Isidore Singer.

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Galilee.

On the whole, the Galileans are said to have been
strict in their religious observances (M. K. 23a;
Pes. 55a; Yer. R. H. iv. 6; Yer. Sotah ix, 10).
Measures and weights were peculiar in Galilee: 1
Judean se'ah = 5 Galilean se'ah; 5 Judean sela =
10 Galilean sela (B. B. 122b; Hul. 137b). The
Galilean Sicarii were dreaded (Tosef., Git. ii.).
Study of the traditions was not one of the Gal-
ilean virtues, neither was their dialectic method
very flexible ('Er. 53a). But it is for their faulty
pronunciation that the Galileans are especially re-
membered: 'ayin and alef, and the gutturals gen-
erally, were confounded, no distinction being made
between words like "'amar" (= "hamor," ass),
"hamar" (wine), "'amar" (a garment), "emar" (a
lamb : 'Er. 53b) ; therefore Galileans were not per-
mitted to act as readers of public prayers (Meg.
24b). Still, according to Geiger (" Orient," iv. 432),
to the Galileans must be ascribed the origin of the
Haggadah. Galilee was very rich in towns and
hamlets (Yer. Meg. i. 1), among which were Sep-
phoris (niDV or p^D^f), Asha, Shephar'am, Bet-
She'arim, Tiberias, Magdala, Kefar Hananyah,
'Akbara, Acco, Paneas, Caesarea. On Galil, a place
of the same name as the province, see Hildesheimer,
" BeitrSge zur Geographic Palastinas, " p. 80.

Bibliography : Neubauer, La Geographie du Talmud, Paris,
1868 ; Dalnian, Ojammatik des Jildusch-PalilsUnischen Ara-
mdiach, Leipsic, 1899; Hirsch Hllde.sheimer, Beitrdae zur
Geographie PaUistinatt, p. 80; Gu^rln, Galilee, 1880;
Merrill, Galilee in the Time of Chrv<t, London, 1885 ; George
Adam Smith, The Historical Geography of the Holy Land,
London, 1894; A. Kaminka, Studien zur Geschichte GaJi-
ittos, Berlin, 1890.
8. s. E. G. H.

GALINA, MOSES BEN ELIJAH: Greek
scholar and translator; lived at Candia in the fif-
teenth century. His best known work is "Toledot
Adam" (Constantinople, 1515), a treatise on chiro-
mancy and physiognomy, drawn chiefly from 'All
ibn 'Abbas' " Kamil al-Sina'ah " and the pseudo-Aris-
totelian "Secretum." Galina's work was abridged
and published later with a Judajo-German transla-
tion as "Hokmat ha-Yad." The author's name is
erroneously given as Elijah ben Moses Galina. Still,
Joseph ibn Kaspi, in his "Tirat Kesef," quotes a
work entitled "Dibre Hakamim," a treatise on the
properties of stones, as by "Elijah ben Moses Ga-
lina." Moses Galina translated from Arabic into
Hebrew: (1) An astronomical treatise by Omar ibn
Mohammed Mesuman, "Sefer Mezukkak"; (2) an
astrological treatise, "Mishpat haMabbatim"; (3)
"Sefer ha-Goralot," a treatise on geomaucy, bearing



555



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Gkililee
Qallico



the author's name as Moses Galiano, identified by

Steinschneider with Moses Galina.

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Uehr. Uebers. pp. 353, 578,
595, 9ti5 ; idem, Hebr. Bihl. xix. 59-61.
U. M. Sel.

GALIPAPA, ELIJAH: Rabbi of Rhodes in
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; probably
born in Bulgaria. He emigrated to Palestine, but
later removed to Rhodes. He was the author of
"Yede Eliyahu," a work on the rabbinical institu-
tions (" takkanot "), in which the order adopted by
Maimonides is followed (Constantinople, 1728).

Bibliography : Azulal, Shem ha-Oedolim ; Benjacob, Ozar
}i(i-Scfarim.

GALIPAPA (not Gallipapa nor Galeppa),

^AYYIM : Spanish rabbi ; son of Abraham Gali-
papa; born at Monzon about 1310; died about 1380.
He was rabbi at Huesca, and later at Pamplona,
where he directed a Talmud school. Galipapa be-
longed to the liberal school, setting aside the strictly
orthodox rabbinical authorities, and following even
in advanced years those that inclined to a more lax
discipline. He permitted the combing of hair on the
Sabbath, and allowed children to accept cheese from
Christians ; he also introduced some ritual and litur-
gical changes at Pamplona. In some of his views he
differed from the opinions then current; he saw, for
instance, in the Book of Daniel a revelation of the
crimes of Antiochus Epiphanes. Because of his
reforms, R. Hasdai ben Solomon of Tudela made
a complaint against him to Isaac ben Sheshet,
whereupon the latter seriously but gently reproved
him, urging him to avoid henceforth all cause for
offense and to preserve peace (Isaac b. Sheshet, Re-
sponsa, Nos. 394 etseq.). Galipapa wrote a polem-
ical treatise " 'Emek Refa'im," in which tlie mas-
sacre of the Catalonian Jews of 1348 is described ;
the work is contained in his commentary on Semahot,
an extract of which is given in Joseph ha-Kohen's
"'Emek ha-Bakah." He wrote also a commentary
on 'Abodah Zarah and an epistle on salvation
quoted by Joseph Albo (" 'Ikkarim," iv. 42).

Bibliography: De Rossl-Hamberger, Hist. WOrterb. p. 110;
Steinschneider. Jewish Literature, pp. 127, 376; Gratz,
Gesch. vlii. 31 ; Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Spanien,

G. M. K.

GALIPAPA, :g:AYYIM[ MEBOBAK : Bul-
garian rabbi; lived and taught at Sofia about 1650
(Conforte, "Kore ha-Dorot," p. 52a).

G. ■ M. K.

GALLAH {nhi = " the shaved one " ; in German
often printed as Gallach) : Epithet originally ap-
plied to Catholic priests on account of their tonsure.
Later the same epithet was extended to Greek Ortho-
dox priests. "Gallah," with its plural "gallahim,"
occurs very often in Hebrew medieval literature.
Thus R. Tarn says: "Do not be hasty in thy answer
Hke priests ["gallahim"], who discuss in a sophistical
way" ("Sefer ha-Yashar," 81a, col. b). Latin wri-
ting was sometimes called " the writing of gallahim "
("Or Zarua'," ii. 42). In Russo-Jewish folk-lore it
is unlucky to meet a gallah; to prevent the ill luck
various expedients are recommended, such as throw-
ing straw behind the back, or turning the back and
walking away four paces (see Folk-Loue). A pop-



ular saying is tliat " A fat rabbi and a lean gallaU
are not as they should be: the one does not apply
himself sufficiently to the study of the Law, the
other as a rule is a fanatic" (Tendlau, "Sprilch-
w5rter undRedensarten," 1860, p. 311).

K. M. Sel.

GALLEGO (GALIGO ; sometimes erroneously
Galliago, Galiago, or Galliano), JOSEPH
SHALOM DE SHALOM: Neo-Hebraic poet;
died in Palestine Nov. 25, 1624. He was the first
hazzan of the first synagogue erected in Amster-
dam, and occupied the position fourteen years, then
removed to Palestine. He edited the work " Imre
No'am," containing religious poems, hymns, and
elegies (Amsterdam, 1628). Several of his Hebrew
poems are to be found in the manuscript collection
"Kol Tefillah we-Kol Zimrah" of David Franco
Mendes. Gallego translated from Hebrew into
Spanish the ethical writings of Jonah de Gerona,
entitled "Sendroe [Sendero] de Vidas " {ib. n.d. ; 2d
ed., ib. 1640).

Bibliography: D. H. de Castro, De Synagoge der Portugeesch-
Israel. Oemeente te Amsterdam^ p. Iv.; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 1.
315 ; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 6001 ; Kayserling, Bibl.
Esp.-Port.-Jud. p. 48.
G. M. K.

GALLERY : An elevated floor, or a balcony, in
the interior of a church, synagogue, or other large
building, resting on columns, and surrounded by
a balustrade. In the Orthodox synagogues it is
reserved for women ; for the modern usage see
Frauenschul.

The Temple had galleries in the shape of winged
or bay chambers, variously described as "zela',"
" gizrah " or " attik " (attic), and " 'aliyyah " (I Kings
vi. 5; Ezek. xli. 13-15; I Chron. xxviii. 11). But
these, it appears, were either private chambers or
passages, or merely architectural ornamentation. A
gallery used for public gatherings was constructed
in the women's apartment (" 'ezrat nashim ") m the
Temple for the libation celebration at Sukkot.

The Mishnah relates that " On the eve following
the first day of the festival they went down fifteen
steps to the women's 'azarah, and prepared a great
improvement " (Suk. v. 2), which R. Eleazar ex-
plains was the gallery erected above for the accom-
modation of the women, enabling them to witness
the men below celebrating the "water libation" to
the accompaniment of music, song, dances, and il-
luminations. The Tosefta says there were galleries
on the three sides of the 'azarah, so that women
could observe the celebration separately (Tosef.,
Suk. iv. 1). "The house of David apart, and their
wives apart," is quoted against the mingling of sexes
in public gatherings (Zech. xiii. 12; see Maimonides,
"Yad," Lulab, viii.).

In the Reform synagogues the galleries are used
for the accommodation of non-members of both
sexes. See Akchitectuke, Jewish ; Fkavenschul ;
Jerusalem; Reform; Temple.
A. J ^- ^•

GALLICO, ELISHA BEN GABRIEL : Pal-
esrinian Talnuidist ; died at Safed about 1583. He
was a pupil of Joseph Card. After the death of
his master, Gallico was nominated chief of the yeshi-
bah of Safed. He is frequently menrioned in tlie
responsa collection " Abkat Rokel," in which re-



Gallico
Gama



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



556



sponsum No. 84 belongs to him. Hayyim Bcu veuisti
quotes Gallico's responsa in liis "Keneset ha
Gedolah." Gallico wrote homiletic-allegorical com-
mentaries on Ecclesiastes (published during the au-
thor's lifetime, Venice, 1577), on Esther (Venice,
1583), and on Song of Songs (Venice, 1587).

Bibliography: Michael, Or ?((x-7fai/yim, p. 223, No. 474; Azu-
lai, Shem hn-Gednlim, i. 28, No. 208; Steinschneider. Cat.
Bodl. col. 968; Fuenn, Keneset VisraeU P- 13<5.
K. M. Sel.

GALLICO, SAMUEL : Italian Talmudist and
cabalist; lived in the si.xteenthand seventeenth cen-
turies. He was a pupil of Moses Cordoveto and the
teacher ot Menahem Azariuh di Fano. Gallico was
the compiler of " 'Asis Rimmonim," consi.stiiig of
extracts from Cordovero's " Pardes Kinimoniin,"
with notes by Mordecai Dato (Venice, 1601). This
work was afterward revised by Fano, who added a
commentary entitled "Pelah lia-Rimmon," and by
Mordecai b. Jacob, whose commentary is entitled
"Pa'amon we-Rimmon."

Bibliography: Fiirst, Bihl. Jml. i. 314; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. col. 2225.

K. M. Ski..

GALLIFOLI (the ancient Callipolis) : Seaport
town in European Turkey, at the northeast end of
the Dardanelles and about 135 miles from Constan-
tinople. It has a population of about 20,000, of
whom 1,200 are Jews. The latter probably lived in
Gallipoli from the first centuries of Byzantine rule.
About 1162 Benjamin of Tudela found in the town
200 Jews, who had a yeshibah under tlie care of R.
Elia Kapid and R. Shabbetlial Zutra. The Ottoman
Turks, who acquired Gallipoli in 1365, protected
the community, according to their custom. In 1469
there lived at Gallipoli a rabbi named Daniel bar
Hananiah, whose manuscript of the Bible commen-
tary of Levi ben Gershom has been preserved. In
1492 a great number of Spanish exiles found refuge
in Gallipoli, and several families bearing the name of
" Saragoss " still celebrate a " Purim of Saragossa " in
the month of Heshwan. The Ben Habib family
of Portugal is said. to have furnished Gallipoli with
eighteen chief rabbis, the most prominent of them
being Jacob ibn Habib, the author of the " 'En Ya'a-
kob." In 1853 Hadji Hasdai Varon represented
France, Italy, Austria, Portugal, Denmark, and the
United States as consular agent. Gallipoli has two
synagogues, one built in 1721 and rebuilt in 1852 ;
the other is quite recent. It has also a Jewish
school containing 250 boys, as well as six benevolent
societies. The community is administered by a
council of ten ; its revenue comes mostl}^ from taxes
on kasher meat, wines, and heads of families. Hay-
yim Franco, a native of Melas, has been chief rabbi
since January, 1903.

Several of the Jews of Gallipoli are government
employees. The Spanish vice-consul and nearly all
the dragomans are Jews, who are also represented
in nearly every commercial and mechanical pursuit.
The native costume is now giving way to the Euro-
pean. Among the antiquities of the city arc the old
cemetery, a marble basin set up in 1670 by a certain
Johanan Halio, tiie above-mentioned copy of the
commentary on the Bible by Levi ben Gershom, the
Megillah of Saragossa, and many old manuscripts.



There are many Jewish families in the neighborhood
of Gallipoli, especially at Lampsacus, on the oppo-
site Asiatic shore, at Charkeui, and elsewhere.

BiBLiO(iRAPHY : Benjamin of Tiidela, Afas.sn'ot ; Dezobry, Dic-
tiviiuaii-c d'Histoirc et dc Glnijraphic.

D. M. Fh.

GALLOWS : A framework consisting of one or
more upright posts supporting a cross-beam, and
used for executing those sentenced to death by hang-
ing. In the Hebrew Bible |*y ( = " tree ") is the word
used for " gallows " (Gen. xl. 19 ; Deut. xxi. 22 ; Jo-sh.
viii. 29, x.^26 ; Esth. ii. 23, v. 14, vi. 4). The " tree " or
gallows erected by Hainan, and u])on which he him-
self died, is described as fifty cubits high (Esth. vii.
9, 10) ; probably it was a stake on which the culprit
was impaled (see Haley, •'P^sther," pp. 122 et seq.),
corresponding to the "zekifa " of the later Hebrew
(comp. Meg. 16b; B. M. 83b), which was certainly a
simple stake. In the Mishnah (Sanh. vi. 3) the gallows
is described as in two parts : mip, the upright, which
was firmly fixed in the ground; and |'j;, the trans-
verse beam ("in^ pOD in the commentaries), from
which the condemned was suspended by the hands.
This contrivance was not employed to kill by stran-
gulation. According to R. Jose, the post must not
be fixed in the ground, but must be rested obliquely
against a wall, and be buried immediately with the
body of the executed. The consensus of authorities
does not favor Jose's interpretation of the law, but
holds that the gallows may rest in the ground,
though it must not be permanently fixed, a new post
being erected on each occasion (see Chucifixion).

E. G. H.

GALLUS, CAIUS CESTITJS : Consul " suffect-
us" in 42 c.E. Pliny ("Historia Naturalis," xxxiv.
48) calls him " consularis, " i.e. , " retired consul. " Ac-
cording to a dubious passage in Tacitus ("Annales,"
XV. 25), he was appointed successor to Corbulo as
legate of Syria (63) ; but his coins date only from
the years 65"^ and 66 (Mionnet, v. 169, No. 189; Sup-
plement, Nos. 190, 191). When the Jewish war
broke out in the twelfth year of Emperor Nero (Oct.,
65-66; see Josephus, "Aut."xx. 11, ^1), Gallus was
already governor ("B. J." Preface, §7; ib. ii. 14,
§§ 3, 4). Gallus appears to have been favorably in-
clined toward the Jews ("B. J." ii. 14, § 3).

When Florus left Jerusalem and his troops were

defeated, Gallus (Josephus, "Vita," § 5), the officer

holding the highest military command

Actions in that region, had to take action.
During- the Opposing ambassadors from Florus
War. and from the Jews had already ap-
peared before him. Gallus, however,
did not at once intervene with arms, but sent
his tribune Neapolitanus to Jerusalem, who, to-
gether with Agrippa IT., vainly tried to quiet the
pev-)ple ("B. J." ii. 16, ^ 1). When hostilities actu-
ally commenced Gallus advanced from Antioch upon
Palestine. Along theseacoast he executed a bloody
vengeance on the Jews, burning the city Chabulon
to the ground, killing 8,000 Jews in Jatfa, and ar-
riving during the Feast of Tabernacles at Lydda,
which was almost forsaken by its inhabitants. He
pitched his camp in Gabao (Gibeon); but even here
he was violently attacked by the Jews from Jerusa-
lem, and came very near being ccmipletely defeated



557



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Oallieo
Oama



{ib. ii. 19, ^ 2; "Vita," § 7). Gallus then advanced
nearer to .Terusaleni upon the so-called Scopus; oc-
cupied and burned the suburb Bezetha, Avhich was
wholly undefended by the Jews ("B. J." ii. 19, ^ 4);
stormed the inner wall for five days; and had already
undermined the northern wall protecting the Tem-
ple (tb. % 6) when he withdrew pursued by the Jews.
The latter fell upon liim suddenly at Gabao, and
forced him to beat a hasty retreat, leaving his valu-
able war materials behind. His best men, whom he
had left as a cover, w ere cut down in the narrow
pass at Beth-horon. Nero, who was at Achaia,
heard of the defeat (ib. ii. 20, § 1 ; iii. 1, § 1), and Gal-
lus' career as a general was at an end. He seems to
Lave died soon after (Tacitus, " Hist." v. 10).

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. 4th ed.. Hi. 465; Wellhausen, I.
J. G. 4th ed., p. 365, Berlin, 1901; Pauly-Wissovva, Real-
Encyc. iil. 3005; Prosopographia Imperii Romaiit, i. 3i0:
Schiirer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 604.
C. S. Kr.

GAIiXJT. See Diaspora ; Exile.

GALVESTON: Chief commercial city of the
state of Te.\as; on Galveston Bay and the Gulf of
Mexico. It was founded in 1836, and has a popu-
lation (1903) of 32,745. Jews settled in Galveston
in 1840. In 1852 the Jewish Cemetery Association
was organized, a plot of ground for burial-pur-
poses being donated by the late Isadore Dyer. In
1856 the first Jewish services were held at the home
of Isadore Dyer in a room dedicated to that purpose.
In 1866 the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Galves-
ton, Texas, was organized and chartered. A burial-
plot was purchased in 1867, and another in 1897.
The charter members of the Benevolent Society
were J. W. Frank, J. Rosenfield, I. C. Levy, I.
Fedder, Isadore Dyer, Leon Blum, J. Lieberman,
and Ij. Block, the last three of whom are still (1903)
living.

Congregation B'nai Israel (Reform) was organized

in 1868 and chartered in 1870. The temple was
dedicated in the latter year, and has been enlarged
twice, now having a seating capacity of 764 per-
sons. The congregation has had four rabbis : Alex-
ander Roseuspitz, 1868-71 ; Abraham Blum, 1871-85;
Joseph Silverman, 1885-88; Henry Cohen, 1888.

The Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society was or-
ganized in 1870, Mrs. Caroline Block (d. 1902) serv-
ing as president for thirty years ; the Harmony Club
was organized in 1870, Zachaiias Frankel Lodge
I. O. B. B. in 1874, and the Ladies' Auxiliary So-
ciety in 1887.

In 1894. under the title of "Young Men's Hebrew
Association," the Orthodox Jews, the large majority
of whom settled there after the Russian persecution
of 1891, established a congregation. Orthodox serv-
ices have been held since 1887, first in private
houses and later in a building acquired for the
purpose. The Y. M. H. A. has a charitable society
— Bikur Cholim — and a Ladies' Auxiliary (estab-
lished 1903). B'nai Zion Lodge (founded 1898) rep-
resents the local Zionists.

Galveston was visited by a terrific storm on Sept.
8, 1900, which left destitution, wide-spread misery,
and death in its wake. The dead numbered about
8,000, and property to the value of many million
dollars was swept away. Forty one members of the
Jewish community perished. Of the twenty-eight



j)laces of worship in the city, but five remained
standing, and two of these were very badly damaged.
Of the other three, Temple B'nai Israel was one.
The sum of §26,427.33 was contributed by Jewish
organizations and individuals for distribution among
the Jewish sufferers, and was disbursed by a local
committee made up of representatives of each of the
communal institutions.

The Jews of Galveston have always been promi-
nent in civic as in business life. A number of them
have served as aldermen, and in 1853 Michael See-
ligson was elected mayor, resigning a few months
thereafter. Upon the commission controlling the
affairs of the city at the present time the governor
of the state appointed former City
Prominent Treasurer I. H. Kcmpner. I. Loven-
Citizens. berg has been a member of the Galves-
ton school board for seventeen years,
and one of its most active workers. He is also
president of the Galveston Orphans' Home, a non-
sectarian institution, and for fourteen years was
president of the Hebrew Benevolent Society.

Bibliography : H. Cohen, Settlement nf the Jews in Texas, in
Pub. Jew. His. Soc. No. 2; idem, TJte Jews in Texas, la
Pub. Jew. Hist. Soc. No. 4 ; C. Ousley, Galveston in. 1900,
Atlanta, Ga.; Reports Hebrew Henevolent Society, Galves-
ton ; Reports Congregation B'7mi Israel, Galveston.

A. H. C.

GAMA, GASPABD DA : German-Jewish mar-
iner of the fifteenth century. According to his own
story, Gaspard da Gama was born in Posen, and
while still young had to leave the country (1456) on
account of oppression. He followed his family to
Jerusalem, and from there to Alexandria. He trav-
eled thence to India by way of the Red Sea, was
taken captive, and sold into slavery.

When Vasco da Gama had left the coast of Mala-
bar and was returning to Europe (1498) he stopped
at the little island of Anchediva, sixty miles from
Goa. During his stay there his fleet was approached
by a small boat containing among the native crew a
tall European with a flowing white beard. This
European was Gaspard da Gama, who had persuaded
his master Sabayo, the viceroy of Goa, to treat the
strangers kindly, and who was now bent on inducing
them to land. Gaspard was evidently highly es-
teemed by Sabayo, for the latter had made him ad-
miral ("capitao mor"). Approaching the Portu-
guese ships, he hailed the crew in Castilian, who were
rejoiced to hear a familiar speech so far from home.
Being promised by the Portuguese complete safety,
he allowed himself to be taken aboard Vasco da
Gama's ship, was received with respect, and enter-
tained the crew with narrations of his experiences.
Vasco da Gama suspected treachery, however, and
had Gaspard bound, flogged, and tortured, prolong-
ing the torture until the victim consented to become
baptized, and to pilot the Portuguese ships in the
Indian waters. Gaspard told Vasco da Gama that
the viceroy of Goa was a generous man, who had
treated him with great kindness and whom he was
loath to desert, but since he found himself compelled
to do so in order to save his life, he was willing to
serve the Portuguese faithfully. The name Gas-
pard da Gama was given to him in baptism after
Vasco da Gama, who had acted as his godfather.
After a prolonged voyage in the Indian waters Gas-



Gama
Gamaliel I.



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



558



pard accompanied Vasoo da Gama to Portugal. In
Lisbon Gaspard soon became a favorite with King
Emanuel, who made him many valuable gifts and
granted him a charter of privileges, and had him
called " Gaspard of the Indies. "

Gaspard also accompanied Cabral (1502) on his
voyage to the East, and proved of great value to him
by his knowledge of this region. At the king's de-
sire Cabral was to consult with Gaspard on all im-
portant matters.

Having visited Melinde, Calicut, and Cochin,
Cabral started on his return voyage, and at Cape
Verde met the tleet of Amerigo Vespucci, which was
then starting for the exploration of the eastern coast
of South America. Vespucci hastened to avail him-
self of Gaspard 's wide knowledge, and speaks of
him in terms of praise as " a trustworthy man who
speaks many languages and knows the names of
many cities and provinces ..."

Later, Gaspard accompanied Vasco da Gama to
India (1502) and found his wife in Cochin, who
could not be persuaded to abandon Judaism. On
his return to Lisbon in 1503 the title " cavalleiro de
sua casa " was conferred by the king on Gaspard
for his valuable service to the country.

Bibliography : Damiao de Goes, Chrnn. de D. Manuel ; Kay-
serling, Christoph Columhus unci der Anteil der Juden au
den Spanischen und Portuyiesiiiche^i Entdeckungen, p. 100,
Berlin, 1894 ; Correa, The Three Voi/cwex of Vasco da Oama.
transl. by Stanley, Hakluytan Society edition, pp. 344-252, 301
309, London, 1869; Lelervel, Pnlska Dzieje, 1. 581; idem,
Oeographie dti Moyen Age ; Barros, Asia, dec. i., book 5.

E. c. J. G. L.

GAMA, VASCO DA : Portuguese discoverer
of the highway to India by sea. Like Columbus,
he was materially aided in his voyage by Abraham
Zacuto, astrologer to King D. Manuel. As com-
mander-in-chief of the fleet destined for India, he
set sail from Lisbon July 8, 1497, after conferring
with and taking leave of Zacuto, whom he esteemed
highly, in presence of the whole crew. See also
Gama, Gaspard da.

Bibliography : Correa, Lendas da India, In Collegdo de
Monumentos Ineditos para a Historia das Conquistas dos
Portuguezes, 1., 10, 261 et seq.; Kayserling, Christopher Co-
lumbus, pp. 113 et seq.; Allg. Zeit. cto Jud. Ixi. 348 et seq.

G. M. K.

6AMALA : City in Palestine, opposite Taiicheae,
beyond Lake Tiberias. It had an unusually strong
position on the side of a mountain with a protruding
spur, which gave it its name (N7OJ = "camel "). It
was accessible only from the south, on which side,
however, a transverse moat had been made. There
was likewise on the south a high hill which served
the city for a defense. Within the wall there was



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 5) → online text (page 141 of 174)