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S j^JN LJBRARY-AGRiqULTURE DEFT.



The
Poultry man's Handbook

A CONVENIENT REFERENCE BOOK

For All Persons Interested in the

Production of Eggs and Poultry for Market

and the Breeding of Standard-Bred

Poultry for Exhibition



BY

International Correspondence Schools

SCRANTON, PA.



2nd Edition, 38th Thousand, 8th Impression



SCRANTON, PA.
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY

1920






(f>/

/



COPYRIGHT, 1912, 1920, BY
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY
COPYRIGHT IN GREAT BRITAIN
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED



MAIN LIBRAE "^FNCULTURE: DEFT.



PRESS OF

INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY
SCRANTON, PA.

76519



PREFACE

This handbook is intended as a book of refer-
ence for poultrymen generally. The publishers
have not attempted to produce a condensed cyclo-
pedia covering the broad field of poultry hus-
bandry, but they have aimed to present to the
public a handy reference book convenient to carry
in the pocket a pocketbook in reality and con-
taining such information as is most often needed
by poultrymen who handle fowls commercially
in large numbers, by persons who keep a few
fowls in the back yard, and by breeders who aim
to produce poultry of the best quality for exhi-
bition. -Although the treatment of some subjects
is of necessity brief, it has been the aim so to
distribute the space available that it would cover
the more important subjects as fully as possible.

The more important poultry foods are briefly
described and discussed, and sample rations are
given for the feeding of fowls, chicks, turkeys,
guinea fowls, pheasants, ducks, geese, pigeons,
etc. Much useful information in regard to incu-
bation and brooding is given. Eggs and market
poultry, the various methods of breeding, and the
enemies and diseases of poultry are discussed,



469891



iv PREFACE

and the insecticides and remedies for poultry are
given. The various methods of poultry judging
are explained and samples of the various score
cards shown.

The glossary of technical terms is a feature
that will be appreciated by poultry fanciers, as it
is one of the most complete that has ever been
compiled. The book closes with several pages of
miscellaneous information, which will be found
of general interest.

This handbook was prepared under the per-
sonal supervision of Thomas F. McGrew, Prin-
cipal of the School of Poultry Husbandry, as-
sisted by A. F. Stokes and H. D. Boone.

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS
SCRANTON, PA.

June,



INDEX



Age of fowls, How to as-
certain, 241
Aid to the injured, First,

. 330
Ailments and treatment,

186

Alfalfa, 53

American Poultry Associa-
tion show rules, 203
standard of perfection,

208
Angles or arcs, Measures

.of. 292
Animal foods for poultry,

54
Animals destructive of

poultry, 177
Anniversaries, Names of

wedding, 314

Apothecaries' fluid mea-
sure, 290

weight, Table of, 289
Apples, 50
Arithmetic, 287
Artificial light to increase

egg production, 150
respiration, 332, 341
Avoirdupois weight, Table
of, 288

B

Baffler, Cornell wind, 15

Bale, 299

Bands for marking poultry,

Bantams, Houses for, 23
Barley, 44

Barrel, Cu. ft. in, 309
of flour, pork, or beef,

Weight of, 290
Barron method of selecting

layers, 149
Beans, -45
Beets, 48



Bins, Measurement of, 309
Birds and fish, Care of, 315
destructive to poultry,
, 178

Birthday stone for each

month in the year, 314

Black Orpington, Picture

of, 121

Bleeding, Treatment of, 334
Board measure, 306
Boiling point of water, 298
Bone for poultry food, 55
Books, Size of, 299
Breeding, 160

Breeds and standard and

non-standard varieties

of poultry, 210

Brickwork estimations, 308

British thermal unit (B.

T. U.), 296
Broilers and roasters,

Classes of, 156
and roasters, Time re-
quired to raise, 156
Feeding of chicks for, 7S
Bronchitis, Treatment of,

187
Brooding of chicks, 108

Points in successful, 112
Broom corn. 44
B. T. U., 296
Buckwheat, 44
Bumblefoot, Treatment of.

190

Bundle, 299

Burns, Treatment of, 340
Bushel, Cu. in. in, 309
Legal weights of various

commodities per, 245
pounds in, 290
Business, Rules of, 316

C

Cabbage, 49

Calcimining estimations,302



vi



INDEX



Calendar for the poultry-
man's year, 233
California, Housing prob-
lems in, 31
Calorie, 296
Canary seed, 48
Capacities of bins, cisterns,

etc., 309
Capacity, Measures of, 289

Metric measures of, 293
Care and preservation of

eggs, 129

of birds and fish, 315
Carpeting estimations, 305
Carrots, 50

Casks, Gauging of, 310
Catching and holding pig-
eons, Proper way of, 244
Cement floor, 12
Centigrade and Fahrenheit

degrees, 297, 298
Certificate of deposit, 318
Charcoal, 57
Checks, 317
Chicken pox, Treatment of,

190

Chicks, Brooding of, 108
Feeding of young, 66
for broilers, Feeding of,

75
Circular measure, Table of,

292
Cisterns, Measurement of,

309
Classes of broilers and

roasters, 156
of market poultry, 154
Cleansing mixture for

hens, 78
Clover, 53

Coal, Volume of 1 ton, 310
Coins of the United States,

294

Color of eggshell, 114
Comparison of poultry and
certain other foods, 153
score card, 196
Composition of eggs, 114
of eggs and certain other

foods, 116
of foods, 34



Compound interest, Years
at which a given
amount will double, 322

Conversion of thermometer
readings, 298

Cord of wood, 301

Corn, 42
Broom, 44
Kafir, 43

Cornell feeding schedule,

method for judging fowls
for egg production, 143

Correspondence, 326

Cottonseed meal, 47

Cross-breeding, 162

Cubic measure, Table of,
288

D

Degrees, Centigrade and
Fahrenheit, 297, 298

Diarrhea, Treatment of, 188

Difference of sun time be-
tween New York City
and other parts of the
world, 300

Discount rates, 321

Diseases, 180
and enemies of poultry,

163

and treatment, 186
Fundamental principles

of treatment of, 182
of legs and feet, Treat-
ment of, 189

of the intestines, Treat-
ment of, 187

Dislocations and sprains,
340

Distances and time by

postal routes, 311
Measures of, 301

Dorking, Picture of, 152

Dozen, 298

Drafts, 320

Drawn-weight value com-
pared with live and
plucked weight, 159

Dressing fowls, Loss of
weight in, 154



INDEX



Drowned persons, Restpr-
ing of apparently, 341
Dry mash, 71


Eggs, Testing fertility of, 95
Relation of weight of, to
egg production, 119


measure, 290


Uses of, 114


Ducks, Feeding of, 80


Washing of, 118


Due bill, 320


Weight of, 115




Eggshells, Color of, 114


E


Electric shock, Treatment


Egg and fowl, Composition
of, 64


of, 337
Embryo, Development of


crop, Percentage of loss


the, 95


of total, 118


Enemies and diseases of


eating in fowls, Treat-


poultry, 163


ment of, 190


English money, 295


prices, 140
production, Artificial


English money, Equiva-
lent of, in United


light to increase, 150


States coinage, 295


production, Barron meth-




od of selecting layers


F


for, 149
production in the United


Fahrenheit and centigrade
degrees, 297, 298


States, 3
production, Judging fowls
for, by Cornell method,
143


Fainting, Treatment of, 331
Farm flocks, Judging, 197
Feeding mixtures, Special,

77


production, Monthly rec-


of chicks for broilers, 75


ords of, 122


of ducks, 80


production, Relation of,


of fowls,' 63


to season, 120
production, Selecting


of fowls during molt, 74
of geese, 84


hens for, 142


of guinea fowls, 79


receipts in seven large


of laying hens, 69


cities, 5
Eggs and certain other
foods, Composition of,


of pheasants, 79
of pigeons, 85
of turkeys, 78


116


of young chicks, 66


Care and preservation of,


of wild water fowls, 85


129
Composition of, 114


schedule, Cornell, 67
the sitting hen, 92


Food value of, 114
for hatching, Care and


Feedstuffs, Composition of,
37


selection of, 98, 99
Grades of, 123


Fertility of eggs, Testing,
qc


Judging, 138
Official score card for,
139


yj
First aid to the injured, 330
Fish and birds, Care of, 315


Packages and packing of,
128


Flaxseed, 46
Floor space for fowls, 11


Preserving of, 134


Floors and their construc-


Price of, 5


tion, 11


Quality of, 132


Food required by one hen


Standards for, 123


in a year, 73"



viii



INDEX



Foods for poultry, Animal.

54

Green, 51

per quart, Weight of, 65
Poisonous, 58
Poultry, 34

Foreign money, Equivalent
of, in United States
coinage, 296
Fowl and egg, Composition

of, 64
Names of parts of, 144,

257

Fowls, Feeding of, 63
How to ascertain age of,

241

Internal organs of, 59
Marking of, 226
Fractures, 338
Freezing point of water,

298

Fumigating and cleansing
poultry houses, 175



Gallon, Cu. in. in, 309
Gapes, Treatment of, 187
Gauging of casks, 310
Geese, Feeding of, 84
Glossary of technical terms
used by poultrymen, 256
Grading of eggs, 123
Grains and seeds, Compo-
sition of, 37
Green crops. Miscellaneous,

54

foods, 51
Grit, 57
Gross, 298

Guinea fowls, Feeding cf,
79

H

Hatching, Rules for, 105
Hawks, 178

Hay, Bulk of 1 ton, 310
Heat, 296
exhaustion, Treatment of,

340

units, 296

Hemorrhage, Treatment of,
334



Hemp seed, 47

Hens, Feeding of laying,

69

for sitting, 89
Names of parts of, 144,

257

Hogshead, Cu. ft. in., 309
Holding of fowls, Proper

way of, 242
of squabs, Proper way of,

243

Holidays, Legal, 323
Houdan, Picture of, 158
House, Method of ridding,

of parasites, 175
Unit, 27

Houses and yards for dif-
ferent varieties, 21
for bantams, 23
Form and arrangement

of, 16

Position for poultry, 15
Poultry, 7

Housing problems in Cali-
fornia, 31



Ice, Melting point of, 298
Inbreeding, 161
Incubation, 86
Artificial, 97
Factors that influence

sucess in, 106
Natural, 87
Period of, 93
Incubators, 100
and brooders, Mammoth,

113

Indian Runner drake, Pic-
ture of, 237
Insecticides, 165
Fume, 172

Instruments for apply-
ing, 173
Instruments for applying

insecticides, 173
Interest rules, Simple, 321
Years in which a given
amount will double at,
322

Internal organs of fowls,
59



INDEX



ix



Judging eggs, 138
fowls for egg production,

Cornell method of, 143
of farm flocks at fairs

and shows, 197
of poultry, 191

K

Kafir corn, 43

Killing and plucking of



poultry, 157
of parasites, 174



Layers, Barron method of

selecting, 149
Cornell method of judg-
ing for, 143
Laying hens, Cleansing

mixture for, 78
hens, Feeding of, 69
Legal holidays, 323
weights per bushel of
various commodities, 245
Length, Measures of, 287
Metric measures of, 293
Letter ^writing, 326
Lice killers, 165
that attack domestic

fowls, 164

Light Brahma male, Pic-
ture of, 47
Linear measure, Table of,

287

Line breeding, 160
Linseed meal, 47
Liquid lice killer, 171

measure, 289

Live-weight value com-
pared with plucked and
drawn weight, 159
Long-ton table, 289
Loss in dressing fowls, 154
of total egg crop, Per-
centage of, 118

M

Maine ration, 72
Mammoth incubators and
brooders, 113



Mangels, 48
Market poultry, 152
Marking of fowls for iden-
tification, 226

of pigeons, 230
Mash, Dry, 71
Masonry estimations, 307
Mating, Methods of, 162
Measures of angles or arcs,
292

of capacity, 289

of distances, 301

of extension, 287

of money, 294

of time, 291

of volume, 301
Meat and meat products
for poultry, 54

Tainted, 55

Metric equivalents of
pounds, feet, etc., 299

system of measures, 292
Milk for poultry food, 56
Millet, 46
Mineral matter for poultry,

Minorca, Picture of, 179
Miscellaneous information,

241

tables, 298
Missouri ration, 73
Moisture and temperature

in incubators, 102
Molt, ^Feeding of fowls

during, 74

Money, Equivalent of Eng-
lish, in United States
coinage, 295

Equivalent of foreign, in
United States coinage,
296

Measures and tables of,
294

IV

Nails, Weight of one keg,

Names of parts of a fowl,

257

Nest box, 89
Notes, 319



INDEX



O



Oats, 41

Official score card for eggs,

139

Onions, 49 %
Ontario ration, 73
Orpington, Picture of

Black, 121

P

Packages and packing of
eggs, 128

Painting estimations, 302

Papering estimations, 302

Parasites, Killing of, 174
Method of ridding a

house of, 175
that attack domestic
fowls, 163, 164

Parts of a fowl, Names of,
144, 257

Peanut meal, 47

Peas, 45

Peck, Cu. in. in, 309

Perch of stone, 301

Petroleum, Weight of gal-
lon, 290

Pheasants, Feeding of, 79

Pigeon fanciers, Terms
used by, 283

Pigeons, Feeding of, 85
Marking of, 230
Proper way of catching

and holding, 244
Varieties of, 280

Pint, Cu. in. in, 309

Plastering estimations, 302

Plucked-weight value com-
pared with live and
drawn weight, 159

Plucking and killing of
poultry, 157

Plymouth Rock female,

Picture of, 64
Rock male, White, Pic-
ture of, 97

Poisonous foods, 58

Postaldistances andtime,311

Potatoes, 49

Poultry and certain other
foods, Comparison of,
153



Poultry and poultry prod-
ucts, Value of, 2

Animals destructive to,
177

Classes of market, 154

exports, 6

foods, 34

house, Method of ridding,
of parasites, 175

houses, 7

houses. Adaptation of, to
locality, 7

houses, Arrangement of,
16

houses, Position of, 15

judging, 191

Killing and plucking of,

Market, 152

Marking of, 226

prices, 159

production, Rank of ten

leading states in, 4
raising, 1
shows and associations,

202

Simple remedies for, 183
Standard and non-stand-
ard varieties of, 209
Standard weights of, 221
Powder guns, 173
Preserving eggs, 134
Prevention of infestation
by fowls from other
flocks, 174
Prices, Egg, 140
of poultry, 159
Production, Monthly rec-
ords of egg, 122
Pumpkins, 50

Q

Quart, Cu. in. in, 309
Quintal of fish, Weight of,

290
Quire, 299

R

Rape seed, 48

Rations for laying hens, 71

Ream, 299

Reaumur thermometer, 298



INDEX



Records of egg production,

Monthly, 122
Remedies for poultry,

Simple, 183
Respiration, Artificial, 332,

341
Restoring of apparently

drowned persons, 341
Rice, 46

Roup, Treatment of, 186
Rules, American Poultry

Association, 203
for hatching, 105
of business, 316
Rye, 44



Score, 298

card, Comparison, 196
card, Decimal, 194
card for eggs, Official,

139

card for farm flocks, 198
card for judging hens by

Cornell test, 148
card of American Poultry

Association, 192
Season, Relation of egg

production to, 120
Selecting hens for egg pro-

duction, 142
Shade for poultry, 26
Shock, Treatment of elec-

tric, 337

Treatment of, 333
Show rules, American
Poultry Association, 203
Shows and associations,

Poultry, 202
Sitting hens, 89
Scratch grain, 71
Sorghum seed, 46
Specific heats of metals, 296
Sprains, Treatment of, 340
Sprayers, 173
Squabs, Proper way to

hold, 243
Square measure, Table of,

287

Standard and non-standard
varieties of poultry, 2C9



Standard of perfection,

American, 208
Standard weights of poul-

try, 221

Standards for eggs, 123
Sterilizing, 331
Strain breeding, 161
Sun stroke, Treatment of,

341

Sunflower seed, 46
Surface, Metric measures

of, 293
Surveyors' square measure,

Table of, 288



Temperature, 298
and moisture in incuba-

tors, 102
Terms used by pigeon fan-

ciers, 283

used by poultrymen,
Glossary of technical,
256

Testing fertility of eggs, 95
Thermometer readings, Con-

version of, 298
Time and distances by

postal routes, 311
Difference between that
of New York City and
other parts of the
world, 300
Measures of, 291
required to raise broilers

and roasters, 156
Toe markings, 226
Ton, Avoirdupois, 288
Long, 289
Metric, 293
Shipping, 311

Troy weight, Table of, 289
Turkeys, Feeding of, 78
Turnips, 48

tJ

Unit house, 27

United States money,

Table of, 294
Uses of eggs, 114
Utility score card, 201



INDEX



Value of fowls live,
plucked, or drawn, Rel-
ative, 159

Varieties of poultry, Stand-
ard and non-standard,
209

Volume, Measures of, 301
Metric measures of, 293

Vegetables for poultry
food, 48

W

Washing of eggs, 118
Water, Boiling point of,

298

Freezing point of, 298
glass for preserving eggs,

Wedding anniversaries,

Names of, 314
Weight, Metric measures

of, 293
of eggs, Relation of, to

egg production, 119



Weight, Loss of, in dress-
ing fowls, 154
Measures of, 288
of eggs, 115
of poultry foods per

quart, 65
Weights of poultry,

Disqualifying, 221
per bushel of various
commodities, Legal, 245
of poultry, Standard, 221
Wheat, 39
Wild water fowls, Feeding

of, 85

Window construction, 12
Wounds, 338
Wyandotte, Picture of, 160

Y

Yards and houses for dif-
ferent varieties, 21
for poultry houses, 25

Years in which a given
amount will double, at
various rates of inter-
est, 322



The Poultrymaii's
Handbook

POULTRY RAISING

Poultry and poultry products add to the wealth of the
country each year more than wheat, cotton, or gold.
Poultry can be kept successfully in almost every part of
the world and is the most profitable kind of live-stock
that can be kept. A few fowls can be kept by the inten-
sive system in very confined quarters, and enough to
provide poultry and eggs for a small family can be raised
profitably in a corner of a small town lot; more can be
kept on a little additional space.

An attractive feature of poultry raising is that fowls
may be kept for pleasure as well as profit. A fancier
may use the best of all the fowls he raises for exhibi-
tion, sell a few of equal or almost equal quality to others
for the same purpose, sell eggs from pens of mated fowls
for hatching, and the culls of the flock will be the best
of market poultry. At the same time the flock will fur-
nish a large part of the egg and meat diet for a small
family.

Poultry farming can be followed by almost any one
who has a small piece of ground and a few dollars to
begin with. The business should be begun in a small
way and built up gradually. Thousands of men and
women are becoming independent each year from a
beginning with a little piece of ground on which they
raise poultry and vegetables. On a small town lot
50 ft.XlOO ft. almost enough vegetables may be raised to



2 VALUE OF POULTRY

provide for a family for a year, and at the same time
a small enclosure for poultry may be built on a corner
of the lot.

It will be an advantage in raising vegetables and
poultry on a small piece of ground, to practice migratory
yarding. This consists in moving the house and yard
or simply in moving 'the fence to enclose a different
spot of ground. In this way space occupied by the poul-
try one year will be highly fertilized for the growing of
vegetables the next year, and the fowls will be bene-
fited in health and vigor from having new, sweet earth
to travel over and scratch in.



VALUE OF POULTRY AND POUL-
TRY PRODUCTS

The U. S. census of 1910 places the value of poultry
and poultry products at $663,858,452. This amount is the
value of these products from farms, and does not include
poultry and eggs raised in towns and villages and on
small farms by persons who made no returns.

The census separates poultry into two classes, the
mature fowls kept for egg production and the young ones
raised each year. The figures for the value of each class
as well as for the total value of poultry and eggs are
as follows:

Total value of mature fowls $154,663,220

Total value of young fowls raised in 1 year... 202,506,272
Total value of all eggs produced in 1 year 306,688,960



Total value of both poultry and eggs $663,858,452

The following table, taken from the U. S. Census,
shows the number, total value, and average value of
fowls and eggs as reported for 1910. The table also gives
the number of farms reporting and per cent, of all farms
reporting.



AND POULTRY PRODUCTS 3

NUMBER OF FOWLS AND VALUE OF POULTRY
AND EGGS IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1910











MH








g


.1


O M &0




Number


Value


8-1


11


i!


All fowls . .
Chickens . .


295,880,190
280,345,133


$154,663 220
140,205,607


$ .52
.50


5,585,032
5,578,525


87.8
87.7


Turkeys.. .


3,688.708


6,605,818


1.79


871,123


13.7


Ducks


2,9-06,525


1,567,164


.54


503,704


7.9


Geese


4,431,980


3,194,507


.72


662,324


10.4


Eces


19,095,736,452


306,688,960


.016


5,634,780


88.5





In 1910 there were also reported 1,765,000 guinea fowls,
valued at $613,000; 2,731,000 pigeons, valued at $762,000;
and 6,458 peafowls, valued at $18,300.

The total value of all poultry and eggs in the United
States in 1910 is estimated to have been more than
$750,000,000, and for the year ending June 30, 1912, the
total value is estimated by the Department of Agricul-
ture as approximately $950,000,000. The value of poultry
and eggs in 1918 is estimated as over one billion dollars.
On November 27, 1912, one of the large New York daily
newspapers published the following figures giving the
comparative value per annum of leading American farm
products for a period of 5 yr. :

Eggs (average price to farmer 22| c.). .$1,800,000,000

Corn 1,500,000,000

Wheat 625,000,000

Hay 720,000,000

Cotton 685,000,000

Oats 390,000,000

All kinds of farm products 8,000,000,000

Accepting this as a fair estimate, we cannot help
realizing the immense value of poultry products in the
United States.



VALUE OF POULTRY



and

incr



The rank of the ten leading states in the number and
value of fowls produced is shown in the accompanying
table.

RANK OP THE TEN LEADING STATES IN THE
NUMBER AND VALUE OF POULTRY PRODUCED



1


State


Number


^i


State


Total
Value


1


Iowa


23,482,880


1


Iowa


$12,269,881


?,


Illinois. . . .


21,409,835


?


Missouri


11 870 972


3


Missouri ....


20,897,208


ft


Illinois


11,696,650


4


Ohio


17,342,289


4


Ohio


9,532 672


f>




15,736,038


5


New York . . .


7,879,388


6


kidiana


13,789,109


6


Indiana


7,762,015


7


Texas


13 669,645


7


Pennsylvania


7,674 387


8


Pennsylvania .


12,728,341


8


Kansas


7,377,469


Q


Minnesota .


10 697 075


q


Texas .


4 806 642


10


New York....


10,678,836


10


Minnesota. . .


4,646,960



This table shows that the wholesale price of poultry
in the state of Missouri was greater than in the state
of Illinois; that the price of Texas poultry was less than
the price in Pennsylvania; that the price in New York
was considerably greater than in other states.

The census reports shows that the average wholesale
value of live chickens in New England was 74 cents;
in the Middle States, 68 cents; in the Southern States,
from 38 to 44 cents; on the Pacific Coast and in the moun-
tainous districts the price was from 62 to 82 cents each.
These values indicate that the price of poultry increases
as the population becomes denser.

The following table shows the egg receipts by months '
for the years 1913 and 1916 in seven of the largest
cities of the country and indicates the months of highest
and lowest production. The highest prices are obtained,
of course, when the yield is lowest. The seven cities
in which the eggs were received were Boston, Chicago,
Cincinnati, Milwaukee, New York, St. Louis, and San
Francisco.



AND POULTRY PRODUCTS 5

RECEIPTS OP EGGS IN SEVEN LARGE CITIES
DURING EACH MONTH OF 1913 AND 1916



Months


1913

Cases


1916
Cases


January


508,673


1,325,131


February


685,160


551,158


March


1,281,153


1,802,467


April .


2,218,638


2,844,042


May


2,390,427


2,549.954


June .


1,863,412


1,837,307


July


1,344,824


1,317,385


August . ...


1,000,157


1,070,635


September


841,684


814,533


October


667,834


777,954


November


403,146


531,355


December .


399,277


398,286








Total


13,604,385


15,820,207









In December, 1913, the total number of cases of eggs
received at these seven stations was 399,277. The lowest
price for eggs during that month was 35 cents and the
highest price for the same month in New York was
63 cents. The lowest wholesale price for eggs in New
York during 1913 was 20 cents, the highest wholesale
price was 65 cents, which was received in November.

The total importation of eggs into this country during
1913 was 1,367,224 dozens, which amounted to $205,632. Of
egg yolks bought by the pound there were 228,305 pounds,
which cost $36,892. Ostrich feathers were bought at a
cost of $6,252,298; and other kinds of feathers for



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