Isaac Hill.

The Farmer's monthly visitor (Volume v.10-11 1848-49) online

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VOL. X, FOR 1848.




T'^is'b v. ic-u



Aboriginal industry.

Advertisements, 1G 64 30 96 112 128 111

Age of entile and she* p, 2

Acents of Farmer's Monthly Visitor, 174
175 183 189
Agricultural address by Isaac Hill, 130
» •' extract of, Mr. Bates', 178

Agriculture, 99

" in Vermont, 9

" in the West, &o, 15

" impruved in New England, 151
*' and chemistry, 126

" and customs at the South, 23
« in New Hampshire, 187

Agricullural improvement, 45

'■ society in Hillsborough, SO

" proceeds of L 1 . S. and Frahce,U2
" for 1847, 138
" papers, effect of, . 157

" societies, exhibitions of, 16 ( J
" publications, appreciation of } 141
Agriculturist and manufacturer com-
bined, 109
Almanac, D. Leavitt's, notice of, 169
America, young, and old Europe, 60
American fresh meats in England, 29
" apples in London, 29
" fanners, 33
" genius tripumhant In Fngl'd, 163
" Metropolitan Magazine, 182
Ammunition manufactured at St. Louis, 31
Animals their longeviiy, 98
" diseases of, 1 15
" how to prevent running at

large, 126

" best lime to kill. 48

Apple orchards, planting of, 29

" melon, 67

lt cultivation, 77

" best varieties for export, 30

Ashes, leached, 165

Asihma, how to remedy, 182

Atmosphere, 83

" vegetation, &c, 161

'' of the moon, 29

Audabon, 12

Bacon, ham and tongues, how cooked, 2
*• how to cure, 30

Batik- of Lexington, 89

Beef, pickling or preserving, 149

Beef law in Massachusetts, 63

how to keep fresh, 75

Beet-root sugar in France, 29

Blacks in Canada, 32

Book farming, 97

Bog-meadow reclaimed, 13

Bones of plants,

" as manure, 129

Bread-making, 34

Bread stuffd in Ki gl ind, 112

" hrown, Yankee, 143

Breeding principles ol, 143 153

Brittish America, 20

Bri 'bion Market, statement of, fur '43, 183

Buckwheat, 34

Burroughs' Cave in Green mountains, 35

Batter- mi k ngin Holland, 115

■• preserving, 137

11 e^ pel iments, etc., 13

■■ i i iidot; U5

6 7


1 55

Cabbage, how to raise,
( lve . how to raise aifd Cced,
l banker worms, how to stop,
Cottle Show at Buffalo. IN. V.,
of Smilhfield (Kuglnnd )
•' how io prevent running at large, 1 - ( >
" fattening and fonnalion-of milk, 65
Ayrshire, !■

in htighv aj b, 156

"large, 1

Characteristics of the season 13-10, 178
Cheese in .V V., 0. \ I a id I nun .

" of N Y., 65

■' trade of the United States, 35
Chloroform appbed to a | 64

Coal trade of Pennsylvania.,
Communication from A. A. Gile,
Commerce, 1 i !

" of the West,
" of the N. York Canals,
" of New York,
Compost sheds, 157

' ner, 17-i

Corn, 26 1)9

" » Brown,"

" for fodder, 73

•' crusher, Pitt's, 27 1

■ '- goin) yield of, 14

Cotton *in manure, 31

Cow, profit. ihle, 47

Cranberries on uplands, 123

Crops °n " le Rio Grand© . 40

'• in Europe lor 1818. 151 156

Crows beneficial to the husbandman, 65

and ihe .-quash bug, 1 12

Cultivators, 17';

Cultivation fifty years ago, 1"

" lite tin ol y of, for which ihe

Visitor claims to lie the

American discoverer, £2

Cultivation of grass in Illinois, 86

" thorough, 98

Cunard steamers, 62

Curious adventure, 158

Destitute, relief to, 41

Diet, plain, tor children, 30

Diving bells, 159

Draining marshes and wet lands, 99

Dry goods, selling of, 67


Economy, true political, 151

Education of the young for agriculture, 179

E^g business in Maine, 180

Electricity applied to plants, 29

Elephant's sagacity. , 35

Embankments and drainage, 68

England's social condition, 55

English Grammar, notice of, 144

" yeomanry, 150

•' taxation, 45

Enterprise of Massachusetts, 128

" of New Hampshire in Me.. 1H3

" and industry of IN England, 173

Essav on seeds, trees, &c. by William

Prescott, 17

" on renovation of worn-out lands,

by Edward Stabler, 146

Evcr-glades of Florida, 1G8

Exhortation of a father to his children, 12


Facts for the ladies, 67

Failure ol an experimental community, 177

Faneuil Hill market, statement of, 183

Farm work for October, 137

'• " for January, 185

" implements, 170

" of F. F. Blair, of Md., 180

Farms, worn-out, 14

Farming in Massachusetts, 1 1

" on Long Island. 36

•' and other matters near Federal

city, 53

11 in Hillsborough, 74

" in Concord, S I-

" the essentials to productive, 79

in Rockingham county, !'l

" in Mar) land, bv Col.Capron, 1 c; 1

" profits of, 97

Farmers, their position, duties, &c, 19

il suggestions to, 80

" importance of educating them, 83

• ; Bongs, 76 83

" emulation among, 187

Feeding work horses, 157

Females, domestic education of, 19

Fences, 7 1

Finances of government, 86

Fish for m. mure, 13 168

" great success in catching, 71

Forest trees, cultivation of, 25

France, public debt of, 59

French monarchy! overthrow of, 49

Fresh meat?, how to preserve, 'il

Fruitgrower's national convention, 161

profits of growing, 1 13

•• trade, 15b

" buds destroyed by fro. t, 1 13

" in Orange county, N. Y. ; 187

G irden in mourning, 31

Gardening at Nahanf, 9

hints on, 64

Glaciers, their progress, 75

( flass, how cut h ith a piece of iron, 14

( iold mines in California, 136

< Ire il Britain and the United States, 152

Grain in Fiance, 63

I -i pes from seed, 163

Grape, culture in Missouri, 174

( .r - > In ds, mode ol ploughing. 78

Guano, 41

*■ . Afi-ican, on pine plains land, 1C7


I! ird to kill,


Huritess, improvement in,



llennlngiciil luct,


re value of,


.ni lor buys,




\ lurse and his rii!i-r.

', ' |

1 lorses j a regulation of the Post Master

Ire! by the Post Master, free or

£j-.AII gentlemen who have Beretotpve anted as /\LT - nts an-
request ue the t Agency. Old subscribers who

1 h terms, will please notify us of the names
already on uur books.

The Bones of Plants.

Do |i!:iuts have bones? No, not exactly such
holies as you and 1 and oilier individuals of Uie
.animal kingdom, and yet they have a solid frame

. work, which in many particulars is analogous to
the hone of the animal system. To make this
frame work, which we call wood, and which, in
cuillru-di.-ltucttol] to the animal, is called vegeta-
ble, it is ULCi'ssary that it have some material.
Well, this material is much of it the same as
much of the material that enters into the hones

. of animals, viz : mineral matter, such as lime
and potash and some other of the earths and al-
kalies. Where do they get these ? They must
I'lump it up, in a dissolved state, from the soil,
is very evident that they cannot take it into
the minute and delicate pores of the roots and
stems and leaves ill a solid state. It is necessa-
ry, therefore, that these mineral matters should
lie dissolved by the moisture or water which is
in the soil. A good soil-contains them in the
right state to be dissolved up. But a tree or a
crop will in time pump up all that there is in
that s"pm, and as plants cannot move abbot from
place to place, in order to supply themselves
when the food suitable for them has become ex-
hausted, they must either languish or it must be
supplied to the in by the hands of man.

The manure of domestic animals contains
more or less of these materials, for they eat this
vegetable matter, and of course this matter is
not annihilated but changed by the operation,
and what is not converted to the animal body is
thrown Dirt in a condition in which it can be
;gain dissolved and passed into the system of
plants, by which it can again become Ibod for
animals, and thus go the rounds — from the mine-
ral kingdom into the vegetable, and from the
vegetable into the animal, and from the animal
again to the mineral,

Vegetables fir plants are the medium through
which animals receive mineral matter in a form
ami condition to he assimilated to their own bo-
dies. Heme one reason why animal manures
are of such universal application, and good for
every crop. They are, iu (art, the necessary in-
gredients of plants, chopped into minced meat, al-
ready to he taken into the mouths of plains and
be eaten by them. We cannot always obtain
animal manures, but this need not hinder us from
manuring our lauds, crops, trees, &c, with other
matters made up of some of tbe materials re-
q tired. It may be asked, however, here, how do
we know that plants— a tree— for instance, con-
tains these mineral matters, and therefore re-
quires any supply of the kind ? It has been as-
certained by chemical analysis. This has been
done repeatedly by different chemists in their
laboratories, with instruments and tesls and re-
agents nicely calculated to obtain the most accu-
rate results, and to separate, weigh and measure
each ingredient, even lo the fifteen-hundredth

pari of a grain. But many a farmer has analysed
them in part, although in rather a rough man-
ner. The man who makes potash and pearlash.
analyses the wood of the forest, and ascertains
the results. He seeks, it is true, but for one of
the ingredients, but as far as he goes, it is, to all
intents and purposes, a thorough analysis, and
he can tell you, from experience, that the boms
of some plains or trees contain much more pot-
ash than others. If it were an object lo him. he
would, in a similar manner, learn how to sepa-
rate lime from the ashes of trees, and clay or
alumirre from the ashes of trees and other mine-
ral matters, and would tell you that these all va-
ried in quantity according to the kind of tree or
the circumstances under which it nvcw. In the
application of this knowledge to the culture of
trees and plants, consists the great art of sneer ?g-
ful tanning. Perhaps no man has gone more
carefully and thoroughly into an exact analysis
to ascertain the mineral and other matters con-
tained in trees, than Dr. Emmons of Albany.
Dr. E. is employed in the survey of the State of
New York, and has published a volume or re-
port on agriculture of that State. His analysis
of the pear and apple trees, is valuable, to all who
wish to cultivate those fruits, and show what
minerals most predominate in each, and of
course which should be most abundantly sup-
plied in manuring them.

From 100 parts of the ashes of the pear tree,
he obtained the following substances, viz :

Sap-wood. Bark.

Potash 22.2S 6.20

Soda, 1.84

Chlorine, .... 0.31 1.711

Sulphuric acid .50 I .SO

Phosphate of lime. . . . 27. '22 6.50
Phosphate of peroxide of iron, 0.31

Carbonic acid, . . . 27.69 37.29

Lame, .... 12.64. 30.36

Ala^nesia, .... 3.00 9.10

Siler. 0.30 40

Coal 0.17 0.65

Organic matter, . . . 4.02 4.20

100.25 98.30
From the apple tree he obtained the same and
other materials in very different proportions, as
follows :


d. Hark







Chloride of sodium,

. D.42


Sulphate of lime,



Phosphate ol peroxide oT iron.



Phosphate of lime,



Phosphate of magnesia, .

. 0.20

Carbunic acitl, . . .



Lime, ....

. pm;.;


Matrnesia, ....



Silica; ....

. 0.85


Soluble silica,



Organic matter,

. 4.60

j mo

100.65 109.450
By the above tables it will be seen that the
prevailing ingredients are, potash, phosphate of
lime, and lime. What, then, is a good manure
for these trees ? Evidently, common wood
ashes, hones, and lime.

Tbe ashes will supply potash, the bones will
supply phosphate of lime, and lime or plaster of
Paris will afford w.hal lime is needed. It would
he well if the hones were pulverized, or if they
were dissolved in oil of vitriol, (sulphuric acid)
as recommended in last volume of the Farmer,
they would do as well. — Maine Farnur.

Feeding Animals. — If one cow daily treads

three pounds of hay under foot in the mud, she
will waste about a hundred pounds per month ;
or a head of twenty cows would waste a ton per
month. At this rate, how many times everv ten
years, would the quantity wasted, pay the ex-
pense of making feeding boxes and racks?

Pins. — A dozen years since, all the pins used
in this country were imported. Now, none are
imported, except a few German pins for the sup-
ply of the German population of Pennsylvania.
The invention; by Mr. Samuel Slocum, now of
Providence, of a pin-making machine far supe-
rior to any then in use in England led to the es-
tablishment of a pin-manufactory at Ponghkeep-
sie by Messrs. Slocum, Jillsuu &, Co., which
soon distanced foreign competition. Of all the
Pin Companies which have been established or
attempted in the United States, only three arc
known to exist at present, viz : the American
Pin Company (which has works both at Pough-
keepsie and at Waterbury, Conn.;) the Howe
Company at Derby, Conn., and Messrs. PhHoii,
rairehihl & Co., of Ponghbeepsie. The quanii-
ty of pins turned out by these establishments,
especially the two first, is enormous. Tbe sta-
tistics of one of them, we have ascertained, are.
about as follows: per week 70 cases, averaging
170 packs each, each pack containing 12 papers,
and each paper 280 pins ; making an aggregate
of 8!!,! "84,000 pins per week, or 2,079,168,000 per
annum. If the products of I lie other two es-
tablishments, and the small amount imported,
are together equal to the above, we should have
a grand total of 4,158,336,000 pins for consump-
tion in the United States, equal to 209 on an av-
erage, for every man, woman and child in the
country. A pretty liberal allowance, we are
thinking. The number of pin-making machines
employed by said Company is about thirty, and
of work people about sixty.

The wire which is to be wrought into pin3,
runs from a reel like yarn, into one end of the
machine, and comes out at the other, not wire,
but pins, cut, pointed and headed, in the most
perfect manner, at the rate of 150 a minute.
This is about the usual speed, hut the machinery
is capable of being so adjusted as to produce
300 a miuiite. Being now of a yellowish color,
they are thrown, by the bushel, into kettles con-
taining a certain liquid, by which they are whit-
ened, and prepared for sticking ; \. e. for being
stuck into papers, in rows, as they are bought at
the stores. This process of sticking is also per-
formed by a machine invented by Mr. Slocum.
The narrow paper in which the puis are stuck,
is wound from a reel, of any imaginable length,
and then cut off at uniform intervals. One
sticking-machine will stick as many pins as
three pin-machines can make ; and three of the
former can he attended by one girl. A part of
the pins of the American Pin Company are
made of American copper, obtained on the bor-
ders of Lake Superior. — Journal of Commerce.

Rural Lite. — Show me the cottage, the roses
and the honeysuckles on w'hieh are neatly [rim-
med and trained, and the garden behind is well
stocked with culinary herbs and a few choice
flowers, and I will speedily find you a cottager
who never wastes his time or his money, or de-
bases his mind, and learns the "broad road which
leadeth lo deMtruclioo," iu the contamination of
an ale house. If the garden is neat, one may
rest assured that the collage, however humble it.
is, is the abode of contentment and happiness;
and that however simple the fare may he, it is
wealth and luxiijy in full store to the' inmates,
because they are satisfied with it, and grateful
for the possession of ir. — Farmer's Cabinet.

A Good Investment. -A correspondent ofthe
Yarmouth Register stales that the schooner
Hamilton of Harwich, Capt. Wixoti, which cost
last spring $3000, has been engaged 6-i months
in the fishing business, and has brought into port
1295 bbls. of mackerel, having yielded the sum
of §10,486. Several of the crew received lor
their wages $527 each, ami thirteen more have
received $472 each.

£ljc iarmcr's iHontljto Visitor.

Age of Cattle and Sheep.

It is generally supposed that the age of cattle
and sheep can lie accurately determined by tlie
teeth, till they are alter five years old. These
animals, as nearly every farmer knows, have, at
their birth or shortly afterwards, eight incisor or

Online LibraryIsaac HillThe Farmer's monthly visitor (Volume v.10-11 1848-49) → online text (page 1 of 176)