International Engineering Congress (1901 : Glasgow.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.



GIFT OF



Accession 1Q08Q



85 Clots



INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING CONGRESS

(GLASGOW), 1901.



REPORT OF THE PROCEEDINGS



AND



ABSTRACTS
OF THE PAPERS READ.




WITH A PREFACE

BY ROBERT CAIRD, LL.D.,

Chairman of the Executive Committee.



Edited by the General Secretary, J. D. COR MACK.



GLASGOW :

WILLIAM ASHER, 128 RENFIELD STREET.
1902.



CONTENTS.



Preface by Robert Caird, LL.D., .....

Office Bearers and Committees, - - - . . x

Institutions and Sectional Office Bearers, - . - " - 6
MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS:

Monday, 2nd September Banquet, - - - - q
Tuesday, 3rd September General Meeting, Address of the
President, Meetings of Sections, Visits to Works, Opening

of the James Watt Ensrineerin? Laboratories, Reception, - 9
Wednesday, 4th September Meetings of Sections, Visits to

Works, Excursions, - - - - 21
Thursday, 5th September Meetings of Sections, Visits to

Works, Excursions, Ball, - . . -2?

Friday, 6th September Visits to Works, Excursions, - - 24

List of Works, etc., open during the Congress week - - - 26

SUMMARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS :

Section I. (Railways), - - - 28

Section II. (Waterways and Maritime Works), - . 5 6

Section III. (Mechanical) , . gg

Section IV. (Xaval Architecture and Marine Engineering), - 146

Section V. (Iron and Steel), - 167

Section VI. (Mining), - 212

Section VII. (Municipal), - 251

Section VIII. (Gas), - 275

Section IX. (Electrical), - - 3 10

List of Societies which took part in the Congress, - 341

List of Foreign and Colonial Delegates and Honorary Members, - 343

List of Members, - - - 399

Index :

List of Papers, - 399

List of Authors of Papers, - - 402

Errata, ...... - 407



100805



PREFACE.



THE Executive Committee desires to seize the opportunity of the
issue of the Report and Abstracts to express its deep sense of
indebtedness to the many Institutions, Societies, and gentlemen who
contributed to make the Congress of 1901 the great success it un-
doubtedly was.

The idea of holding the Congress originated with the Council of
the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland; which,
considering that the Exhibition would furnish an excellent occasion
for ensuring the attendance of a large number of engineers from all
over the world in Glasgow, during 1901, appointed a small com-
mittee from among the members of that Institution, consisting of
Dr. Barr and Messrs. Biggart, Macintosh, Mavor, and myself, to
study and report upon the best means of giving effect to the project

We consulted the office-bearers and officials of the leading
engineering societies in Britain, and received most valuable advice,
information, and suggestions from them.

The Institution of Civil Engineers in particular rendered us in-
valuable assistance. The first notice given publicly of the intention
to hold a Congress was by the then President of the Institution of
Civil Engineers, Sir William Preece, in his Introductory Address
at the opening of the summer meeting in London in 1899. His
successor, Sir Douglas Fox, consented to act as Chairman of our
London Committee, and in that capacity materially contributed
towards the formation of our executive organisation. Dr. Tudsbery
also acted as Secretary of that Committee, and in innumerable ways
assisted us with advice, which, in view of his vast experience, was of
the utmost value. And yet another President of the Institution of
Civil Engineers, Mr. Mansergh. accepted nomination as President
of the Congress, delivered an address at the opening of the pro-
ceedings, received the delegates of Foreign Governments and




OFFICE-BEARERS,



fbonorars president

The Right Honourable the Lord Kelvin, G.C.V.O.



'fjonorarg

The Most Noble the Duke of Argyle, K.T.

The Most Noble the Duke of Fife, K.T.

The Right Honourable the Earl of Elgin, K.G.

The Right Honourable the Lord Balfour of Burleigh, K.T.

The Right Honourable the Lord Blythswood.

The Right Honourable the Lord Provost of Edinburgh,

(James Steel).
The Honourable the Lord Provost of Glasgow,

(Samuel Chisholm, LL.D.).

president

James Mansergh, F.R.S., President of the Institution of
Civil Engineers.



The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G., President

of the Institution of Naval Architects.
William H. Maw, President of the Institution of

Mechanical Engineers.
William Whitwell, President of the Iron and Steel

Institute.
Professor John Perry, D.Sc., F.R.S., Past President of the

Institution of Electrical Engineers.
Sir William Thomas Lewis. Bart.. President of the

Institution of Mining Engineers.
Robert Caird, LL.D., Past President of the Institution of

Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland.
Colonel J. M. Denny, M.P., President of the Institution

of Marine Engineers.
Professor R. L. Weighton, Vice-President of the North-

East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders.
James S. Dixon, President of the Mining Institute of

Scotland.
E. George Mawbey, President of the Incorporated Associa-

tion of Municipal and County Engineers.
George Livesey, the Institution of Gas Engineers.



2 COMMITTEES.

General Committee*

Chairman, James Mansergh, F.R.S.

The members of this committee are distinguished by
the sign -+ placed opposite their names in the List of
Members, see p. 355 et seq.

IReception Committee.

Chairman, Robert Caird, LL.D.

The members of this committee are distinguished by
the sign +-+ placed opposite their names in the List of
Members, see p. 355 et seq.



COMMITTEES.



!Lonfcon Committee.



Chairman : Sir
Honorary Secretary : J.
Sir Frederick Abel, Bart.,

K C* B
Prof. W. Grylls Adams,

D.Sc.

James Adamson.
Sir John G. N. Alleyne,

Bart.

John A. F. Aspinall.
Professor W. E. Ayrton,

F.R.S.
Sir Benjamin Baker,

K.C.M.G.
Sir Nathaniel Barnaby,

K.C.B.

F. K. Barnes.

Prof. Archibald Barr, D:Sc.
James Barrowman.
"Sir John Wolfe Barrv,

K.C.B.

Sir Lowthian Bell, Bart.
W. H. Bleckly.
Sir Frederick J. Bramwell,

Bart.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Brassey,

K.C.B.

Bennett H. Brough.
M. Walton Brown.
Sir G. B. Bruce.
James C. Cadman.
Robert Caird, LL.D.
'Sir Edward H. Carbutt,

Bart.

Major P. Cardew, R.E.
Andrew Carnegie, LL.D.
A. G. Charleton.
Thomas Cole.
'R. Elliott Cooper.
S. B. Cottrell.
R. E. Crompton.
Sir David Dale, Bart.
The Rt. Hon. Sir John

Dalrympie-Hay, K.C.B.
R. W. Dana, M.A.
Henry Davey.
Maurice Deacon.
James S. Dixon.
Bryan Donkin.
Sir Theodore Doxford, M.P.
James Dunn.
Sir John Durston, K.C.B.
F. Elgar, LL.D.
Prof. Arch. C. Elliott, D.Sc.
Thomas Evens.



Douglas Fox.
H. T. Tudsbery, D.Sc.
J. C. Hawkshaw.
Charles Hawksley.
J. W. Helps.

Georee C. V. Holmes, M.A.
The Rt. Hon. the Earl of

Hopetoun.
John Inglis, LL.D.
S. W. Johnson.
Arthur Keen.
The Rt. Hon. Lord Kelvin,

G.C.V.O.

Alex. B. W. Kennedy, LL.D.
Sir James Kitson, Bart., M.P.
W. E. Langdon.
Sir William T. Lewis, Bart.
George T. Livesey.
J. A. Longden.
C. H. Lowe.
W. G. M'Millan.
Sir Henry Mance, C.I.E.
James Mansergh, F.R.S.
E. P. Martin.
H. A. Mavor.
VV. H. Maw.
T. W. H. Mitchell.
Henry Morgan.
Arthur Musker.
John Nevin.

Sir Andrew Noble, K.C.B.
Prof. John Perry, D.Sc.
S. R. Platt.
Sir William H. Preece.

T~ f* T2

Sir Edward G. Reed, K.C.B.

E. Windsor Richards.

Sir Thomas Richardson, M.P.

T. Hurry Riches.

James Riley.

W. C. Roberts.

Sir William Roberts-Austen,

K.C.B.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Bernard

Samuelson, Bart.
Alexander Siemens.
J. T. Smith.
G. F. Snelus, F.R.S.
C. E. Spagnoletti.
Joseph W. Swan, F.R.S.
James Swinburne.
Prof. Silvanus P. Thomson,

F.R.S.

J. I. Thorneycroft, LL.D.
Prof.L.F.Vernon-Harcourt,M.A.



COMMITTEES.



T. M. Favell.

S. Z. de Ferranti.

Prof. G. Carey Foster, F.R.S.

John Gavey.

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of

Glasgow, G.C.M.G.
Sir John Glover.
'Robert K. Gray.
W. Harpur.
Joseph H. Harrison.



Major-General C. E. Webber,

C.B.

Tom Westgarth.
P. G. B. Westmacott.
Sir William H. White, K.C.R
William Whitwell.
J. H. Wicksteed.
Edward Woods.
Edgar Worthington, B.Sc.
A. F. Yarrow.



Barr,



Barry,



Sir William Arrol, M.P.,
LL.D.

Sir Benjamin Baker,

K.C.M.G.
*Prof. Archibald
D.Sc.

James Barrowman.

Sir John Wolfe

K.C.B.
*W. Beardmore.

G. T. Beilby.
*A. S. Biggart.
*Prof. J. H. Biles.

Bennett H. Brough.

M. Walton Brown.

Thomas Cole.

R. Elliott Cooper.

W. R. Copland.

R. W. Dana, M.A.
*Archibald Denny.
*James S. Dixon.

Walter Dixon.

Francis Elgar, LL.D.

Thomas Evans.

J. T. Forgie.
*William Foulis.
*Sir Douglas Fox.

J. M. Gale.

The Rt. Hon. the Earl of
Glasgow, G.C.M.G.

J. W. Helps.



Executive Committee.

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D.



George C. V. Holmes, M.A.

John Inglis, LL.D.

J. G. Jenkins.

Thos. Kennedy.

W. E. Langdon.
*C. C. Lindsay.

George Livesey.

C. H. Lowe.
*A. B. M'Donald.
*J. F. M'Intosh.

W. G. M'Millan.

E. P. Martin.

William H. Maw.

E. George Mawbey.
*H. A. Mavor.

James Mollison.

R. T. Moore, B.Sc.
*Matthew Paul.

E. Windsor Richards.

Hazleton R. Robson.
*James Rowan.

George Russell.

Alexander Siemens.

John Strain.
*J. H. T. Tudsbery, D.Sc.

Prof.L.F.Vernon-Harcourt,M.A

John Ward.

Prof. W. H. Watkinson.

James Weir.

William Whitwell.

Edgar Worthington, B.Sc.



Slocal Executive Committee.

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D.

* Members of the Executive Committee, whose names are
distinguished by an asterisk are members of the Local Executive
Committee.

ffinance Committee,

Chairman : Robert Caird, LL.D.
James S. Dixon. J. R. Richmond.

Robert Gourlay, LL.D. Paul Rottenburg, LL.D.

James Neilson. Professor Smart, LL.D.

Hugh Reid.



COMMITTEES. 5

Subcommittees.

Visits to Works.

SECTION I. (RAILWAYS). James Brand, David Cooper, W.

Lorimer, James Manson, D. A. Matheson, William

Melville, Hugh Reid, J. F. Robinson, and R.

Elliott Cooper, with J. F. M'Intosh as Convener.
SECTION II. (WATERWAYS AND MARITIME WORKS.) William

M. Alston, W. R. Copland, C. P. Hogg, and Prof.

L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, with C. C. Lindsay as

Convener.
SECTION III. (MECHANICAL). Henry Brock, Sinclair Couper,

Thomas Kennedy, Prof. W. H. Watkinson, J. D.

Young, Thomas Young, and Edgar Worthington,

with A. S. Biggart as Convener.
SECTION IV. (NAVAL ARCHITECTURE). Robert Caird, LL.D.,

Alexander Gracie, W. J. Luke, James Mollison,

and George Holmes, with Prof. J. H. Biles

as Convener.
SECTION V. (IRON AND STEEL). George Beard, William

Beardmore, William Clark, David Colville, Walter

Dixon, Prof. A. Humboldt Sexton, and Bennett H.

B rough, with J. G. Jenkins as Convener.
SECTION VI. (MINING). J. B. Atkinson, James T. Forgie, T.

Lindsay Galloway, James M'Creath, J. M.

Ronaldson, Wallace Thorneycroft, and James

Barrowman, with James S. Dixon as Convener.
SECTION VII. (MUNICIPAL). Peter Fyfe, J. M. Gale, Thomas

Nisbet, William Paterson, Gilbert Thomson, John

Young, and Thomas Cole, with A. B. M'Donald

as Convener.
SECTION VIII. (GAS). G. T. Beilby, G. R. Hislop, and J. W.

Helps, with W. Foulis as Convener.
SECTION IX. (ELECTRICAL). W. A. Chamen, M. B. Field, W.

W. Lackie, Prof. Magnus Maclean, W. B. Sayers,

E. George Tidd, and W. G. M'Millan, with H. A.

Mavor as Convener.

Excursions and Entertainments. Charles Connell, J. Duncan, A.

Fullerton, H. E. Hollis, R. T. Moore, R. D. Munro, E. H.

Parker, J. R. Richmond, A. D. Wedgwood, and J.

Williamson, with James Rowan as Convener.

Rooms Committee. Prof. Biles, G. T. Beilby, H. A. Mavor, J. D.

Cormack, with Prof. Arch. Barr as Convener.
Billeting. Councillor Burrell, John Cochrane, James S. Dixon,
Robert Duncan, Alex. Fullarto'n, A. Bonar Law, M.P.,
Fredk. Lobnitz, Sam Mavor, George M'Farlane, J. F.
Maclaren, Anderson Rodger, Jas. M. Thomson, and W. C.
Warden, with Matthew Paul as Convener.

General Secretary.

Professor J. D. CORMACK,
University College, Gower Street, London, W.C.

HuMtors.

John Mann & Son, Chartered Accountants, 142 St. Vincent Street,
Glasgow.



Institution* anb ertioititl &ff ice-fear er*.



SECTION I.
Railways.

Chairman : Sir Benjamin Baker, K.C.M.G., LL.D., F.R.S.

Vice-Chairmen : B. Hall Blyth.
Alexander Ross.
John Strain.

Honorary Secretary: R. Elliott Cooper, 8 The Sanctuary,
Westminster, London, S.W.



SECTION II.
Waterways and Maritime Works.

Chairman : Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S.

Vice-Chairmen : William H. Hunter.
William Matthews.

Honorary Secretary: Professor L. F. Vernon-Harcourt,
M.A., 6 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London.



SECTION III.

Mechanical.
The Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Chairman : William H. Maw.

Vice-Chairmen : Bryan Donkin

J. Hartley Wicksteed.

Honorary Secretary: Edgar Worthington, B.Sc., Institution
of Mechanical Engineers, Storey's Gate, St. James's
Park, Westminster, London, S.W.



SECTIONAL OFFICE-BEARERS 7

SECTION IV.

Naval Architecture and Marine

Engineering

The Institution of Naval Architects.

Chairman : The Right Hon. the Earl of Glasgow, G.C.M.G.

Vice-Chairmen : Archibald Denny.

Francis Elgar, LL.D., F.R.S.
John Inglis, LL.D.

Honorary Secretary : R. W. Dana, M.A., the Institution of
of Naval Architects, 5 Adelphi Terrace, London,
W.G.



SECTION V.
Iron and Steel.

The Iron and Steel Institute.

Chairman : William WhitweU.

Vice-Chairman : Sir Wm. Roberts-Austen, K.C.B., F.R.S.

Honorary Secretary: Bennett H. Brough, The Iron and
Steel Institute, 28 Victoria Street, Westminster,
London, S.W.



SECTION VI.

Mining 1 .
The Institution of Mining Engineers.

Chairman : James S. Dixon.

Vice-Chairmen : James T. Forgie.

George A. Mitchell.

Honorary Secretary : James Barrowman, Staneacre,
Hamilton, Scotland.



8 SECTIONAL OFFICE-BEARERS

SECTION VII-
Municipal.

The Incorporated Association of Municipal and
County Engineers.

Chairman : E. George Mawbey.

Vice-Chairmen : W. Weaver.

T. H. Yabbicom.

Honorary Secretary : Thomas Cole, 1 1 Victoria Street,
Westminster, London, S.W.



SECTION VIII.

Gas
The Institution of Gas Engineers.

Chairman : George Livesey.

Vice-Chairmen : Wm. Foulis.

W. R. Herring.
T. O. Paterson.

Honorary Secretary : J. W. Helps, Waddon, Croydon,
Surrey.



SECTION IX.

Electrical.
The Institution of Electrical Engineers.

Chairman : W. E. Langdon.

Vice-Chairmen : R. K. Gray.

Professor Magnus Maclean, D.Sc.

Honorary Secretary: W. G. Macmillan, 28 Victoria Street,
Westminster, London, S.W.



MINUTES OF rROCEEDINQS,



MONDAY, 2nd SEPTEMBER.

BANQUET.

In the evening at 8 p.m. a banquet was held in the St. Andrew's
Halls, at which the Foreign Delegates and Honorary Members and
the Members of the London Committee and the Executive Com-
mittee were present.

Robert Caird, LL.D., in the Chair.

The following was the toast list :

" His Majesty the King," and " Queen Alexandra, the Duke arid
Duchess of Cornwall and York, and the other Members of the
Royal Family," proposed by the Chairman.

" Foreign Governments,'' proposed by the Earl of Glasgow, and
replied to by M. Berrier-Fontaine (France) ; M. J. Troost (Belgium) ;
and Comm. George Breen (Italy).

" Engineering Societies," proposed by Lord Provost Chisholm,
and replied to by Herr O. von Miller (Germany); Herr J. H.
Beucker-Andreae (Holland); Colonel Huber (Switzerland); Pro-
fessor Carhart (United States of America) ; and Heir S. Eyde
(Norway).

" The International Engineering Congress," proposed by Professor
V. E. de Timonoff (Russia), and replied to by Mr. J. Mansergh and
Mr. W. Foulis.



TUESDAY, 3rd SEPTEMBER.

GENERAL MEETING in the Bute Hall at 10 a.m.

In the Bute Hall of the University the Foreign Delegates and
Honorary Members were received by the President, Mr. James
Mansergh, F.R.S., and by the Honorary President, Lord Kelvin;
the Hon. the Lord Provost of Glasgow, Samuel Chisholm, L.L.D. ;
Mr. Robert Caird, LL.D., Chairman of the Executive Committee;
and the Very Reverend R. Herbert Story, Principal of the
University.

Thereafter the President delivered to a large audience of the
Members his Presidential Address.



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT,

JAMES MANSERGH, F.R.S.

PRESIDENT OF THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.



STANDING here, in virtue of my position as President of the
Institution of Civil Engineers, to open the first General Inter-
national Engineering Congress held in Great Britain, I am conscious
of owing my elevation to this eminence to the accident of office,
and not to personal desert. I feel keenly myself and I am sure
the feeling must be shared by many present that it is an act of the
greatest presumption on my part to occupy this position in the
presence of the " Grand Old Man " of Glasgow's ancient University.
I desire therefore to explain that the position has been forced upon
me, notwithstanding my earnest remonstrance, and by the desire
of Lord Kelvin himself. My words will therefore be few, and will
be restricted to tendering a very cordial welcome to all engineers
present especially to those hailing from foreign and distant lands ;
to thanking the authors of the papers contributed to the various
sections ; and to making the briefest reference to certain matters of
interest to us, as engineers working under modern conditions.

It has long been impossible for any individual to give adequate
expression to the fulness of the combination of contemporary
science, art, knowledge, and practice, which we recognise tor
engineering. Engineers constitute more than a profession; they
amount to a " race " ; and it is upon them, more than upon any
other class of the civil population of the world, that falls the heaviest
share of the " White Man's Burden." There have been framed
many definitions of engineering and of the engineer; but none that
I can esteem adequate, and at the same time sufficiently exact and
exclusive. My reason for holding this opinion is based upon two
considerations. The first is the persistence of much popular
ignorance of the nature of our work, and some lack of appreciation
of our class; and the second is the stubborn refusal of the English
spirit to admit the necessity of any formal qualification on the part
of those who claim to be of the profession. With us odd as such



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 11

a state of things must seem to our more highly organised foreign
colleagues an engineer may hold a diploma, but he need not. He
may be associated with our Institution, and be entitled to append
a string of capital letters to his name, or he may not possess a single
title to nominal distinction. This is because with us engineering
does not consist in being, but in doing. The public's unformed
vague idea of an engineer is that of a man who can do things a
great and constantly increasing number of things all falling within
a wide but fairly recognised category. His quality seems to lean
more to the side of invention than to that of scholarship. For my
part I am content to have it so. Not that an engineer can ever be
too deeply instructed, or too well trained in all the elements of
knowledge and skill required for the effective pursuit of his calling ;
but the really great engineer is born, not made. So subtle is the
influence of words upon thought, that I could wish the name of
our avocation were spelt in English, as it is in languages of more
pronounced Latin derivation, with a capital "I," instead of "E"-
"Ingeniering", say, in place of " Engineering." 1 hus the nature of our
work would be better recognised among the people, who are careless
of etymologies. The suggestion of the name would be removed from
association with the word " engine " (a word good enough in its
degree, and one that once had a wider significance than is now left
to it) and would be placed where it rightly belongs, with the root
idea which gives us the words " ingenious," " ingenuity/' etc. We
must go no further however in this direction for the missing
definition of engineering, or we shall get into the clouds, where,
although I am not sure but that we might find some Colleges of
Engineering, we should miss the substance of the thing itself.

For engineering is the only high art which for its excellence
depends as much on its cheapness as upon any other item in the
sum of achievement. All other things being equal adaptability,
soundness, efficiency the engineering work which costs trie least
money is the best. I do not know any other product of man's
creative and adaptive powers, of which the same can be so truly
said. The " cash " basis is the real foundation upon which the



12



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT.



engineer builds; and this consideration at once draws us away from
judging of engineering as merely something cleverly done by an
ingenious person. It also serves often to distinguish between
college, text-book, or rule-of-thumb engineering, and the real thing.
There is an American definition of an engineer, which states that
" he is a man who can do well for one dollar things that anybody
could do somehow for double the money." This is getting very
near the truth. It is not the whole truth, of course; but that, for
reasons I have already indicated, is unattainable. At any rate, it
places in due prominence a quality which those who regard engineer-
ing studies from the college standpoint are apt to ignore. I have
heard a legend of a professor of applied mechanics, who was
shocked at the thought of steam engines being made for money, to
sell like cakes. A good deal of wasted ingenuity would be saved,
if those who engage in every kind of engineering work would
remember to use the money standard, as well as the foot-rule and
the higher mathematics.

Actual engineering must be mastered as it is realised on works
in progress. It has no authoritative text-books. The working
engineer's library is sometimes largely composed of ephemeral
manufacturer's catalogues, and lists of prices current of materials.
Like the perfect artist described by Longfellow, the engineer must
learn to work with the means that lie readiest to his hand. He
must cherish his ideals, or he will sink into routine; but he, of all
men, cannot afford to indulge in hobby-riding. He leaves as little
as possible to chance, and, if he is wise, he will not rely upon his
best mathematics any further than he can see them. If he starts
with aptitude, plods on with patience, observes with insight, records
with careful exactitude, and adapts with wisdom, in the fulness of
time he will find himself, almost to his surprise, in possession of
judgment} and this is the glory of an engineer, fitting him for his
highest employment as man-of-all-work to civilisation. Material
civilisation owes much to this faithful servant. Others may plot,
scheme, invent, discover wants and their proper supplies; the
engineer, as a rule, does chiefly what he is told wants doing. By



ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 13

strict attention to his own business, he helps to make the crooked
ways straight and the rough places plain for all.

The engineer must have great power of concentration. His
solicitude is to make every job a little better than the last. The
newest steam engine shows a fractional economy of steam; the
latest steamship carries her freight with a scarcely distinguishable
saving in coal consumption per ton; the selected railway metal
lasts a little longer than the previous purchase; the main line is
straightened here and there; and incidentally as it were the
remote ends of the earth are brought closer together, and plague,
pestilence, and famine are driven back. The wiseacres who declare
on political platforms that the effect of modern civilisation is to
make the rich richer, and the poor poorer, forget all about
engineering. The engineer is the chief of the modern democratic
Civil Service. Civilisation is admitted to have had its birth with
the Egyptians and its rearing with the Romans; and the latter
\\eie the first to recognise a change of purpose in engineer-
ing from the idle aims of Egyptian pyramid builders to
the useful purposes of road-making and the provision of
ample supplies of pure water for their cities. Down to the
dawn of the century that has just closed, civil engineering did not
surpass the works of the Romans, which indeed in some respects
remained unequalled. With respect to the elemental need of the
modern world for improved means of transportation, it may be said
that the new civil engineering first broke out its own line in the
notable discovery of the Scotsman, Macadam, that good roads
could be made with stones broken small. The distinguishing note
of modern engineering is that it subserves in the main the interests