess, the fruiting canes must be supported on stakes or
on a trellis. Dewberries are somewhat difficult to prune because



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 31

the new growth makes a dense mat on the ground, and the
lif tmg and tying of the canes to the stakes or trellis is impleasant
work. The fruiting canes are the ones that are tied up, and
this is done in order to prevent the fruit from becoming soiled
and to keep the canes from interfering with cultivation.

No summer pnming is necessary, but the old canes should
be cut out as soon as they have fruited. The young canes
are allowed to grow at will, forming a mat over the groimd;
some growers, however, turn the new canes so that they lie



Pig. 13

in the rows and thus they are able to continue cultivation longer
without damaging the bushes. The young canes are allowed
to remain on the groimd during the winter. In the spring they
are pruned back to a height of from 3 to 5 feet and are tied
up with binder twine, or some similar twine, on stakes as shown
in Fig. 13 or on a trellis made of wires strung on stakes as shown
in Fig. 14. Tying up on stakes is usually considered the more
satisfactory method. This feature of dewberry culture is one
that adds very much to the expense of production.



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32 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES § 18

One good method of con-
structing a trellis is to secure
good strong 7-foot posts.
Cedar posts are very satis-
factory when they are avail-
able. These posts should be
set about 2 feet deep in the
groimd, stand 5 feet above
ground, and be spaced not
more than 32 feet apart in
the rows. The end posts in
each row should be seemly
anchored, as there is consid-
erable strain on them ^pvhen
the vines are loaded ^pvith
fruit. The posts should be
strung with three galvan-
ized- iron wires, of about
^ No. 12 gauge. The top wire
I should be placed over the
tops of the posts, the lower
wire should be fastened
about 20 inches from the
grotmd, and the third wire
should be stnmg about half
way between the other two.
All wires should be made
taut and stapled with stout
staples.

As soon as the dewberry
canes have borne their crop
of fruit, they are cut out and
preferably burned. This
gives the young canes all
possible room for growth.

26. Harvesting:.— The

picking of dewberries is a



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 33

serious problem on account of the thorns and the trailing habit of
growth. To protect the hands, pickers are obliged to use
gloves. An entire glove is used on one hand to lift the canes,
and the glove on the other hand has the tips of the fingers
removed, in order to facilitate picking. Pickers in a dewberry
patch are shown in Fig. 15. A convenient cart for transporting
berries to the packing shed is shown in the foreground. This
cart could be used for any small fruit.



Fig. 15

Dewberries are picked into small baskets, either quarts or
pints, and marketed in crates. The Colorado growers pack
dewberries in veneer pint boxes and pack twenty-four of these
boxes in a crate of two tiers.

Dewberries should be crated as picked. The pickers usually
receive 30 cents per crate if paid daily and 35 cents per crate
if payment is deferred until the end of the picking season.



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34 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES §18



BLACKBERRY-RASPBERRY HYBRIDS



GENERAL DISCUSSION

27. Blackberry-raspberry hybrids are plants that have
been produced from seeds from either blackberry or raspberry
biishes, the flowers of which have been fertilized with pollen
from the flowers of the other kind. Such plants can be repro-
duced true to type only by propagation by means of suckers,
cuttings, or tip layers, as the case may demand. The reason
for discussing such hybrids is because by breeding and selecting
such plants, new commercial varieties of fruit may be produced
that will be superior to the varieties of blackberries and rasp-
berries already grown. This is important, because the varieties
of blackberries and raspberries at present imder cultivation
have their disadvantages to both the consumer and the pro-
ducer. Few varieties of blackberries or raspberries fully meet
the requirements of the consumer of dessert fruit or of the
canning factory; and the grower of blackberries and raspberries
finds even greater objections to many varieties for several
reasons: (1) They show great variations in their adaptability
to different types of soil, (2) they are more or less susceptible
to injury by frost, and (3) they are susceptible to the ravages
of disease.

That the conditions just stated exist, seems to be but natural
when the sources from which the fruits were derived and the
conditions imder which the varieties were produced are care-
fully considered. Practically all of the present varieties of
raspberries have originated from the varieties of European
garden raspberries imported into this country from time to
time, from the American black raspberries, from the American
wild red raspberries, and from the natural hybrids of these
three types. The blackberries and dewberries are represented
by five or six species, or varieties, of native fruits and also by



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 35

several hybrids of these varieties that are of a very variable
character.

Little attention has been given to the production of varieties
of raspberries and blackberries by systematic breeding, and the
varieties of these fruits now grown in this country have for the
most part been secured by propagating from some unusual
and seemingly desirable variation that may have occurred in
various nursery patches, in commercial plantations, and
through the selection and propagation of stray hybrids acci-
dentally discovered. The desire to produce new varieties
that might bring the nurseryman higher prices than the old
varieties has led to the propagation of a large number of such
plants, with the result that there are now a mtdtitude of varie-
ties that vary slightly in the form of their fruit, but that vary
more in hardiness, vigor of growth, and productiveness. Hence,
at. the present time, too many varieties are offered for sale,
but among these are very few varieties that are desirable from
all points of view.

Some of the defects of plants that will be noticed in every
blackberry and raspberry plantation are: (1) A certain per-
centage of plants that produce no fruit or very Uttle fruit,
(2) plants that produce fruit of poor flavor, (3) plants that
produce soft fruit, (4) plants from which the nearly ripe fruit
drops off very easily on being shaken,. (5) plants that will be
badly infested with insects or diseases or both, (6) a greater
or less number of plants that will lack vitality, and (7) some
plants that do both well and poorly in moist spots and some
that do both well and pooily in dry spots.

Some of the blackberry-raspberry hybrids show promise of
overcoming many of the above shortcomings of blackberries
and raspberries, and in this field of endeavor the plant breeder
apparently has a great opportunity to produce a fruit worth
while.

Some of the problems the breeder of blackberry-raspberry
hybrids aims to solve, and in which the native species of the
genus Rubus, which includes the native blackberries and
raspberries, may be used, are simimarized by Lawrence as
follows: (1) To secure an early-bearing, early-mattiring.



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36 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES §18

heavy-yielding bush blackberry free from the attacks of insect
pests and not susceptible to crown gall and anthracnose; (2) to
secure a cross of the blackberry, or a hybrid blackberry, with
the wild blackberry or dewberry to secure a better-flavored,
small-seeded fruit that will have a large proportion of flesh
and will still be excellent for shipping; (3) to secure a hybrid
of the blackberry and the salmon berry that will stand a greater
quantity of water than the blackberry, and hence which will be
adapted to planting on a large area of soils at the present time
not suitable for fruit growing because they are not well drained
dtuing the early part of the growing season; and (4) to secure
crosses of the Mercereau with some other bramble that will
bear a fruit with a fleshy core. Many more such problems might
be suggested.

ME3THOD OF PRODUCING BLACKBERRY-RASPBERRY

HYBRIDS

28« To be of value, blackberry-raspberry hybrids should
be produced by systematic breeding and this may be accom-
plished according to the following method:

1. A number of plants, the larger the niunber the better,
of commercial varieties of blackberries, dewberries, and rasp-
berries, and also of some of their hybrids already in existence,
should be secured and planted in a plot in separate rows. Care
should be taken to see that all of the plants are vigorous and
that they come from plants that have a record of producing
exceptionally desirable fruit of its kind.

2. Dtuing the first summer particular attention should be
paid to the manner in which the plants grow. Any that make
a weaker growth than is thought desirable should be dug up
and discarded. In doing this, however, due allowance should
be made for the variations in growth that occur in different
kinds of fruit and in different varieties of the same fruit.

3. The effect of the winter on the remaining plants should
also be carefully noted. The breeder will be forttmate indeed
if he happens to be favored with a very rigorous winter the first
year. In case any plants are totally destroyed by the winter
this will save the trouble of digging them out. All plants



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 37

that show any considerable effect from winter killing should
also be discarded. In this way only the most vigorous plants
and those best adapted to resisting winter killing will be left.

4. When the plants come into bloom in the spring (some-
times it may be better to wait until the second spring after
planting in order to make the selection for vigor and resistance
to winter killing and disease) the stamens, anthers, or pollen
sacks should be removed from certain of the best flowers on each
plant that it is desired to breed from. This will prevent these
blossoms from becoming self-fertilized. These blossoms, some-
time^ called emasculated blossoms, should then be pollinated
by hand. That is, pollen should be shaken from a flower of
some other plant on to a watch crystal or some similar container,
carried to the emasculated flower, and dusted on the pistil of
this flower by means of a small cameVs-hair brush. Each
flower fertilized in this way should then be enclosed in a paper
bag and the bag tied securely about the cane below the flower.
This will prevent the pistil of the flower from becoming fertil-
ized with pollen from any other flowers and thus interfering
with the cross intended. The bag shotdd be kept over the
flower until the fruit has set, and should then be removed in
order to allow the fruit to develop to perfection. The fruits
fertilized in this way should be marked so that their identity
will not be lost. One convenient way is to tie a tag, on which
full information in regard to the cross has been written, to the
cane below the fruit in question. The more such crosses that
are ntiade the greater will be the chance of securing a few desir-
able seedlings.

5. As soon as the fruit is ripe, the marked fruits should be
harvested, each lot crossed in the same way by themselves.
The seed should be separated from the pulp, dried, and kept
separate in a dry place so that it will not deteriorate.

6. The next spring this seed should be planted. Usually
the best practice is to plant it in small flats in a greenhouse
and get the yoimg plants well started before time for setting
in the field. As soon as the plants are strong enough and the
weather permits they should be set out in a good soil in the
open anci carefully tended.



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38 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES § 18

7. The next year after setting, these plants, or at least the
desirable ones, will bear fruit. At this time a careful selection
of the plants should be made, due attention being given to the
form, color, flavor,, and apparent shipping qualities of the
fruit, and the vigor, and resistance to disease and winter
killing of the bushes. Probably only a few bushes will show a
combination of all of the good qualities. Only such bushes
should be retained for propagation. The propagation should
be by means of suckers, tip layers, or cuttings as the case may
require, because only plants propagated in this way can be
expected to come true to type. The progeny from all of these
different plants should be kept separate, for probably only a
comparatively few even of these will prove to be satisfactory.
The securing of new varieties in this way requires time, but
any desirable variety secured in this way may be assumed to
be worth while.



THE LOGANBERRY

29. The loganberry is probably the best known of the
blackberry-raspberry hybrids and is a valuable fruit in parts
of the West and the Northwest. The loganberry was produced
accidentially many years ago from a seed of the Aughinbaugh
blackberry, the very variable wild blackberry of California,
that had been accidentally fertilized from a near-by red rasp-
berry bush, supposedly of the old Red Antwerp variety.

Although the loganberry is a heavy yielder, some single
vines or bushes, bearing as much as 10 to 15 quarts of fruit,
it is not sufficiently hardy in all parts of the country to be of
importance commercially. It will, however, prove satisfactory
in the home garden in many places where it would not prove
profitable commercially. In many parts of the West and North-
west the loganberry succeeds and is an important commercial
crop. In the East, this fruit has not been as much of a success
as it was expected to be. In almost all localities it is too
tender, and to be brought through the winter in satisfactory
condition must be well protected. Probably the best protection
is to lay the vines on the ground and completely cover them



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§ 18 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES 39



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 28 of 35)