International Correspondence Schools.

Peach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... online

. (page 29 of 35)
Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 29 of 35)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


with soil late in the autumn. Such a practice, however, is
expensive in a commercial plantation.

The loganberry bush, often called a vine on account of its
trailing habit of growth, is strong-growing, dark green in color,
and of the trailing dewberry type of growth. The loganberry
fruit, shown in Fig. 16, has many characteristics of both of its
parents. When ripe, the fruit is of a rich, dark-red color, and
on some bushes will average from f inch to li inches in length,



Fig. 16

but the quality is only fair. The fruit is not adapted to long-
distance shipment. The best results are secured when the
fruit is grown within a short distance of the market, and is not
picked until it is nearly ripe, or when it is grown near to and
sold to a canning factory.

30. The loganberry can be propagated according to two
methods, the most common method being from tip layers.
These are secured by tipping the vines, that is, by letting the
tips of the vines fall to the ground and covering them with
earth late in the summer or early in the fall. The plants
from such tips should be ready for transplanting about March
of the following spring. The loganberry can also be propagated

249—30



Digitized by



Google



40 BLACKBERRIES AND DEWBERRIES § 18

from cuttings taken from the hard wood of the plant and
containing at least one bud. Plants raised from seed are little
likely to produce fruit true to type.

As in the case of the dewberry, the loganberry should be
trained on a trellis, on stakes, or on a wall. This is necessary
in order to keep the fruit off the ground and to prevent it from
becoming soiled. The cultivation and pruning is the same as
for the dewberry.

Loganberries, in localities where the conditions are favorable,
should yield one-third of a crop, or a Uttle more, the next year
after planting and a full crop in succeeding years. A crop
of 4 tons to the acre is considered possible imder good manage-
ment, although crops of 6^ tons have been secured. At some
canneries a price of $80 per ton is paid, making on a 4-ton
crop, gross receipts of $320. Of this amotmt about half should
be net to the grower after paying the expenses of production
and harvesting.

In some sections loganberries are coming to have a variety
of uses. They are put on the market fresh, canned, and evapo-
rated; it takes about 5^ poimds of fresh fruit to make 1 pound
of dried fruit. There is also some demand for the loganbern'
for making juice for flavoring and for soft drinks, and also for
making wine.



Digitized by



Google



CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES



CURRANTS



GENERAL DISCUSSION

!• Currants are of three commercial classes, namely, red,
black, and white, the color of the skin of the fruit being the
basis for this classification. In the United States the red
currant is the most important class, and since the more rigid
enforcement of the pttre-food laws, the demand for this crop
has increased. In Europe, both the red and the black
currants are extensively cultivated for market. The white
currant is of little importance commercially, its appearance
not being attractive. The only demand for white currants is
for a limited quantity for the dessert trade.

In the United States, currants are grown in the Northern, in
the Central, and in some of the Western States. They fail in
the Southern States, except on elevations, and do not do well
on the Western plains. The states that produce the bulk of
the currant crop are New York, Michigan, Iowa, Ohio, Wis-
consin, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and California. They are also
grown in the fruit-growing sections of Canada.

The currant as grown commercially is a low, bushy plant.
It is perfectly hardy to cold and thrives only in cool climates.
The three classes require practically the same ctdtural methods.

2. Uses of Currants. — ^To a limited extent currants are
used on the table, but the main use is for the juice, which is

COPYRiaHTKO BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY. ALL RIOHTS RESERVED

§19



Digitized by



Google



2 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES § 19

largely used in the making of jellies, as a flavor, and as a
drink.

In the United States the currant is grown almost solely for
the production of jellies. The pure-food law has been the
means of greatly increasing the qtiantity of currants used in
making jelly. Formerly large quantities of so-called currant
jelly were made of apple juice artificially colored and flavored,
but now, to conform with the law, any jelly sold as currant
jelly must be made from currants.

Since the advent of the pure-food law, currant juice is also
coming into use as a flavor for other fruits in preserves. Fre-
quently, currant juice is put up with raspberries; it may also
be added to the Russian mulberry and to the Jtme berry to
improve the flavor of products made from these fruits.

Currant juice is sometimes mixed with sugar and water to
make a drink similar to lemonade.

The fruit of the black currant is credited with much medicinal
value in Europe, being used for alleviating soreness of the
throat. It is also used for jam and jelly, and the leaves are
sometimes used for making tea.

3, Growth of Demand for Currants. — The demand for
currants is rapidly increasing, the greatest demand being for red
currants, especially since the more rigid enforcement of the pure-
food laws. As an example of the result of the increased demand
for currants, the following case may be quoted. Fifteen years
ago, a man near Rochester, New York, who had planted 2 or 3
acres, was asked what he was going to do with his enomious
crop of currants when the bushes came into bearing. There was
practically no sale for them at the time, but now, although
he has several times the area he then had, he is but a small
factor in the vicinity of Rochester in the production of red
currants.

Ten years ago the demand for red currants was largely
confined to New England. Today carloads are shipped daily
from Western New York as far west as Chicago, and the industry
is in a healthy condition. At the present time the demand is
greater than the prospective supply; on the other hand the



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 3

difficulties attending the production of the fruit are rapidly
increasing, and these, of course, tend either to curtail or to
eliminate the crops of the less experienced growers. The fruit
is poptdar but the market has never been systematically
developed.

Although at the present time there is only a limited demand
for black currants in the United States, the demand for them
appears to be slowly increasing.

4. Possibility of Overproduction of Currants. — ^From
the present outlook, the possibility of an overproduction of
currants need not be seriously considered. There are two
reasons for this. The demand for currants is stable and
increasing, and the difficulties attending their production are
rapidly increasing. Few currants are used for the table.
The btdk of the crop is used for making jelly, and the demand
for first-class jelly made from pure fruit juice seems to increase
more rapidly than the population. The increase in the ntunber
of plant diseases and insect pests attacking the currant, notably
the San Jos6 scale and the currant borer, has been very rapid,
and the damage done by these agencies seems to increase
annually.

5« Influence of Quality of Currants on Demand.

Thus far the tendency of the retail market has been in favor
of currants with large berries and long bimches, but the canners
and jelly makers have as yet paid little attention to these
details. It is the belief of experts that a small tart currant,
such as the Victoria, is really better for jelly making than a
milder flavored and larger currant, such as Perfection, but on
the open market the larger fruit, in most cases, would probably
outsell the smaller. Wherever the larger fruit is equally as
productive as the smaller, it is the most profitable to grow,
because, in addition to being more in demand, the large-
berried fruit is also more easily harvested.

a. Yields of Currants. — ^Yields of red currants vary
greatly, an average being perhaps from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds
per acre. Good yields wil run from 3,000 to 4,000 pounds



Digitized by



Google



4 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES § 19

per acre, and exceptional yields will run as high as 14,000 pounds
per acre. In order to make the crop a paying one, yields of
4,000 pounds should be sectu^. Currant bushes will bear well
for 7 to 15 years, depending on the care given to them.

The black currant is less productive than the red currant,
and in order to make its culture equally profitable the grower
would need to secure from IJ to 2 cents per pound more for
them.



SIZE AND LOCATION OF A CURRANT PLANTATION



SIZE, EQUIPMENT, LABOR, AND CAPITAL

7. size for a Currant Plantation. — If the shipping
facilities, labor supply, and natiu*al conditions are favorable
to the production of currants, the size of plantation will be
limited only by the ability of the owner to manage it. If the
fruit is to be shipped to distant markets, suflSdent fruit should
be raised so that carload lots may be shipped. This would
necessitate planting 10-acre blocks of fruit so that fruit in suflS-
cient quantities could be secured at one time. For a small
local market a patch of 1 acre may be ample.

8. Equipment and Labor. — ^The tool equipment for a
currant plantation is simple. Unless special planting machinery
as described later is desired, only the ordinary farm cultivators
will be necessary to keep the crop in good condition and almcst
any spraying machine, provided it is not too large, may be
adapted for use on currants.

The labor required for currants, other than that used in
spraying and harvesting, is not much greater than that required
for the production of a good com crop. Under proper manage-
ment, the necessary pnming is usually done in winter, when
labor is abundant.

9. Capital Required for a Currant Plantation.

Properly handled, a currant plantation may be expected to pay



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 5

its nrnning expenses by the fourth or fifth year after planting.
The amoiint of capital reqtiired will vary somewhat with the
locaUty. On soil suitable for trucking, a vegetable crop could
be grown between the rows the first year, and this should meet
all expenses of tillage, etc., for that year. On the other hand,
in localities where the soil is heavy, the whole of the land may
have to be given to the currant crop and all of the expenses
paid out of capital. If no interest is charged and no charge
made for supervision, the cost of financing a currant plantation
for 4 years is about $220 per acre. In one case in Western
New York with interest at 6 per cent, and allowing $10 per
acre per year for supervision, the cost of planting and carrying
a currant plantation through its first 4 years amoimts to about
$350 per acre. Many plantations are run for less than this sum
per acre, but probably such plantations will be of less value after
they come into bearing.

An itemized statement of the amount of money expended per
acre in developing a currant plantation (exclusive of cost of
land) in Western New York during the first 5 years, and also
the income during that time, follows:
Expenses: First Year

Plants (set 4 ft.X4 ft. = 2,723, at 4 c.) .. $108.92

Plowing and fitting 7.00

Manure and applying 10 loads 20.00

Marking and planting 8.50

Cultivation, twenty to thirty times .... 20.00

Taxes .50

Rent 5.00

Interest on capital $200 at 6 per cent, for

6 months 6.00

Supervision 10.00

Cover-crop seed 1.50

Use of tools 2.00

General expenses 3.00

Total $192.42

Receipts: No crop.

Net expense $192.42



Digitized by



Google



6 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES § 19

Expenses: Second Year

Replacing plants $ 2.00

Cultivation 20.00

Hoeing 1.50

Spraying three times 6.00

Cover-crop seed 1.50

Supervision 10.00

Use of tools 2.00

General expenses 3.00

Taxes 50

Rent 5.00

Interest on $200 for 1 year 12.00

Interest on $60 for 6 months 1.80

Total $ 65.30

Receipts: No crop.

Net expense $65.30

Expenses: Thi^^ Year

Cultivation $ 20.00

Hoeing 1.50

Spraying 8.00

Cover-crop seed 1.50

Fertilizer 10.00

Supervision 10.00

Use of tools 3.00

General expenses 3.00

Taxes 50

Rent 5.00

Interest on $260 for 1 year 15.60

Picking 200 poimds 2.00

Marketing, etc 1.00

Total $ 81.10

Receipts:

200 pounds of currants at 5 c 10.00

Net expense $71.10



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 7

Expenses: Fourth Year

•Cultivation $ 20.00

Hoeing 1.50

Spra)ring 8.00

Cover-crop seed 1.50

Fertilizer 10.00

Supervision 10.00

Use of tools 3.00

General expenses 3.00

Taxes 50

Rent 5.00

Picking 15.00

Marketing 7.00

Interest on $330 for 1 year 19.80

Total $104.30

Receipts: 1,500 pounds of currants at 5 c 75.00

A' ^/ expense 29^0

Net expense for 4 years $358.12

Expenses: ^^^^ Year

Cultivation $ 20.00

Hoeing 1.50

Spraying 8.00

Cover-crop seed 1.50

Fertilizer 10.00

Supervision 10.00

Use of tools 3.00

General expenses 3.00

Taxes .50

Rent 5.00

Picking 36.00

Marketing, etc 14.00

Interest on $350 for 1 year 21.00

Total $133.50

Receipts: 3,600 pounds of currants at 5 c 180.00

Profit r . 7777 46.50

Net expense for 5 years $311.62



Digitized by



Google



CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES § 19



SELECTION OP LOCATION

10« The most important factors to be considered in the
production of currants are facilities for disposing of the crop
quickly and a plentiful supply of labor to pick it. Although
the importance of favorable natural conditions should not be
overlooked, it is evident that unless the crop can be picked and
shipped quickly, it cannot be produced at a profit, no matter
how favorable the natural conditions may be.

In selecting the location for a currant plantation for the
production of fruit for shipment to distant markets, the nearness
of a shipping point on a railroad, the character of service that
can be depended on on that railroad, the time it will take the
railroad to deliver the fruit to market, and the character of
the roads between the plantation and the shipping station
are points that should be carefully considered.

A plentiful supply of cheap labor, such as women and children,
must be in the immediate neighborhood and must be easily
secured, or the fruit grower must have the ability to arrange
to have laborers on hand when they are needed. Laborers
will be needed for but 7 to 10 days to harvest currants. Hence,
it is usually most satisfactory to have currants one of a series
of crops demanding such help, thus warranting the importation
of help if it is not on hand. Currant picking follows imme-
diately after strawberry picking, and is generally coincident
with sour-cherry picking.

Sometimes currant plantations are situated near a canning
factory that will take the entire production at a specified price.
Such an arrangement is often satisfactory. Otherwise, the
grower should have good shipping facilities to at least one
good market, though it is preferable to have more than one
market to ship to.

The currant crop is harvested in the hottest part of the
year — ^in July in New York — and the fruit must either be used
quickly, as in a canning factory, or else cooled it if is to be
shipped to a distant market.

Red currants can be grown imder partial shade, and for this
reason they are sometimes planted tmder yoimg apple trees.



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 9

Such a course may be permissible in a smiall orchard, where
land is very high in price and the labor is done largely by hand,
but it is not good practice for a large plantation. Each crop
does best when planted by itself.

11. Site for Currants. — ^Almost any exposure is suitable
for currants, provided the plantation is located on a site where
the circulation of air will be good. Currants should not be
placed on land that is too low, because in frost pockets an entire
crop may be lost in some years, due to freezing at blossoming
time.

In Pennsylvania, an altitude of 1,000 feet is better for currants
than a lower altitude. Currants will stand cold, and even fairly
cool, climates, but not a hot one. In a hot climate the leaves
of the currant bushes will fall early, thus reducing the strength
of the plant and its ability to produce good crops in succeeding
years.

12. Character of Soil for Currants. — Currants are
grown on all kinds of soils, but each variety seems to have a
set of soil and climatic conditions imder which it will thrive best.
Although almost any variety will grow and produce some sort
of a crop and perhaps pay expenses anywhere in the North-
eastern and Central States or in Eastern and Central Canada,
yet the men who have achieved marked success in growing
currants have been those who have fotmd the one variety or
strain particularly adapted to their conditions, as discussed
imder varieties, and have grown that one.

Generally speaking, the richer the soil is for currants, the
better. It should be friable and easy of tillage to make expenses
for this operation as small as possible. It should be well
supplied with moisture, but not wet. If not properly drained
it should be imderdrained. Currants will not thrive if their
roots are continually in an excessive amoimt of moisture.



Digitized by



Google



10 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES § 19



SELECTION OF VARIETIES



COMMERCL

13, Red Currants. — Of

currants, the following are th

The Clierry currant has a
ductive in most places. The
borne in long, well-filled bimc
and mediimi in quality. Tl
variety sometimes go blind.
Italy. The fruit matures in r

The Fay, or Fay's Prolific,
bush that is a mediimi, spreadi
and the fruit usually getting
bear in some localities, but n
The fruit is large to very h
bimches; the berries are red j
Cherry. The Fay currant ori
matures in mid-season.

The London Market curr
inated in England. The bus
injured by diseases and bore:
resembles that of the Fay, b
fruit in mid-season.

The Prince Albert currai
has an upright-growing bush
erately productive. The frui
in short bunches ; it is pale sea
ity. It matures its fruit very late.

The Red Cross currant had its origin in New York. Its
bush is a strong grower and productive. The fruit is large and
is borne in short, compact bunches; it is red in color and of
excellent flavor. It matures its fruit in mid-season.

The Filler currant is productive and the fruit is red and of
good quaHty, but it is not of as much importance commercially
as some of the other varieties.



Digitized by



Google



^IG- 1 $19 24909



Digitized by



Google



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 11

The Pomona currant has a bush that is rather spreading
in its habit of growth and is productive. The fruit is bright
red, of good quality, and contains but few seeds.

The Red Dutcli currant is not recommended for planting.
Both the bush and the fruit are small.

The Versalllalse, or La Versaillaise, currant is a seedling
of Cherry and something like it. It originated in France. The
bush is a good grower and productive. The fruit is matured
in mid-season.

The Victoria, or May*s Victoria^ currant which originated
in England, has a good growing bush that is little troubled by
leaf diseases or borers; the foliage is very good, but is suscep-
tible to injury by hot weather; the bush is very productive.
The fruit is small, red, acid, and of good flavor; it is matured
in the latter part of mid-season.

The Wilder currant had its origin in Indiana. The bush is
a strong, upright grower and productive. The fruit is large
and hangs well; it is red and of a good, mild flavor. The fruit
is matured in mid-season.

The Perfection currant, shown in Fig. 2, is a good variety
for table use when well grown. The bush is productive and
the foliage good. The fruit is large, mild in flavor, and is
borne in long btmches. The variety originated in New York, is
comparatively new, and its place is not yet well determined.

The Diploma currant is a new variety with a strong-growing
bush. The fruit is large and of good quality.

14. Black Currants.— A type of black currant is shown
in Fig. 3. The following are the most commonly planted
varieties of black currants:

The Naples, or Black Naples, currant has a strong-growing
bush. The fruit is large and is borne in small bunches. The
fruit matures in mid-season.

The Lee, or Lee's Prolific, currant is an improvement on
Black Naples and is similar to it. The fruit matures in mid-
season.

The Champion, or Black Champion, currant has a good-
growing bush. The fruit is large, of mild flavor, and matures
in mid-season.



Digitized by



Google



Fig. 2



Digitized by



Google



13



Fig. 3



Digitized by



Google



14 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES §19

15. White Currants. — The following are the most com-
monly planted varieties of white currants:

The White Imperial is the best of the white currants.
The bush is productive, and the fruit is a pale yellow, sweet,
rich, and excellent for table use.

The White Grape currant has a productive bush, and pale
yellow fruit that is mild and of good quality.



SELECTION OF \ABIEmE» SUITABLE FOR A LOCATION

16. The selection of varieties of currants for planting should
be governed to a great extent by the success of various varieties
in the immediate neighborhood of the purposed plantation.
The experiences of growers in different localities on types of
soil similar to that imder consideration should also be consid-
ered. As examples of what has been done in the raising of
currants the following instances may be noted:

In Niagara Coimty, New York, one grower succeeds with
Pomona and has secured as high as 7 tons per acre.

In Seneca Coimty, New York, Prince Albert, a late variety,
ripening in August and September, has proved profitable.

Fay is a standard variety, and, when well fertilized, a very
good one in many localities. The bush tends to lop, however,
and the fruit gets dirty.

Hepworth, of Marlboro, New York, grows Filler and has
70,000 plants. Filler is much more upright in growth than
Fay and the berries are as large.

Perfection is doing well on heavy loam soils at Rochester,
New York, and near by on a lighter loam soil Victoria
outyields it.

Victoria, Versaillaise, Red Cross, and Wilder have done well
in New Jersey.

Cherry is a good standard variety for a great many locations,
but the bushes tend to produce smaller berries as they grow
older.

Jefferson Coimty Seedling and Versaillaise have done well
on shaly land in the Hudson River Valley, New York.



Digitized by



Google



§ 19 CURRANTS AND GOOSEBERRIES 15

Acxx^rding to information compiled by the American Pomo-
logical Society, varieties of currants, like varieties of other
fruits, vary widely in their adaptability to different sections
of the country. Some varieties have been foimd to succeed
well in many different parts of the country, though with varjdng
degrees of success in different sections, and other varieties have
been found to do well in a certain few sections only. To sim-
plify matters, the Society has divided the United States and
the lower part of Canada into eighteen pomological divisions, or
districts. These districts have nothing to do with the State or
provincial boimdaries but consist of territory adapted, because
of its natural conditions, to the growing of fruits. In la)dng
out these districts due consideration was given to the influence
of latitude, elevation, prevailing winds, and the nearness to
oceans and lakes. These eighteen districts are outlined and
nimibered on the map in Fig. 4.

The following lists of varieties arranged by districts, give
imder each division the varieties of currants that are known
to succeed in that district. The varieties given in italics are
known to be highly successful in the divisions in which they
occur. The first time the name of a variety is given its less
common name is put after it in parentheses. Where a division
heading is omitted, such as Divisions 6, 7, 11, 17, and 18 in the
following list, no varieties of currants are known to do well in
that division. No detailed descriptions will be found of some
of the varieties included in the following list. Such varieties
are not considered to be entirely desirable commercially.

The information given in this list, however, should not be
regarded as infallible, though it has been compiled with the



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsPeach culture: plum culture; grape culture; strawberries; raspberries ... → online text (page 29 of 35)