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THE STUDENTS'



DICTIONARY OF MEDICINE



AND THE ALLIED SCIENCES.



COMPRISING THE PRONUNCIATION, DERIVATION, AND FULL

EXPLANATION OF MEDICAL TERMS, TOGETHER WITH

MUCH COLLATERAL DESCRIPTIVE MATTER,

NUMEROUS TABLES, Etc.



WITH APPENDIX.



By ALEXANDER DUANE, M.D.,

ASSISTANT SURGSON TO THE NEW YORK OPHTHALMIC AND AUKAL INSTITUTE; REVISER

OF Medical Terms for Webster's International Dictionary.



. • ■ ' .'If

AUG' I li^



%v.-'^



LEA BROTHERS & CO.,

NEW YORK AND PHILADELPHIA.

1896.



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Of
JPL1



(^ OUPUtATE ^



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1896, hy

LEA BROTHERS & CO.,

in the office of the Librarian of Congre^ at Wushington. All righU reserved.



Wbstoott a Thomsok,
Sereotypert and EUctrotypert, Philado.



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PREFACE.



It has been the aim of the Author in the preparation of this book to
give sufficient but succinct information concerning every word that the
student or physician will be likely to meet with in the course of his pro-
fessional reading. So ample, however, is the medical vocabulary of to-
<lay that space for the insertion of all really useful terms has been
secured only by the careful omission of obsolete words. Practical utility
rather than historical tradition has controlled the selection of matter ;
hence the work differs from most of its contemporaries in omitting words
which are nowadays found only in dictionaries. This has a double
advantage, since it not only secures space for more useful material, but
also greatly facilitates consultation.

The space thus gained has been utilized by the insertion of much
descriptive and explanatory matter under the more important headings
which would be very inadequately represented by a mere definition, how-
ever full. Thus, under the principal diseases a sketch is given of their
causation, symptoms, and treatment ; under the more important organs,
an outline of their structure and functions ; under each drug, an account
of its action and therapeutic uses, and of all the preparations of it official
in the latest editions of the pharmacopoeias of the United States, Great
Britain, and Germany. The important physiological functions and ge-
neric biological and chemical terms receive similar extended explanation.
In arranging this descriptive matter in consecutive form continuity and
logical order have been kept in view rather than strict alphabetical ar-
rangement. The inclusion of this encyclopaedic information constitutes
a characteristic and, in the Author's belief, a very useful feature of the
work.

The system of pronunciation is extremely simple, and yet adequate
to indicate closely how each word should be sounded. Approximation,



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iv PREFACE.

indeed, is all that any system, however elaborate, can secure ; even the
Webster International Dictionary^ with its wealth of diacritical marks,
professes to accomplish no more than this for general readers. Full
explanation of the system adopted is given in the Introduction.

To fasten in the memory a vivid and enduring recollection of the
meanings of words, no aid is equal to that furnished by their derivation.
Special care has therefore been taken to state and define the original
words from which medical terms are derived. To render this feature of
the work available for those unfamiliar with Greek, all such derivations
are given in ordinary type. Vowels long by nature have been appro-
priately marked, owing to the important influence of natural quantity in
determining the pronunciation of a word and the form of its derivatives.

As the essence of a dictionary lies in its definitions, no pains have
been spared to make the explanation of each word clear and sufficient.
In the case of words having several distinct meanings, clearness has
been promoted by the use of numerals to emphasize the distinction.

Certain matters, especially anatomical data, are best exhibited in
tabular form. The Author has accordingly followed this principle in
making tables of muscles, arteries, nerves, and canals, which set forth
with considerable detail the main facts regarding these organs in a man-
ner best adapted for study. Certain other tables — notably those of the
bacteria, of fermentations, and of monstrosities — present in a conve-
nient form material which is not to be found in the ordinary text-books,
and which has been compiled from special treatises, monographs, and
current literature.

The Author takes pleasure in acknowledging that the study expended
upon preparation of the manuscript has been paralleled by the care
bestowed by the Publishers upon every detail of its presentation. With
compact yet pleasing typography each page has been made to present an
extraordinary amount of matter.



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INTRODUCTION.



1. Han. — The work consists of a series of major titles or primes, each
beginning a separate paragraph and printed in heavy type ; and of a series of
subordinate headings placed in the body of the paragraphs. The subordinate
headings are distinguished by being printed in (a) heavy type when they are
of an importance nearly equal to that of the major heading, and when they
receive an extended description ; (b) in italics when they are of secondary
importance, and particularly when they represent subdivisions of a secondary
heading of the kind mentioned under a ; (c) in capitalized Roman type when of
quite subordinate importance, and particularly when unaccompanied by descrip-
tion or when given simply as instances of the meaning of a main heading.

2. Arraiigement. — The arrangement of the main headings is strictly alpha-
betical, all the letters of a word or of a series of words forming a heading
being taken into consideration in fixing its alphabetical place. Thus, Hunter's
canal is placed after Hunterian chancre; In situ, after Insidious. There are
only two exceptions to this strictly alphabetical order. The first is when two
synonymous terms difiering in spelling are grouped together as the main head-
ing of the same paragraph, in which case the one of the two which has the
preferable form is placed before the other, although in alphabetical order it may
oome after it. Thus, in the paragraph on Aneurysm, the fact that the heading
reads Aneurysm^ Aneurism, denotes that the former spelling is regarded as the
better of the two. The second exception to the alphabetical arrangement is in
the case of certain terms, properly regarded as major headings, which for econ-
omy of space are given under a cognate word of similar spelling, being thus
treated as subordinate headings. E. g. Castor eum is given under Castor, Test-type
under Test, etc., thus throwing these compound expressions slightly out of their
natural order. This is especially done with many adjectives denoting quality,
which are put under the nouns from which they are derived.

'fitles consisting of two or more words, especially of a noun and a qualify-
ing adjective, are usually entered in two places in the dictionary, i. e. under
both of the words forming the title. In this case the definition is given under
the more significant word, or, if not too lengthy, is given in both places, the
object being to avoid cross-references as far as possible.

Subheadings are not, as a rule, arranged in the paragraph alphabetically, but
rather in accordance with logical sequence. See § 9.

3. Spelling. — The system of spelling adopted is intended to indicate the
best usage regardless of analogy. As, however, there is wide variation in
usage, and in many cases the best authorities differ, where two spellings of
nearly equal currency exist for the same word, that orthography has been
adopted which conforms more closely to analogy and the derivation of the
word. Thus, Anthelminthic has been preferred to Anthelmintic, and Chorioid to
Choroid; but Thyreoid, while etymologically more correct than Thyroid,\iK&
hardly come into use sufficiently to warrant its supplanting the latter.



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▼i mTRODUcnoN.

The hyphen has usually beeu omitted in compound expressions, except when
employed to separate two vowels which might otherwise be regarded as forming
a diphthong, and also when used to connect two words of co-ordinate import-
ance, e. g. two nouns, as in Trachelo-mastoid. Even in the latter case it has
been omitted in certain often-recurring words like Fneumogastric and OIosbo-
pharyngeaL

4. PronuTiciation. — Each prime the pronunciation of which is not self-CTident
is followed by symbols placed in parentheses indicating its pronunciation and
accentuation. Li doing this the aim has been to show existing usage, the pre-
cedents both of analogy and authority often being disregarded when they were
thought to controvert the latter. As the system employed is necessarily only
approximate, the Author has used it with some freedom, occasionally substitut-
ing one symbol for another when by so doing greater clearness could be secured.
Each word has been treated by itself, the purpose being to indicate in as obvious
a manner as possible how it is pronounced in ordinary conversation. A table
showing the system adopted is printed opposite to the first page of the alphabet.

The representation of the obscure vowels is difficult in any system, even the
most elaborate. In certain positions, especially at the beginning of a word, their
sound approximates to that of the long vowels ; this has been indicated by the
use of ee for obscure e, oh for obscure o, etc. Elsewhere, and especially at the
end of a word, their sound often resembles that of short u ; and it has been so indi-
cated wherever it could be done without confusion. When, however, neither of
these methods has appeared satisfactory, the symbol denotive of the short sound of
the vowel has been used ; this rule being followed particularly in the middle of
a word where the use of u would create confusion as to the true pronunciation.

In Latin words the English pronunciation has been adopted, the only excep-
tion being in giving the alternate form of words in -ttis, the pronunciation -e^tts
being very prevalent in this country.

5. Indication of PluraU and. Genitives. — In Latin nouns of irregular declen-
sion the genitive or plural form is given after the pronunciation. When not
given, the plural is understood to be formed regularly in accordance with the
following table :



NoniiB ending in—


Qenitiye.


Plnnl.


-a
-^ma


-^matis


-flB

-^mata


-e,-«B

-o

-or


-o^nis
-o^ris


-flB

-o^nee
-</reB


-18


-is


-«B


^


-sifl, -^fleiB


-668


-us


-i


-i


-uin


-i


-a



6. Accentuation. — In giving the accentuation a principle has been followed
similar to that in regard to pronunciation — namely, the maintenance of a proper
mean between pedantic adherence to uniformity and the slipshod inaccuracy
which has become too prevalent among medical men. In Latin words, and io
Greek words regarded as Latin, the accent has uniformly been placed according
to the rules of Latin quantity, e. g. in Psoriafnt and Sub'nitrai, But Latin



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INTBODUCnON. vii

and Greek words which have become anglicized are given an accent in accord-
ance with English usage; as Pleth^ora, Metamor^phosisy Vertigo,

In accordance with the best French usage, the accent denotive of stress has
been omitted altogether from French words unless they are regarded as anglicized.

In certain compound words in which each part is usually made equally em-
phatic in pronunciation, two primary accents are given ; e. g. in Cflto-infy^wm,

7. Etymology, — The derivation of each word is given in brackets, the root-
words being placed in italics, and Greek letters being transliterated into those
of our own alphabet. In the Latin and Greek words all vowels long bv nature
have been marked with the macron (~).^ This not only is a valuable guide
in tracing the etymology of a word, but also enables those who wish to adopt
the Roman pronunciation to do so, inasmuch as in this system it is only the
vowels long by nature that are given the long sound, the others (including all
vowels simply long by position and all common vowels') having the short
sound.

8. Prefixes and Affiaces, — In order to save space, and also to call attention to
the genetic relation of words, the more important prefixes and affixes are given
in the body of the text, and are referred to in giving the etymology of other
words. In the case of a succession of words formed with the same prefix, that
part of their pronunciation and derivation which contains the prefix is usually
omitted. Thus, the heading Perithelium is written Perithelium (-thee1ee-um).
[Gr. thili, nipple.], the pronunciation per'ee- of the first two syllables and the
aerivation (from Gr. peri-, about,) being supplied from the statement made under
the heading Peri- occurring previously in the vocabulary.

9. Definitions, — The body of each paragraph is occupied by the definition,
consisting of, first, a succinct statement of what the word defined is ; and, second,
of more or less descriptive matter explaining its nature more fully. When a word
has several definiUons, these are arranged in the order of etymological develop-
ment, and are numbered so as to ensure proper distinction, each subheading
being placed under the definition to which it properly belongs.

The matter of each definition and of its suoheadings is £sposed in logical
order, so as to form a connected description, and in all cases the natural has
been preferred to the alphabetical sequence of topics. In extended descriptions
natund subdivisions of the subject are indicated by italics, and in some instances
by heavy type. Capitals are used freely as marks of emphasis or distinc-
tion, particularly to indicate the less important subheadings and to single out
the names of pharmacopoeial preparations. The prevailing rules of scientific
nomenclature have been followed in regard to the capitalization of names of
botanical and zoological classes, orders, genera, and species. Certain terms, like
ferns, bacteria, and fungi, are sometimes written with capitals, sometimes with-
out ; the former denoting the use of the terms in their scientifically restricted
meaning as comprising well-defined divisions of the vegetable kingdom, the
latter their use in their popular sense as vaguely limited groups.

' This, however, is not used in the case of prefixes ana affixes.

' Common vowels are regarded as short, but in this book the o final, which is usually
common, is marked long.



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TABLE OF PRONUNCIATION.



a = a in at

le = a in man.
ah = a in father,
ay = ay in tray,
aw =-. aw in saw.

e = e in met
ee = ee in meet
eh ^ e in there,
ew = ew in few.
ey = i in mine.

i = i in sit.



o ^ o in not
oe = German,
oh = o in note.
ow = ow in cow.
oy := oy in boy.
00 =- 00 in cool.
a = a in bnt^ and obecare
sound of other vowels,
e. ^. the a in regular, e
in isomer, o in labor.
uh=oo in foot



ue = u French or ii German,
ch = ch in chat.
eh = ch guttural (German),
g is always hard, as in get

j = j in join.

n = n nasal (French).
n^=nginrinj;.
s IS alwa^ hissing, as in miss.

th = th in thin.

(A = th in than.



ABBREVL\TIONS.

The main abbreviations are given in the text in their alphabetical order.
The followiDg comprise the remaining abbreviations which are used chiefly in
the titles of the several articles :



B. Ph. = British Pharmaco-
poeia (edition of

. ^?^)-
dim. == diminutive.

Enff. = English.

F. = French,
fem. = feminine.

fr. — from.

G. = German.



gen. = genitive.
G. Ph. = German Pharma-
copoeia (III. edi-
tion).
G. = Greek.
It = Italian.
L. = Latin,
masc. = masculine,
n. = noun.



neut = neuter.
d1. = plural.
Sp. = Spanish.
U.S.Ph.= United States
Pharmacopoeia
(Vn. edition,
dated 1890 ; is-
sued in 1893).^
vb. = verb.



LIST OF TABLES.

Pagb

Arteries 46-53

Bacteria and Fung[i 62-97

Canals and Foramina 125-129

Elements 214-217

Exanthemata 231-233

Fermentation 241-243

Joints 326-330

Monsters 386,387

Cardiac Murmurs 393

Muscles 394-415

Nerves 427-433

Poisons and Antidotes 493-496

Position (obstetric). PresentingPart of Child 500

lUlles and other Adventitious Kespiratory Sounds 521

Morbid Alterations of Bespiratlon 528, 529

Tumors 616

Veins 630

Vocal Signs of Disease, Changes of 637

Weights and Measures 640-644

^The first 176 pages of the book were printed before the new Pharmacopoeia became
accessible, so that in these pages U. S. Ph. refers to the edition of 1880.
viii



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THE STUDENTS'



DICTIONARY OF MEDICINE.



A.



ABDOMEN



▲. Abbreviation for anode.

▲- or An-. A prefix in words of Greek
origin, meaning not, without; corresponding
to English itn- and Latin turn- or in-,

A, AA. Abbreviation for ana, of each.

Ab-. [L. » from.] A prefix in words of
Latin origin, meaning off, away, from.

Abarttenlar (aV'ahr-tik'yQ.Iur). [Ah - ^
L. orHeuhUj joint] Located away from the
joints, as A. lesions of gout.

Abartleiilatton (ab'"ahr-tik"ya.lay'8hun).
[Ab- ■\'Ij. arHcularej to joint] Diarthrosis ;
that form of articali&tion which allows of free
movement in one or more directions.

Abasia (a-bay'zhee-ah). [A- + Or. basis, a
going.] Liability to walk, especially when
doe to inco-ordination of movement



(ab-doh'men). PI. abdom'ina.
[L., probably from abderef to hide.] The
belly ; that portion of the body between the
diaphragm above and the brim (or, according
to some, the fioor) of the pelvis below. It
consistB of a wall (abdominal wall or pari-
etei) formed by the abdominal muscles, ver-
tebral column, and ilium ; a cavity (abdomi-
nal cavity, often called simply the A.) ; and
contents (abdominal organs or viscera). The
abdominal cavity is lined by the peritoneum,
and, outside of this, by the lumbar and trans-
versalis fiascise. Two horizontal lines passing
round the body, one at the level of the ninth
costal cartilage, the other at the summit of
the crest of the ilium, divide it into an upper,
middle, and lower zone; and two vertical
lines passing on either side from the eighth
costal cartilage above to the middle of Pou-
part's ligament below divide the zones into
nine abdominal regions, viz. :



Three upper.— Left hypochondriac; epigas-
tric; right hypochondriac.
Three middle. — Left lumbar; umbilical ; right

lumbar.
Three lower. — Left inguinal; hypogastric;

right inguinal.
The abdominal viscera are :
Stomach in left hypochondriac and (pyloric

end) in epigastric.
Pancreas in left hypochondriac, epigastric,

right hypochondriac.
Spleen in left hypochondriac.
Liver in epigastric (left lobe and lobus Spi-
gelii), right hypochondriac (right lobe
and gall-bladder).
Duodenum in right hypochondriac, umbil-
ical.
J^unum and ileum in umbilical, right and

left lumbar, hypogastric.
Oeecum in right inguinal.
Ck>lon in right lumbar (ascending), right
hypochondriac (hepatic flexure), umbil-
ical (transverse), left hypochondriac (sple-
nic flexure), left lumbar (descending),
left inguinal (sigmoid flexure).
Suprarenal capsule in hypochondriac on

either side.
Kidney in hypochondriac and lumbar on

either side.
Ureter in right and left inguinal.
Bladder in hypogastric (in adults when dis-
tended and in children).
The upper zone of the a. forms a hemisphere
directed upward, occupied by the stomach,
spleen, pancreas, liver, and the beginning oi:
the small intestine. The middle and lower
zones form a rounded cone directed down-
ward, occupied by the rest of the small in-
testine, which is surrounded by the trans-
verse colon above ; on either side by the colon



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ABDOMINAL

in front and by the aro-i>oietic organs (kid-
neys with appendages, ureters) behind ; and
below by the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus,
and ovaries) when enlarged. Boat-Bhaped
a., hollowing of the front wall of the a., ob-
served in children with meningitis and other
cerebral diseases. Pendnlooi a., a condition
in which the abdominal walls, owing to ab-
normal relaxation, hang down in front of the
pubes.

Abdom'inal. [L. abdomina^lU,] 1. Of; per-
taining to, or contained in the abdomen. See
under Abdomeiiy A. cav%, A. organ$ (or viacera)^
A, woUb (or parietes\ A. regions, 2. Performed
upon or through the a. wall, as A. ballotte-
ment, A. palpation, A. extraction of a fetus,
A. operations, A. section (» laparotomy). A.
aneurysm, aneurysm of the a. aorta or its
branches. A. aorta, that part of the aorta
which extends from the diaphragm to the
biflircation of the veaseL A. bandage, the
binder ; a broad bandage for supporting and
making pressure upon tiie abdomen after de-
livery or during the operation of tapping. A.
breathing (A. respiration), respiration per-
formed by the diaphragm and abdominal
muscles. See Rea/piraHon, A. dropsy, ascites.
A. flstnle, an unnatural opening in the a.
wall, communicating usually with one of the
hollow a. viscera. The most common varie-
ties are biliary, gastric, and intestinal flstules.
A. ganglia, the sympathetic ganglia contained
in the a. cavity; comprising Uie semilunar
ganglia, diaphragmatic ganglion, lumbar gan-
glia, etc. A. gevbatlon, A. pregnancy, extra-
uterine gestation occurring in the a. cavity.
A. lines, the lines on the external sur&ce of
the abdomen marking the boundaries and
tendinous inscriptions of the muscles, par-
ticularly of the rectus abdominis. See lAnea



Online LibraryInternational Correspondence SchoolsSwine houses and equipment ; Types and breeds of swine ; Swine feeding and judging ; Swine breeding ; Types and breeds of sheep ; Sheep judging and breeding ; Sheep management ; Horse barns and paddocks ; Types, breeds, and market classes of horses ; Horse judging ; Horse management ; Ponies, asses, → online text (page 1 of 138)