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ti HUBERT Sl'ENCER



LIBRARY of UNIVERSAL HISTORY

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LIBRARY OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY
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losophy and Psychology, John Hopkins University.
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GEORGE EMERY FELLOWS, Ph. D. LL. D., President University of Maine.
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REV. GEO. M. GRANT, D. D., Late Principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
MOSES COIT TYLER, A. M., Ph. D., Late Professor of American History, Cornell University.

ELISHA BENJAMIN ANDREWS, LL. D., D. D., Chancellor, University of Nebraska.
WILLIAM TORREY HARRIS, Ph. D., LL. D., Formerly United States Commissiner of Education.

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AND



SELECTION IN RELATION TO SEX
By CHARLES DARWIN



INTRODUCTION.

I. THE nature of the following work will
be best understood by a brief account of
how it came to be written. During many
years I collected notes on the origin or
descent of man, without any intention of
publishing on the subject, but rather with
the determination not to publish, as I
thought that I should thus only add to
the prejudices against my views. It
seemed to me sufficient to indicate, in the
first edition of my ' Origin of Species,'
that by this work " light would be thrown
on the origin of man and his history ; "
and this implies that man must be included
with other organic beings in any general
conclusion respecting his manner of ap-
pearance on this earth. Now the case
wears a wholly different aspect. When
a naturalist like Carl Vogt ventures to say
in his address as President of the National
Institution of Geneva (1869), " personne,
en Europe au moins, n'ose plus soutenir
la creation independante et de toutes
pieces, des especes," it is manifest that at
least a large number of naturalists must
admit that species are the modified de-
scendants of other species ; and this es-
pecially holds good with the younger and
rising naturalists. The greater number
accept the agency of natural selection ;
though some urge, whether with justice
the future must decide, that I have greatly
overrated its importance. Of the older
and honored chiefs in natural science,
many unfortunately are still opposed to
evolution in every form.

3, In consequence of the views now



adopted by most naturalists, and which
will ultimately, as in every other case, be
followed by others who are not scientific,
I have been led to put together my notes,
so as to see how far the general conclu-
sions arrived at in my former works were
applicable to man. This seemed all the
more desirable, as I had never deliber-
ately applied these views to a species
taken singly. When we confine our at-
tention to any one form, we are deprived
of the weighty arguments derived from
the nature of the affinities which connect
together whole groups of organisms
their geographical distribution in past and
present times, and the geological succes-
sion. The homological structure, embry-
ological development, and rudimentary or-
gans of a species remain to be considered,
whether it be man or any other animal,
to which our attention may be directed ;
but these great classes of facts afford, as
it appears to me, ample and conclusive
evidence in favor of the principle of
gradual evolution. The strong support
derived from the other arguments should,
however, always be kept before the
mind.

3. The sole object of this work is to
consider, firstly, whether man, like every
other species, is descended from some
pre-existing form ; secondly, the manner
of his development ; and thirdly, the
value of the differences between the so-
called races of man. As I shall confine
myself to these points, it will not be nec-
essary to describe in detail the differences
between the several races an enormous
subject which has been fully discussed in



BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.



many valuable works. The high antiquity
of man has recently been demonstrated
by the labors of a host of eminent men,
beginning with M. Boucher de Perthes ;
and this is the indispensable basis for
understanding his origin. I shall, there-
fore, take this conclusion for granted, and
may refer my readers to the admirable
treatises of Sir Charles Lyell, Sir John
Lubbock, and others. Nor shall I have
occasion to do more than to allude to the
amount of difference between man and
the anthropomorphous apes ; for Prof.
Huxley, in the opinion of most competent
judges, has conclusively shown that in
every visible character man differs less
from the higher apes, than these do from
the lower members of the same order of
Primates.

4. This work contains hardly any
original facts in regard to man ; but as
the conclusions at which I arrived, after
drawing up a rough draft, appeared to me
interesting, I thought that they might in-
terest others. It has often and confidently
been asserted, that man's origin can never
be known : but ignorance more frequently
begets confidence than does knowledge :
it is those who know little and not those
who know much, who so positively assert
that this or that problem will never be
solved by science. The conclusion that
man is the co-descendant with other spe-
cies of some ancient, lower, and extinct
form, is not in any degree new. Lamarck
long ago came to this conclusion, which
has lately been maintained by several
eminent naturalists and philosophers ; for
instance, by Wallace, Huxley, Lyell, Vogt,
Lubbock, Biichner, Rolle, etc., 1 and es-
pecially by Hackel. This last naturalist,
besides his great work ' Generelle Mor-



1 As the works of the first-named authors are so
well known, I need not give the titles ; but as
those of the latter are less well known in England,
I will give them : ' Sechs Vorlesungen liber die
Darwin'sche Theorie : ' zweite Auflage, 1868, von
Dr. L. Biichner; translated into French under
the title ' Conferences sur la Theorie Darwinienne,'
1869. ' Der Mensch, im Lichte der Darwin'schen
Lehre,' 1865, von Dr. F. Rolle. I will not attempt
to give references to all the authors who have
taken the same side of the question. Thus G.
Canestrini has published (' Annuario della Soc. d.
Nat.,' Modena, 1867. p. 81) a very curious paper on
rudimentary characters, as bearing on the origin of
man. Another work has (1869) been published by
Dr. Francesco Barrago, bearing in Italian the title
of '' Man, made in the image of God, was also
made in the image of the ape.



phologie ' (1866), has recently (1868, with
a second edit, in 1870), published his
' Natiirliche Schdpfungsgeschichte,' in
which he fully discusses the genealogy
of man. If this work had appeared be-
fore my essay had been written, I should
probably never have completed it. Al-
most all the conclusions at which I have
arrived I find confirmed by this naturalist,
whose knowledge on many points is much
fuller than mine. Wherever I have add-
ed any fact or view from Prof. Racket's
writings, I give his authority in the text ;
other statements I leave as they originally
stood in my manuscript, occasionally giv-
ing in the foot-notes references to his
works, as a confirmation of the more
doubtful or interesting points.

5. During many years it has seemed to
me highly probable that sexual selection
has played an important part in differen-
tiating the races of man ; but in my ' Ori-
gin of Species' (first edition, p. 199) I
contented myself by merely alluding to
this belief. When I came to apply this
view to man, I found it indispensable to
treat the whole subject in full detail. 2
Consequently the second part of the pres-
ent work, treating of sexual selection,
has extended to an inordinate length,
compared with the first part ; but this
could not be avoided.

6. I had intended adding to the pres-
ent volumes an essay on the expression
of the various emotions by man and lower
animals. My attention was called to this
subject many years ago by Sir Charles
Bell's admirable work. This illustrious
anatomist maintains that man is endowed
with certain muscles solely for the sake
of expressing his emotions. As this view
is obviously opposed to the belief that man
is descended from some other and lower
form, it was necessary for me to consider
it. I likewise wished to ascertain how
far the emotions are expressed in the
same manner by the different races of man.
But owing to the length of the present
work, I have thought it better to reserve
my essay for separate publication.



a Prof. Hackel was the only author who, at the
time when this work first appeared, had discussed
the subject of sexual selection, and had seen its
full importance, since the publication of the ' Ori-
gin ' ; and this he did in a very able manner in his
various works.



THE DESCENT OF MAN.

PART I.
THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN.



CHAPTER I.

THE EVIDENCE OF THE DESCENT OF
MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.

Nature of the evidence bearing on the origin of
man Homologous structures in man and the
lower animals Miscellaneous points of corre-
spondenceDevelopmentRudimentary struct-
ures, muscles, sense-organs, hair, bones, repro-
ductive organs, etc. The bearing of these three
great classes of facts on the origin of man.

7. HE who wishes to decide whether
man is the modified descendant of some
pre-existing form, would probably first
enquire whether man varies, however
slightly, in bodily structure and in mental
faculties ; and if so, whether the varia-
tions are transmitted to his offspring in
accordance with the laws which prevail
with the lower animals. Again, are the
variations the result, as far as our igno-
rance permits us to judge, of the same
general causes, and are they governed by
the same general laws, as in the case of
other organisms ; for instance, by correla-
tion, the inherited effects of use and disuse,
etc. ? Is man subject to similar malcon-
formations, the result of arrested develop-
ment, of reduplication of parts, etc., and
does he display in any of his anomalies
reversion to some former and ancient
type of structure ? It might also natur-
ally be enquired whether man, like so
many other animals, has given rise to
varieties and sub-races, differing but
-slightly from each other, or to races dif-
fering so much that they must be classed
as doubtful species ? How are such
races distributed over the world ; and
how, when crossed, do they react on each
other in the first and succeeding genera-
tions ? And so with many other points.

8. The enquirer would next come to
the important point whether man tends
to increase at so rapid a rate, as to lead
to occasional severe struggles for exist-
ence ; and consequently to beneficial va-
riations, whether in body or mind, be-
ing preserved, and injurious ones elimi-
nated. Do the races or species of men,
whichever term may be applied, encroach
on and replace one another, so that some
finally become extinct ? We shall see
that all these questions, as indeed is ob-



vious in respect to most of them, must be
answered in the affirmative, in the same
manner as with the lower animals. But
the several considerations just referred
to may be conveniently deferred for a
time : and we will first see how far the
bodily structure of man shows traces,
more or less plain, of his descent from
some lower form. In succeeding chapters
the mental powers of man, in compar-
ison with those of the lower animals, will
be considered.

9. The Bodily Structure of Man. It
is notorious that man is constructed on
the same general type or model as other
mammals. All the bones in his skeleton
can be compared with corresponding
bones in a monkey, bat, or seal. So it is
with his muscles, nerves, blood-vessels
and internal viscera. The brain, the
most important of all the organs, follows
the same law, as shown by Huxley and
other anatomists. Bischoff, 1 who is a
hostile witness, admits that every chief
fissure and fold in the brain of man has
its analogy in that of the orang ; but he
adds that at no period of development do
their brains perfectly agree ; nor could
perfect agreement be expected, for other-
wise their mental powers would have
been the same. Vulpian 2 remarks :
" Les differences reelles qui existent entre
1'encephale de l'homme et celui des
singes superieurs, sont bien minimes.
II ne faut pas se faire d 'illusions a
cet dgard. L'homme est bien plus pres
des singes anthropomorphes par les
caracteres arrtomiques de son cerveau
que ceux-ci ne le sont nonseulement
des autres mammiferes, mais meme
de certains quadrumanes, des gue-
nons et des macaques." But it would
be superfluous here to give further
details on the correspondence between
man and the higher mammals in the



1 ' Grosshirnwindungen des Menschen.' 1868,
s. 96. The conclusions of this author, as well as
those of Gratiolet and Aeby. concerning the brain,
will be discussed by Prof. Huxley in the Appen-
dix to Part I. of the present work.

- ' Lee. sur la Phys.' 1866, p. 890, as emoted bf
M. Dally, ' L'Ordre des Primates et le Transfer
in : sme,' 1868, p. 29.



BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.



structure of the brain and all other parts
of the body.

10. It may, however, be worth while
to specify a few points, not directly or
obviously connected with structure, by
which this correspondence or relationship
is well shown.

1 1. Man is liable to receive from the
lower animals, and to communicate to
them, certain diseases, as hydrophobia,
variola, the glanders, syphilis, cholera,
herpes, etc. ; 8 and this fact proves the
close similarity 4 of their tissues and blood,
both in minute structure and composi-
tion, far more plainly than does their
comparison under the best microscope,
or by the aid of the best chemical analy-
sis. Monkeys are liable to many of the
same non-contagious diseases as we are ;
thus Rengger, 5 who carefully observed
for a long time the Cebus Azarce in its
native land, found it liable to catarrh,
with the usual symptoms, and which,
when often recurrent, led to consumption.
These monkeys suffered also from apo-
plexy, inflammation of the bowels, and
cataract in the eye. The younger ones
when shedding their milk-teeth often
died from fever. Medicines produced
the same effect on them as on us. Many
kinds of monkeys have a strong taste for
tea, coffee, and spirituous liquors : they
will also, as I have myself seen, smoke
tobacco with pleasure. 6 Brehm asserts
that the natives of north-eastern Africa
catch the wild baboons by exposing ves-
sels with strong beer, by which they are
made drunk. He has seen some of these
animals, which he kept in confinement,
in this state ; and he gives a laughable
account of their behavior and strange
grimaces. On the following morning
they were very cross and dismal ; they
held their aching heads with both hands,
and wore a most pitiable expression



when beer or wine was offered them,
hey turned away with disgust, but
elished the juice of lemons. 7 An
American monkey, an Ateles, after get-
ing drunk on brandy, would never touch
t again, and thus was wiser than many
men. These trifling facts prove how
similar the nerves of taste must be in
monkeys and man, and how similarly
.heir whole nervous system is affected.

12. Man is infested with internal para-
sites, sometimes causing fatal effects ; and

s plagued by external parasites, all of
which belong to the same genera or
'amilies as those infesting other mammals,
and in the case of scabies to the same
pecies. 8 Man is subject, like other
mammals, birds, and even insects, 9 to that
mysterious law, which causes certain
normal processes, such as gestation, as
well as the maturation and duration of
various diseases, to follow lunar periods.
His wounds are repaired by the same
process of healing ; and the stumps left
after the amputation of his limbs, espe-
cially during an early embryonic period,
occasionally possess some power of regen-
eration, as in the lowest animals. 10

13. The whole process of that most im-
portant function, the reproduction of the
species, is strikingly the same in all mam-
mals, from the first act of courtship by
the male, 11 to the birth and nurturing of
the young. Monkeys are born in almost
as helpless a condition as our own infants ;
and in certain genera the young differ
fully as much in appearance from the
adults, as do our children from their full-



1 Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay has treated this subjec
at soiue length in the ' Journal of Mental Science,
July, 1871 ; and in the ' Edinburgh Veterinary Re-
view,' July, 1858.

4 A Reviewer has criticised (' British Quarterly
Review,' Oct. i, 1871, p. 472) what I have hen
said with much severity and contempt ; but as '.
do not use the term identity, I cannot see that I
am greatly in error. There appears to me a strong
analogy between the same infection or contagion
producing the same result, or one closely similar
in two distinct animals, and the testing of two dis
tinct fluids by the same chemical reagent.

' Naturgeschichte der SSugethiere von Para
jruay,' 1830, s. 50.

1 The same tastes are common to some animal
much lower in the scale. Mr. A. Nicols inform
me that he kept in Queensland, in Australia, thre
individuals of the Phascolarctus cinereus ; ant
that, without having been taught in any way
they acquired a strong taste for rum, and fo
smoking tobacco.



> Brehm, ' Thierleben,' B. i. 1864, s. 75, 86.
On the Ateles, s. 105. For other analogous state-
ments, see s. 25, 107.

8 Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay, ' Edinburgh Vet. Re-
view,' July, 1858, p. 13.

With respect to insects see Dr. Laycock, " On
a General Law of Vital Periodicity," ' British As-
sociation,' 1842. Dr. Macculloch, ' Silliman's North
American Journal of Science,' vol. xvii. p. 305, has
seen a dog suffering from tertian ague. Hereafter
I shall return to this subject.

10 I have given the evidence on his head in my
'Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestica-
tion,' vol. ii. p. 15, and more could be added.

11 Mares e diversis generibus Quadrumanqrum
sine dubio dignoscunt feminas humanas a maribus.
Primum, credo, odoratu, postea aspectu. Mr. You-
att. quidiuin Hortis Zoologicis (Bestiariis medicus
animalium erat, vir in rebus observandis cautus et
sagax, hoc mihi certissime probavit, et curatores
ejusdem loci et alii e ministris confirmaverunt.
Sir Andrew Smith et Brehm notabant idem in
Cynocephalo. Illustnssimus Cuvier etiam narrat
multa de hac re, qua ut opinor, nihil turpius po-
test indicari inter omnia hominibus et Quadru-
manis communia. Narrat enim Cynocephalum
quendam in furorem incidere aspectu femmarum
aliquarum. sed nequaquam accendi tanto furore ab
omnibus. Semper eligebat juniores, et dignoscebat
in turbi, et advocabat voce gestuque.



THE DESCENT OF MAN.



grown parents. 12 It has been urged by
some writers, as an important distinction,
that with man the young arrive at ma-
turity at a much later age than with any
other animal : but if we look to the races
of mankind which inhabit tropical coun-
tries the difference is not great, for the
oranof is believed not to be adult till the
age of from ten to fifteen years. 13 Man
differs from woman in size, bodily
strength, hairiness, etc., as well as in
mind, in the same manner as do the two
sexes of many mammals. So that the
correspondence in general structure, in
the minute structure of the tissues, in
chemical composition and in constitution
between man and the higher animals,
especially the anthropomorphous apes, is
extremely close.

14. Embryonic Development. Man is
developed from an ovule, about the I25th
of an inch in diameter, which differs in no
respect from the ovules of other animals.
The embryo itself at a very early period
can hardly be distinguished from that of
other members of the vertebrate kingdom.
At this period the arteries run in arch-
like branches, as if to carry the blood to
branchiae which are not present in the
higher vertebrata, though the slits on the
sides of the neck still remain (/, g, fig. i),
marking their former position. At a
somewhat later period, when the extremi-
ties are developed, " the feet of lizards
and mammals," as the illustrious Von
Baer remarks, " the wings and feet of
birds no less than the hands and feet of
man, all arise from the same funda-
mental form." It is, says Prof. Huxley, 1 *
" quite in the later stages of development
that the young human being presents
marked differences from the young ape,
while the latter departs as much from the
dog in its developments, as the man does.
Startling as this last assertion may ap-
pear to be, it is demonstrably true."

15. As some of my readers may never
have seen. a drawing of an embryo, I have
given one of man and another of a dog,
at about the same early stage of develop-
ment, carefully copied from two works of
undoubted accuracy. 15

13 This remark is made with respect to Cynoceph-
alus and the anthropomorphous apes by Geoffroy
Saint-Hilaire and F. Cuvier, 'Hist. Nat. des
Mammiferes,' torn. i. 1824.

13 Huxley, ' Man's Place in Nature,' HUMB. LI-
BRARY, Xo. 4, p. 206.

14 ' Man's Place in Nature,' HUMBOLDT-LIB., No. 4,

P. 217.

18 The human embryo (upper fig.) is from Ecker,
' Icones Phys.,' 1851-1859, tab. xxx. fig. 2. This
embryo was ten lines in length, so that the drawing



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