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THOMAS II. HUXLEY



LIBRARY tf UNIVERSAL HISTORY



AND

POPULAR SCIENCE

CONTAINING

A RECORD OF THE HUMAN RACE FROM THE

EARLIEST HISTORICAL PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME;

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INTRODUCTION BY
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HISTORIAN

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versity

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Ph.D.

Professor of History, University 01 Virginia



NEW YORK AND CHICAGO

THE BANCROFT SOCIETY
1910



Copyright, 1900, by
WILLIAM S. Bit VAN



Library of Universal History
and Popular Science



Containing a record of the human race from the earliest his-
torical period to the present time. Embracing a general
survey of the progress of mankind in national and social life,
civil government, religion, literature science and art. : : :



Complete in TWENTY-FIVE MASSIVE VOLUMES



editors in chief

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WILLIAM S. BRYAN, Author of "Footprints of the World's History," "Americas War for Humanity,"

"Our Islands and Their People."

ISRAEL SMITH CLARE, Author of " Illustrated Universal History." Com-
plete Historical Compendium," "Unrivaled History of the Wci'.d, " Kisiory of the British-Boer War,"
and Other Works; Also Author of the Series of Forty Historical Maps; Member of the Amer. His. Asso.

ADVISORY BOARD

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JAMES H. BALDWIN, M. A., Ph. D., Hon. D. Sc. (Oxford), LL. D. (Glasgow). Professor Phi-
losophy and Psychology, John Hopkins University.
MARSHAL S. BROWN, A. M., Professor History and Political Science, New York University.

GEORGE EMERY FELLOWS, Ph. D. LL. D., President University of Maine.
KEMP PLUMBER BATTLE, A. M. LL. D., Professor of History, University of North Carolina.

AMBROSE P. WINSTON, Ph. D., Assistant Professor Economics, Washington, University.
WILLIAM R. PERKINS, Professor History, University of Iowa.

REV. GEO. M. GRANT, D. D., Late Principal of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
MOSES COIT TYLER, A. M., Ph. D., Late Professor of American History, Cornell University.

ELISHA BENJAMIN ANDREWS, LL. D., D. D., Chancellor, University of Nebraska.
WILLIAM TORREY HARRIS, Ph. D., LL. D., Formerly United States Commissiner of Education.

JOHN HANSON THOMAS McPHERSON, Ph. D., Professor of History, University of Georgia.
RICHARD HEATH DABNEY, A. M., Ph. D., Professor of History, University of Virginia.



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THE ORIGIN
OF THE ARYANS.



AN ACCOUNT OF THE PREHISTORIC ETHNOLOGY AND
CIVILIZATION OF EUROPE.

BY

ISAAC TAYLOR,

M.A., Litt. D., Hon. LL.D.
ILLUSTRA TED.




New York:

The Humboldt Library Association



CONTENTS



CHAPTER i.



The Aryan Controversy



c»G1
I



CHAPTER II

The Prehistoric Races of Europe —
i. The Neolithic Age
ii. The Methods of Anthropology
in. The Races of Britain
iv. The Celts
v. The Iberians
vi. The Scandinavians
vii. The Ligurians



32

37

39

47
54
60

64



CHAPTER III

The Neolithic Culture —

1. The Continuity of Development
11. Metals
in. Weapons .
iv. Cattle
v. Husbandry
vi. Food
vii. Dress
viii. Habitations
ix. The Boat .
x. The Ox-Wagon
xi. Trades
xii. Social Life
xm. Relative Progress



73
78

87
88

95

97

99
101

103

104

i°5
106

IIO



CHAPTER IV.
The Aryan Race —

1. The Permanence of Race
11. The Mutability of Language



114

118



Iv



CONTENTS.



m. The Finnic Hypothesis
iv. The Basques
t. The Northern Races



136
131



CHAPTER

The Evolution of Aryan Speech —

I. The Aryan Languages .

II. Dialect and Language

in. The Lost Aryan Languages

iv. The Wave Theory

v. Language and Race

vi. The Genesis of Aryan Speech



M5

154

155
158

163



CHAPTER VI.



The Aryan Mythology
INDEX



172
*93



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.*



i. Diagram of Aryan Migrations

2. Diagram of Cephalic and Orbital Indexes

3. Long Barrow Skull from Rudstone

4. Round Barrow Skull from Cowlam

5. Side View of Skull from Rudstone

6. Side View of Skull from Cowlam .

7. Long Barrow Skull from Sherburn

8. Round Barrow Skull from Flixton

9. Skull from a Cave at Sclaigneaux

10. Skull from a Tumulus at Borreby

11. Skulls from Ilderton and Borreby

12. Helvetian Skull ....

13. Roman Skull

14. Skull from Gibraltar

15. Skull of a Man from Hissarlik, Bronze Age

16. Skulls from Hissarlik and Gibraltar

17. Skull of St. Mansuy

18. Skull of an Auvergnat .

19. Skull from Hissarlik, Stone Age .

20. Skull from the Trou-de-Frontal .

21. Rh^etian Skull

22. Iberian and Silurian Skulls .

23. Copper Celt, from Swiss Lake Dwelling

24. Horses, Engraved on Reindeer Antler

25. Horseman, from Cyprus .

26. Hut Urn from Alba Longa

27. Ox-Cart from a Thracian Coin

28. Skull of a Spanish Basque

29. Map .......

30. Diagram of Aryan Languages



»AGB

39
42

42

42

42

44
44
48
48

49
5 1
52

57

58

63

65
67

68

7i

72

82
92

94

102

104
128
146

"55



•The numbers refer to the figures at the bottom of the pages.



PREFACE.



Thf. last ten years have seen a revolution in the opinion of scholars
as to the region in which the Aryan race originated, and theories
which not long ago were universally accepted as the well-established
conclusions of science now hardly find a defender.

In Germany several works have been devoted exclusively to the
subject, but no English book has yet appeared giving an account of
the state of the controversy, and embodying the results recently
arrived at by philologists, archaeologists, and anthropologists.

The present volume does not aim at setting forth new views or
speculations. It is rather a summary of tne labors of many scholars,
and a critical digest of the very considerable literature which has now
accumulated on the subject. Its object is to present in condensed
form a statement of ascertained facts, and of the arguments which
have been based upon them. On the works of four scholars, Cuno,
Posche, Pe,;ka, and Schrader,* who deal specially with the subject of
this book, I have freely drawn, often without specific acknowledg-
ment. I am more especially indebted to Dr. Schrader's admirable
work, which forms an almost exhaustive treasury of facts and argu-
ments set forth in a critical and impartial spirit. To this work, an
English translation of which is announced for speedy publication,
the student who desires to follow out the subject may be confidently
referred.

Of the anthropologists I have relied chiefly on Virchow, the greatest
of the Germans, and on Broca, the greatest of the Frenchmen ; but
without neglecting other writers, such as Rolleston, Huxley, Thurnam,
Davis, Greenwell, De Quatrefages, Hamy, and Topinard.

For archaeological details constant reference has been made to

*Johann (iustav Cuno, Forschungen im Gebiete der alien Volkerkunde; Theodor
Karl Penka, and Die Herkunft der Arier; O.



viii PREFACE.

Helbig's little-known but admirable book on the prehistoric civiliza-
tion of Italy, as well as to the works of Keller, De Mortillet, and
Boyd Dawkins.

I have obtruded my own opinions as little as possible. On the
main thesis of the book they are essentially those of Spiegel and
Schrader, though in several points I find myself rather in agreement
with Cuno, whose ingenious work seems to be almost unknown in
this country, if one may judge from the fact that I have seen it
quoted in no English book, and found that it was unknown even in
the British Museum.

I believe the speculation as to the relations of the Basques and
Iberians is new. I have also worked out a pregnant suggestion of
Dr. Thurnam's — the identification of the primitive Aryans with the
"Turanian" race of the British round barrows — an hypothesis which
seems to afford the most probable solution of the probiem of the
origin of the Aryans ; and this I have combined with the philological
arguments of Anderson, Weske, and Cuno, the only scholars who have
effectively investigated the linguistic affinities of primitive Aryan
speech.

In the chapter on Mythology, I have attempted to work out, to

its legitimate conclusion, a line of argument suggested in the Hibbert

Lectures of Professor Rhys.

IT.
Settrington,

December ■, 1889.



THE ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS



CHAPTER I.

THE ARYAN CONTROVERSY.

WHEN towards the close of the last century Sanskrit and Zend
became known to European scholars, the new science of
Comparative Philology came into existence. The first stone of the
edifice was laid in 1786, when Sir William Jones made the mem-
orable declaration that the similarities between Sanskrit, Greek,
Latin, German, and Celtic could only be explained on the hypothesis
that these languages had a common parentage. Hegel hardly exag-
gerated the consequences of this discovery when he called it the dis-
covery of a new world.

Fifty years elapsed before Bopp succeeded in establishing, as a
settled conclusion of science, what had hitherto been little more than
a probable hypothesis. His Comparative Grammar, published in
1833-35, has been superseded in its details by other works, and it has
now only an historical interest. But to Bopp belongs the honor of
having discovered the method of the comparison of grammatical
forms, which at once placed Comparative Philology on a scientific
footing. In this and subsequent works Bopp showed that Zend and
Slavonic, as well as Albanian and Armenian, must be included in
what he called the Indo-Germanic family of speech.

The great linguistic family, whose existence was thus established,
embraces seven European groups of languages — the Hellenic, Italic,
Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonic, Lithuanic or Lettic, and Albanian ; in fact,
all the existing languages of Europe except Basque, Finnic, Magyar,
and Turkish. There are also three closely related Asiatic groups :
the Indie, containing fourteen modern Indian languages derived from
Sanskrit ; secondly, the Iranic group, comprising Zend, Persian, Pushtu
or Afghan, Baluchi, Kurdish, and Ossetic ; and, thirdly, the Armenian,
which is intermediate between Greek and Iranian.

No name, altogether unobjectionable, has been devised for this
family of speech. Japhetic, modeled after the pattern of Semitic and



io BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

Hamitic, involves the assumption of a descent from Japhet. Cauca-
sian is both too narrow and too broad, and, if used at all, is applicable
to race rather than to language. Sanskritic gives undue prominence
to one member of the group. Indo-Germanic and Indo-European are
not only clumsy, but inaccurate. The first, adopted by Bopp, is a
favorite term in Germany ; but French and Italian scholars see no
reason why German should be taken as the type of European speech.
Indo-European, which they prefer, is too narrow, since it excludes
Iranian and Armenian, and too broad, since the languages in question
are spoken only in a part of India and a part of Europe.

Aryan, a term invented by Professor Max Miiller, is almost as ob-
jectionable as Sanskritic, since it properly designates only the Indo-
Iranian languages, in which sense it is used by many continental
scholars. Moreover, it tacitly implies or suggests that the ancient
Ariana, the district round Herat, was the cradle of the Aryan lan-
guages, and thus begs the whole question of their European or Asiatic
origin. However, since the term has the great merit of being short
and compact, and since it is almost universally adopted by English
writers, and is increasingly used in France and Germany, it will, in
spite of its manifold demerits, be employed in the ensuing pages.

We have already seen that Comparative Philology, as a science,
dates from the publication of Bopp's Comparative Grammar in 1835.
But this great achievement was not without its Nemesis. When Bopp
had demonstrated that the greater number of the languages of Europe
and some languages of Asia must be referred to a common ancestral
speech, there was a tendency to assume, as a matter of course, that
the speakers of these languages were also themselves descended from
common ancestors. From a primitive unity of speech scholars hastily
inferred a primitive unity of race.

Professor Max Miiller, owing to the charm of his style, to his unri-
valed power of popular exposition, and to his high authority as a
Sanskrit scholar, has done more than any other writer to popularize
this erroneous notion among ourselves. Thus, in his Lectures on the
Science of Language, delivered in 1861, instead of speaking only of a
primitive Aryan language, he speaks of an "Aryan race," an "Aryan
family," and asserts that there was a time "when the first ancestors
of the Indians, the Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, the Slaves, the
Celts, and the Germans were living together within the same incis-
ures, nay, under the same roof," and he argues that, because the same
forms of speech are " preserved by all the members of the Aryan
family, it follows that before the ancestors of the Indians and Per-
sians started for the South, and the leaders of the Greek, Roman,
Celtic, Teutonic, and Slavonic colonies marched towards the shores of
Europe, there was a small clan of Aryans, settled probably on the
highest elevation of Central Asia, speaking a language not yet



THE ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. n

Sanskrit, or Greek or German, but containing the dialectical germs
of all."*

Than this picturesque paragraph more mischievous words have sel-
dom been uttered by a great scholar. Professor Max Midler's high
reputation has been the means of impressing these crude assumptions,
which he would now doubtless repudiate, upon his numerous disciples.f
In England, at all events, such misconceptions are still widely preva-
lent, and our popular writers persistently ignore the labors of those
French and German scholars who, during the last quarter of a cen-
tury, have been offering more scientific explanations of the great fact
of the fundamental unity of the Aryan languages. They have shown
conclusively that the assumption of the common ancestry of the
speakers of Aryan languages is a mere figment, wholly contrary to
the evidence, and as improbable as the hypothesis that a small Aryan
clan in Central Asia could have sent out great colonies which marched
four thousand miles to the shores of Europe.

It cannot be insisted upon too strongly that identity of speech does
not imply identity of race, any more than diversity of speech implies
diversity of race. The language of Cornwall is the same as the lan-
guage of Essex, but the blood is Celtic in the one case and Teutonic
in the other. The language of Cornwall is different from that of
Brittany, but the blood is largely the same. Two related languages,
such as French and Italian, point to an earlier language from which
both have descended; but it by no means follows that French and
Italians, who speak those languages, have descended from common
ancestors. The most inexperienced eye can distinguish between a
Spaniard and a Swede, and yet both speak Aryan tongues, and even
in Northern and Southern Germany there is a manifest difference of
race, though the language is the same.

The old assumption of the philologists, that the relationship of lan-
guage implies a relationship of race, has been decisively disproved
and rejected by the anthropologists. The ultimate unity of the
human race may be admitted, but Professor Max Midler has main-
tained a nearer kinship of all speakers of Aryan languages. He has
asserted that the same blood runs in the veins of English soldiers " as
in the veins of the dark Bengalese," and has had the courage to
affirm that " there is not an English jury nowadays which, after ex-
amining the hoary documents of language, would reject the claim of
a common descent and a legitimate relationship between Hindu,

* Max Mttller, Lectures, ist Series, pp. 211, 212.

f These opinions are still held by writers of repute. Thus, in 1884, Canon Cook
affirmed that "it is a fact, scientifically demonstrated, that the ancestors of all the
families belonging to this (the Aryan) race must have dwelt together as one com-
munity after their separation from the Semitic and Hamitic branches." — Cook, Ori-
gins of Religion and Language, p. 312.

3



12 BEACON LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

Greek and Teuton."* Coming from such a source, this statement
cannot be passed over as it might be if it came from a less eminent
authority. It will be admitted that the language spoken by the negro
in Alabama resembles the language spoken by the New Englander of
Massachusetts far more nearly than the language spoken by the
English soldier resembles that of the Bengal sepoy with whom he is
brigaded, and the evidence derived from the documents of language
— in this case not hoary — which might be put before an English jury
as to a " common descent," and a " legitimate relationship " between
the negro and the Yankee, would be far more intelligible to the
twelve English tradesmen in the box than the more obscure evidence
which applies to the case of the Teuton and the Hindu. Such rash
assertions are calculated to discredit, and have discredited, the whole
science of Comparative Philology, and those who have given them
the authority attached to influential names must be charged with
having retarded for twenty years in England the progress of the
science of Comparative Ethnology.f

To the French anthropologists, and more especially to Broca, be-
longs the credit of raising a needful protest against the overweening
claims of the philologists. He observes that " races have frequently
within the historic period changed their language without having
apparently changed the race or the type. The Belgians, for instance,
speak a neo-Latin language; but of all the races who have mingled
their blood with that of the .autochthones of Belgium it would be
difficult to find one which has left less trace than the people of Rome."
Hence, he continues, " the ethnological value of comparative philol-
ogy is extremely small. Indeed, it is apt to be misleading rather than
otherwise. But philological facts and deductions are more striking
than minute measurements of skulls, and therefore the conclusions of
philologists have received undue attention." J

These warning words are still neglected, the speakers of Aryan
languages are assumed to constitute an Aryan race, and the question
is debated, where did this Aryan race originate ?

It is now contended that there is no such thing as an Aryan race in
the same sense that there is an Aryan language, and the question of
late so frequently discussed as to the origin of the Aryans can only
mean, if it means anything, a discussion of the ethnic affinities of
those numerous races which have acquired Aryan speech; with the
further question, which is perhaps insoluble — among which of these

* Max Muller, Survey of Languages, p. 29.

f Thus in a recent work Professor Rawlinson quotes the foregoing appeal to the
English jury, "from the greatest of modern ethnologists," as the "result of advanced
modern inductive science," which has "proved beyond all reasonable doubt" the
common origin of the nations which speak Aryan languages. — Rawlinson, Origin of
Nations. (No. 25 Humboldt Library?)

\ Broca, La Linguistiaue et V Anthropologic, p. 259,

\



THE ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. 13

races did Aryan speech arise, and where was the cradle of that
race?

To the same effect, Topinard, a distinguished follower of Broca,
remarks that it has been proved that the anthropological types in
Europe have been continuous, and if the Aryans came from Asia they
can have brought with them nothing but their language, their civiliz-
ation, and a knowledge of metals. Their blood has disappeared. In
France, he continues, we are Aryans only by speech. By race we are
mainly Cymry in the north, and Celts in the central region.*

Thirty years ago this question as to the cradle of the Aryan race
was deemed a reasonable question to ask, and a possible one to answer.
It was even believed that it had received a final and definite solution.
European scholars, with hardly an exception, were agreed that the
cradle of what they were pleased to call the Aryan race must be
sought in Central Asia on the upper waters of the Oxus.

There is hardly a more instructive chapter in the whole history of
scientific opinion than that which deals with the arguments on which
this conclusion was based, and with the counter arguments which
have led, during the last few years, to its general abandonment.

At the beginning of the present century, and even so recently as
thirty years ago, the chronology of Achbishop Usher was accepted
without question, the origin of the human race being assigned to the
year 4004 b. c. It was believed that the primeval language spoken
by our first parents was Hebrew, f and that the origin of the languages
of Europe must be referred to the family of Japhet, who set forth
from the plains of Shinar in the year 2247 b. c.

This theory, based on the belief that the human race originated in
Asia at a comparatively recent period, and that the diversity of hu-
man speech dates from the confusion of tongues at Babel, was univer-
sally accepted. It was maintained, for instance, by Vans KennedyJ
in 1828, by Dr. Kitto || in 1847, and by Canon Cook§ as late as 1884,
as well as by a host of less influential writers.

In a somewhat modified form this opinion is still held. Mommsen,
in 1874, adhered to the valley of the Euphrates as the primitive seat
of the Indo-Germanic race,^[ and the same theory was advocated in
1888 by Dr. Hale, in a paper read before the Anthropological Sec-
tion of the American Association for the advancement of Science.**

Adelung, the father of Comparative Philology, who died in 1806,

* Topinard, L' Anthropologic, p. 444. f Gill, Antiquity 0/ Hebrew, p. 44.

X Kennedy, Researches into the Origin and Affinity of the principal Languages of
Europe and Asia.

|| In Knight's Pictorial Bible, vol. i. p. 38.
§ Cook, Origins of Religion and Language, p. 314.
*[ Mommsen, Romische Gcschichte, vol. i. p. 30.
** Popular Science Monthly, vol. xxxiv. p. 674, March 1889.

5



14 A LIGHTS OF SCIENCE.

placed the cradle of mankind in the valley of Cashmere, which h<!
identified with Paradise. To Adelung we owe the opinion, which has
prevailed so widely, that since the human race originated in the East,
the most westerly nations, the Iberians and the Celts, must have
been the first to leave the parent hive.

As soon as the archaic character of Zend, and its close relation to
Sanskrit, had been recognized, it was seen that the Cashmere hypo-
thesis of Adelung was untenable, a, d that the Indians and Iranians
must at one time have occupied in common some northern region,
from which the Indians penetrated into the Punjab. The hypothesis,



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