Isreal Smith Clare.

Library of Universal history and popular science ... (Volume 3) online

. (page 1 of 49)
Online LibraryIsreal Smith ClareLibrary of Universal history and popular science ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 49)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


u



LIBRARY of UNIVERSAL HISTORY

AND

POPULAR SCIENCE

CONTAINING

A RECORD OF THE HUMAN RACE FROM THE

EARLIEST HISTORICAL PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME;

EMBRACING A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE PROGRESS OF MANKIND

IN NATIONAL AND SOCIAL LIFE, CIVIL GOVERNMENT,

RELIGION, LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART

Complete in Twenty -five Volumes

THE TEXT SUPPLEMENTED AND EMBELLISHED BY MORE THAN SEVEN HUNDRED
PORTRAITS AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. MAPS AND CHARTS

INTRODUCTION BY
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT

HISTORIAN

GEORGE EDWIN RINES

MANAGING EDITOR

Reviewed and Endorsed by Fifteen Professors in History and Educators in
American Universities, amuny whom are the following :



GEORGE EMORY FELLOWS, Ph.D.,
LL.D.

President, University of Maine

KEMP PLUMMER BATTLE, A.M.,
LL.D.

Professor of History, University of North Carolina

AMBROSE P. WINSTON, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Economics, Washington Uni-
versity

WILLIAM R. PERKINS

Professor of History, University of Iowa

REV. GEO. M. GRANT, D.D.

Late Principal of Queen's University, Kingston,
Ontario, Canada



MOSES COIT TYLER, A.M., Ph.D.

Late Professor of American History, Cornell Uni-
versity

ELISHA BENJAMIN ANDREWS, LL.D.,
D.D.

Chancellor, University of Nebraska

WILLIAM TORREY HARRIS, Ph.D.,
LL.D.

Formerly United States Commissioner of Education

JOHN HANSON THOMAS McPHER-
SON, Ph.D.

Professor of History, University of Georgia

RICHARD HEATH DABNEY. A.M.,
Ph.D.

Professor of History, University 01 Virginia



NEW YORK AND CHICAGO

THE BANCROFT SOCIETY

1910



COPYRIGHT, 1908, BY
GEORGE EDWIN R1NES.



CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.



ANCIENT HISTORY. -CONTINUED.



CHAPTER X. RISE OF GREECE.

SECTION I. Geography of Ancient Greece 703

SECTION II. Primeval Greece and the Heroic Age 712

SECTION III. Grecian Mythology and Religion 723

SECTION IV. Grecian States, Islands and Colonies 749

SECTION V. Sparta under the Laws of Lycurgus 768

SECTION VI. Athens under the Laws of Draco and Solon . 781

SECTION VII. Early Greek Poetry and Philosophy 793

CHAPTER XL GREECE IN HER GLORY.

SECTION I. The Persian War (B. C. 499-449) 809

SECTION II. Supremacy of Athens and Age of Pericles 833

SECTION III. The Peloponnesian War (B. C. 431-404) 857

SECTION IV. Supremacies of Sparta and Thebes 886

SECTION V. Literature, Philosophy and Art 927

SECTION VI. General View of Greek Civilization 945

CHAPTER XII. GR^CO-MACEDONIAN EMPIRE.

SECTION I. Rise of Macedon under Philip 957

SECTION II. Conquests of Alexander the Great 982

SECTION III. Dissolution of Alexander's Empire 1004

SECTION IV. Oratory, Philosophy and Art 1010

CHAPTER XIIL THE GR^ECO-ORIENTAL KINGDOMS.

SECTION I. Macedon and Greece 1019

SECTION II. Syrian Empire of the Seleucidae 1028

701



CONTENTS.



SECTION III. Egypt under the Ptolemies 1037

SECTION IV. Thrace and the Smaller Greek Kingdoms of Asia 1048

SECTION V. Parthian Empire of the Arsacidse 1062

SECTION VI. The Jews under the Maccabees and the Herods 1074

SECTION VII. Edom, or Idumaea 1089



SECTION VIII. Later Greek Science and Literature.



1097



MAP OF

ANCIENT GREECE




CHAPTER X.
RISE OF GREECE.



SECTION I. GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE.

HELLAS, or Greece proper, is a peninsula in the South of Europe, Hellas, or



and is about two hundred and fifty English miles long, and about one
hundred and eighty miles wide. It has been estimated to contain about
thirty-five thousand square miles. It is bounded on the north by Olym-
pus, the Cambunian mountains, and an imaginary line extending west-
ward from the Acroceraunian promontory ; on the east by the ./Egean
Sea ; on the south by the Mediterranean ; and on the west by the Ionian
Sea.

The Hellenic peninsula has a number of mountains and a very irreg-
ular and extensive coast-line. Many deep bays strongly indent the
shores, and long narrow promontories extend far into the sea on every
side ; and this is the reason for the territorial area of Greece being less
than that of any other country of Southern Europe. There are many
excellent harbors. The sea is not dangerous in its vicinity. There
are many littoral islands of exceeding beauty and fertility off the coast.
The structure of the coast-line has been favorable to maritime pursuits
and to navigation, as communication between most portions of the
country is easier by sea than by land, the greater mountains which in-
tersect the peninsula in every direction being mainly lofty and rugged,
and thus traversable only by a few passes, which are frequently blocked
by snow during the winter.

The mountain-system of Greece may be considered a branch of the
European chain of the Alps. At a point a little to the west of the
twenty-first meridian of longitude east from Greenwich, the Albanian
Alps give out a spur, which, under the names of Scardus, Pindus, Corax,
Taphiassus, Panachaicus Lampea, Pholoe, Parrhasius and Taygetus,
runs in a direction a little east of south from the forty-second parallel
of north latitude to the promontory of Taenarum. A series of lateral
branches project from this great chain on both sides, having a general
direction from east to west, and from these project other cross ranges,

703



Greece
Proper.



Physical
Features.



Moan-
tains.



704 RI SE OF GREECE.

following the direction of the main chain, or backbone of the region,
pointing almost south-east. The chains running east and west are par-
ticularly prominent in the eastern part of the country, between the
Pindus and the ^Egean. There project in succession the Cambunian
and Olympic range, forming the northern boundary of Greece proper ;
the range of Othrys, separating Thessaly from Malis and JEniania;
the range of CEta, dividing between Malis and Doris; and the range
of Parnassus, Helicon, Cithseron and Parnes, starting from Delphi and
ending in the Rhamnusian promontory, opposite Euboea, forming in
the eastern part a great barrier between Boeotia and Attica. On the
opposite side were others of the same character, such as Mount Lingus,
in the North of Epirus, which extended westward from the Pindus at a
point almost opposite the Cambunians; and Mount Tymphrestus in
Northern, and Mount Bomius in Central ^Etolia. The principal chain
in the Peloponnesus extended from Rhium to Taenarum, sending off on
the west Mount Scollis, which separated Achsea from Elis, and Mount
Elseon, which divided Elis from Messenia ; while on the east its branches
were one named Erymanthus, Aroania and Cyllene, dividing Achsea
from Arcadia, and extending eastward to the Scyllaean promontory in
Argolis ; and another known as Mount Parthenium, separating Argolis
from Laconia. The smaller important chains running north and south
were Mount Pelion and Mount Ossa, which closed in Thessaly on the
east ; the range of Pentelicus, Hymettus and Anhydrus, in Attica ; and
Mount Parnon, in the Peloponnesus, extending from near Tcgea to
Malea.

Plains. The mountain-chains of Greece take up so much of the country that
there are few plains, and these are very small. Yet there are some
plains which were highly fertile. Most of Thessaly was an extensive
plain, surrounded by mountains, and drained by the river Peneus.
There were two large plains in Bffiotia the marshy plain of the
Cephissus, of which much was occupied by Lake Copais ; and the plain
of Asopus, on the edge of which were the cities of Thebes, Thespiae
and Platsea. There were three chief plains in Attica the plain of
Eleusis, the plain of Athens, and the plain of Marathon. In the West
and South of the Peloponnesus were the lowlands of Cava Elis on each
side of the river Peneus, of Macaria, about the mouth of the river
Pamisus, and of Helos at the mouth of the Eurotas. In the central
region of the Peloponnesus were the elevated upland plains, or basins,
of Tegea, Mantinea, Pheneus and Orchomenus. In the Eastern Pelo-
ponnesus was the fertile alluvial plain of Argos, drained by the Chi-
marrhus, the Erasinus, the Phrixus, the Charadrus and the Inachus.

Rivera. Greece had many small rivers, most of them being mainly winter tor-
rents, carrying little or no water during the summer. The only con-



GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE.

siderable streams were the Acheloiis, which rose in Epirus, separating
^Etolia from Acarnania ; the northern Peneus, which drained the great
plain of Thessaly; and the Alpheus, on the banks of which was
Olympia. The principal secondary streams were Thyamis, Oropus
and Arachthus, in Epirus ; the Evenus and the Daphnus, in ^Etolia ;
the Spercheius, in Malis ; the Cephissus and the Asopus, in Boeotia ; the
southern Peneus, the Pamisus, the Eurotas and the Inachus, in the
Peloponnesus, the peninsula now called Morea. Many of the rivers of
Greece disappear in subterraneous passages. The limestone rocks are
full of caves and fissures, while many of the plains consist of land-
locked basins which seem to have no outlet. Here the streams generally
form lakes, of which the waters flow off to the sea through an under-
ground channel, some of them visible, others only supposed to exist.
The Cephissus finds such an outlet from Lake Copai's in Boeotia, and
most of the lakes of the Peloponnesus have such outlets. Lakes Hylice
and Trephia, in Bosotia, are believed to have similar outlets.

Greece has many small lakes. The largest is Lake Copai's, in Lakes.
Bosotia, which is estimated to have an area of forty-one square miles.
The next in size is probably Boebei's, in Thessaly, formed chiefly by the
overflowings of the river Peneus. On the southern shore of Lake Pam-
botis, in Epirus, was the oracular shrine of Dodona. Lakes Trichonis
and Conope were in JEtolia, between the Evenus and Acheloiis. Lake
Nessonis was near Lake Boebei's, in Thessaly. Lake Xynias was in
Achjea Phthiotis. Lakes Hylice and Trephia were in Boeotia. Lakes
Pheneus, Stymphalus, Orchomenus, Mantinea and Tegea, in Arcadia.

Greece is naturally divided into Northern, Central and Southern Divisions.
Greece. Northern Greece extends from the northern limits of the pe-
ninsula to the points where the Gulf of Malis indents the eastern shores,
and the Gulf of Ambracia, or Actium, the western shores. Central
Greece extends from these latter limits south to the isthmus of Corinth.
Southern Greece embraces the peninsula south of th Gulf of Corinth,
which peninsula was anciently known as the Peloponnesus (now the
Morea).

In ancient times Northern Greece embraced the two chief states of Northern

Greece
Thessaly and Epirus, separated from each other by the lofty chain

of Mount Pindus. On the eastern side of this mountain barrier were
the smaller states of Magnesia and Achaga Phthiotis. In the mountain
region itself, midway between the two gulfs, was Dolopia, or the coun-
try of the Dolopes.

Thessaly, the most fertile country, was nearly identical with the Thessaly.
basin of the Peneus, being a region of almost circular shape and sev-
enty miles in diameter. It was surrounded on all sides by mountains,
from which numerous streams descended, all of which converged and



706



RISE OF GREECE.



Epirus.



Magnesia

and

Achsea

Phthiotis.



Dclopia.



Central
Greece.



flowed into the Peneus. The combined waters reached the sea through
a single narrow gorge, the famous Vale of Tempe, said to have been
caused by an earthquake. Thessaly was divided into four provinces
Perrhaebia on the north, along the borders of Mount Olympus and the
Cambunians ; Histiseotis, towards the west, on the sides of Mount Pin-
dus, and along the upper course of the Peneus ; Thessaliotis, towards
the south, bordering on Achaea Phthiotis and Dolopia ; and Pelasgiotls,
toward the east, between the Enipeus and Magnesia. The principal
towns of Thessaly were Gonni and Phalanna, in Perrhaebia; Gomphi
and Tricca, in Histioeotis; Cierium and Pharsalus, or Pharsalia, in
Thessaliotis ; Larissa and Pheras, in Pelasgiotis.

Epirus, the other principal country of Northern Greece, had an
oblong-square shape, seventy miles long from north to south, and about
fifty-five across from east to west. It was chiefly mountainous, and
contained a series of lofty chains, twisted spurs from the Pindus range,
having narrow valleys between, along the courses of the numerous
streams which drained this region. The chief divisions were Molossis
in the east, Chaonia in the north-west, and Thesprotia in the south-west.
The principal cities were Dodona and Ambracia, in Molossis ; Phoenice,
Buthrotum and Cestria, in Chaonia; Pandosia, Cassope, and, in later
times, Nicopolis, in Thesprotia. During the entire historical period
Epirus was more Illyrian than Greek.

Magnesia and Achaea Phthiotis were sometimes considered parts of
Thessaly, but in the earlier period they constituted separate countries.
Magnesia was the tract along the coast between the mouth of the
Peneus and the Pegasaean Gulf, embracing the two connected ranges
of Mounts Ossa and Pelion, with the country just at their base. It
was sixty-five miles long, and from ten to fifteen miles wide. Its prin-
cipal cities were Myrae, Meliboea and Casthanaea upon the eastern coast ;
lolcus, in the Gulf of Pagasae; and Boabe, near Lake Boebei's, in the
interior. Achaea Phthiotis was the region just south of Thessaly, ex-
tending from the Pagasaean Gulf on the east to the portion of Pindus
occupied by the Dolopes. It was a tract almost square in shape, each
side of the square measuring about thirty miles. It embraced Mount
Othrys, with the country at its base. The principal cities were Halos,
Thebae Phthiotides, Itonus, Melitae, Lamia and Xyniae, on Lake Xynias.

Dolopia, the country of the Dolopes, included a portion of the Pin-
dus range, with the more western part of Othrys, and the upper valleys
of several streams which ran into the Acheloiis. It was a small region,
being only forty miles long by fifteen miles wide, and was exceedingly
rugged and mountainous.

Central Greece, the tract located between Northern Greece and the
Peloponnesus, contained eleven countries Acarnania, ^Etolia, Western



GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE.



707



Locris, JEniania, Doris, Malis, Eastern Locris, Phocis, Boeotia, Attica
and Megaris.

Acarnania was the most western of these countries, and was a trian- Acarna-
gular tract, bounded on the north by the Ambracian Gulf, on the east n * a -
by the Acheloiis, and on the south-west by the Adriatic. The northern
side was fifty miles long, the eastern side thirty-five miles, and the
south-western side thirty miles. Its leading cities were Stratus, situ-
ated in the interior, and Anactorium, Solium, Astacus and CEniadse,
located on the coast.

yEtolia bordered Acarnania on the east and extended in that direc- jEtolia.
tion as far as yEniania and Doris. It was bounded on the north by
Delopia, and on the south by the Corinthian Gulf. It was twice as
large as Acarnania, and its area was considerably more than that of
any other country in this part of Hellas. It was mainly mountainous,
but contained a flat and marshy tract between the mouths of the Evenus
and the Acheloiis ; and further north was a large plain, in which were
Lakes Conope and Trichonis. Its chief cities were Pleuron, Calydon
and Thermon.

Western Locris, the country of the Locri Ozolae, lay along the coast
of the Corinthian Gulf, just east of /Etolia. It was about thirty-seven
miles long along the coast, and from two to twenty-three miles wide.
Its chief cities were Naupactus, on the coast, and Amphissa, in the
interior.

yEniania, or /Etaea, also lay east of yEtolia, but towards the north,
while Locris adjoined it towards the south. xEniania was separated
from /Etolia by the Pindus range, and was bounded on the north by
Mount Othrys, and on the south by Mount CEta. It thus lay on the
upper course of the Spercheius river. It was oval-shaped, and about
twenty-seven miles long by eighteen miles wide. The principal town
was Hypata.

Doris was located between xEniania and Western Locris. It was a Doris,
small and rugged country, enclosed between Mounts Parnassus and
Callidromus, on the upper course of the Pindus river, a tributary of
the Boeotian Cephissus. Its greatest length was about seventeen
miles, and its greatest width about ten miles. Its principal cities were
Pindus, Erineus, Boeum and Cytinium, and it was on this account
known as the Dorian Tetrapolis.

Malis lay north of Doris, south of Achfea Phthiotis, and east of Malis.
xEniania. It resembled Doris in shape, but was smaller. Its greatest
length was about fifteen miles, and its greatest width about eight miles.
Its chief cities were Anticyra and Trachis, and in later times, Heraclea.
The famous pass of Thermopylae was at the extreme eastern end of
Malis, between the mountains and the sea.



Western
Locris.



JEniania

or
JElzea.



708



RISE OF GREECE.



Eastern
Lochs.



Phocis.



Bceotia.



Attica.



Eastern Locris lay next to Malis, along the coast of the Euripus, or
Euboean channel. Its political divisions were Epicnemidia and Opun-
tia. These in later times were naturally divided by a small strip of
land regarded as belonging to y Phocis. Epicnemidia extended about
seventeen miles, from near Thermopylae to near Daphnus, with an aver-
age width of eight miles. Cnemides was its principal town. Opuntia
extended from Alope to beyond the mouth of the Cephissus, a distance
of about twenty-six miles. It was about as broad as Epicnemidia. Its
name was derived from Opus, its leading city.

Phocis extended from Eastern Locris on the north to the Corinthian
Gulf on the south. It was bounded on the east by Boeotia, and on
the west by Doris and Western Locris. It was square in shape, with
an average length of twenty-five miles and an average breadth of
twenty miles. The central and southern parts were very mountainous,
but there were some fertile plains along the course of the Cephissus and
its tributaries. The principal cities were Delphi, on the south side of
Mount Parnassus, Elataea, Parapotamii, Panopeus, Abse, renowned for
its temple, and Hyampolis.

Boeotia was more than twice as large as Phocis, being fifty miles
long, with an average breadth of twenty-three miles. It was mainly
flat and marshy, but contained the Helicon mountain range on the
south, and the hills known as Mounts Ptoiis, Messapius, Hypatus and
Teumessus, towards the more eastern part of the country. Lake
Copais occupied an area of forty-one square miles, or more than one-
thirtieth of the surface. Lakes Hylice and Trephia were between
Lake Copai's and the Euboean Sea. The principal rivers of Boeotia
were the Cephissus, which entered the country from Phocis, the Asopus,
the Termessus, the Thespius and the Oe'roe. Boeotia was celebrated for
its many great cities, the chief of which was Thebes. The other im-
portant cities were Orchomenus, Thespiae, Tanagra, Coronsea, Lebedeia,
Haliartus, Chaeroneia, Leuctra and Copae.

Attica was the peninsula projecting from Boeotia to the south-east.
It was seventy miles long from Cithaeron to Sunium. Its greatest
breadth, from Munychia to Rhamnus, was thirty miles. Its area has
been estimated at seven hundred and twenty square miles, about three-
fourths of that of Boeotia. The general character of the region was
mountainous and sterile. On the north Mounts Cithasron, Parnes and
Phelleus constituted a continuous line running almost east and west.
From this range three spurs descended : Mount Kerata, which divided
Attica from Megaris ; Mount ^galeos, separating the plain of Eleusis
from that of Athens; and Mount Pentelicus in the north, Mount Hy-
mettus in the center, and Mount Anhydrus near the southern coast.
Athens was the only important city of Attica. Marathon, famous for



GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE. 709

the first Greek victory over the Persians, was a small town twenty miles
north-east of Athens. The rivers of Attica the two Cephissuses, the
Ilissus, the Erasmus and the Charadrus were not much more than
torrent courses.

Megaris, adjoining Attica on the west, occupied the northern part Megaris.
of the Isthmus of Corinth, which connected Central Greece with the
Peloponnesus. It was the smallest country of Central Greece, except-
ing Doris and Malis, being about fourteen miles long by eleven miles
wide, and embracing less than one hundred and fifty square miles. Its
only city was Magara, with the ports of Nisaea and Pegae.

Southern Greece, or the peninsula of the Poloponnesus, comprised Southern
eleven countries Corinth, Sicyon, Achaea, Elis, Arcadia, Messenia, Pelopon-
Laconia, Argolis, Epidauria, Troezenia and Hermionis.

The territory of Corinth adjoined Megaris and embraced the greater Corinth,
part of the isthmus, along with a larger tract in the Peloponnesus. Its (jorinthia.
greatest length was twenty-five miles, and its greatest width was about
twenty-three miles. It had a very irregular shape, and its area was
about two hundred and thirty square miles. The only important city
was Corinth, the capital, whose ports were Lechasum, on the Corinthian
Gulf, and Cenchreae, on the Saronic Gulf.

Sicyon, or Sicyonia, adjoined Corinth on the west. It was situated Sicyon,
along the shore of the Corinthian Gulf for a distance of about fifteen
miles, and was about twelve or thirteen miles wide. Sicyon was its
only city.

Achaea, or Achaia, was next to Sicyon, and extended along the coast Achaea,
for a distance of about sixty-five miles. Its average width was about
ten miles, and its area about six hundred and fifty square miles. It
had twelve cities, of which Dyme, Patrae (now Patras) and Pellene
stand first in importance.

Elis lay on the west coast of the Peloponnesus, extending from the
mouth of the Larisus to that of the Neda, a distance of fifty-seven
miles, and reaching from the coast inland to the foot of Mount Ery-
manthus about twenty-five miles. It was one of the most level parts
of Greece, comprising wide tracts of plain along the coast, and valleys
of considerable width along the courses of the Peneus, and Alpheus
and the Neda rivers. Its principal cities were Elis, on the Peneus, the
port of Cyllene, on the gulf of the same name, Olymplia and Pisa, on
the Alpheus, and Lepreum, in Southern Elis.

Arcadia was the mountain land in the center of the Peloponnesus. Arcadia.
It extended from Mount Erymanthus, Aroania and Cyllene, in the
north, to the sources of the Alpheus towards the south, a distance of
about sixty miles. The average width of this country was about forty
miles. The area was about seventeen hundred square miles. The



710 RISE OF GREECE.

country was chiefly a mountainous table-land, the rivers of which, ex-
cepting towards the west and south-west, are absorbed in subterranean
passages and have no visible outlet to the sea. There are many high
plains and small lakes, but the far greater portion of the country is
occupied by mountains and narrow though fertile valleys. There were
many important cities, among which were Mantinea, Tegea, Orcho-
menus, Pheneus, Hersea, Psophis, and in later times, Megalopolis.

Messinia. Messinia lay south of Elis and Western Arcadia, occupied the most
westerly of the three southern peninsulas of the Peloponnesus, and cir-
cled round the gulf between this peninsula and the central one to the
mouth of the Choerius river. It was forty-five miles long from the
Neda river to the promontory of Acritas, and its greatest width between
Laconia and the western coast was thirty-seven miles. The area of the
country was about eleven hundred and sixty square miles. A consid-
erable portion was mountainous ; but along the course of the Pamisus,
the chief stream of this country, there were some broad plains, and the
whole region was fertile. Stenyclerus was the original capital, but
subsequently Messene, on the south-western flank of Mount Ithome,
was the principal city. The other important towns were Eira, on the
upper Neda, Pylus (now Navarino), and Methone, south of Pylus
(now Modon).

Laconia comprised the other two southern peninsulas of the Pelo-
ponnesus, along with a considerable region to the north of them. Its
greatest length between Argolis and the promontory of Malea was
almost eighty miles, and its greatest width was nearly fifty miles. Its
area was almost nineteen hundred square miles. The country embraced
chiefly the narrow valley of the Eurotas, which was enclosed between
the lofty mountain chains of Parnon and Taygetus. Hence the ex-
pression, " Hollow Lacedaemon." Sparta, the capital, was situated on
the Eurotas river, about twenty miles from the sea. The other towns
were Gythium and Thyrea, on the coast, and Sellasia, in the ^Enus
valley.

Argolis. Argolis was the name sometimes assigned to the entire region extend-



Online LibraryIsreal Smith ClareLibrary of Universal history and popular science ... (Volume 3) → online text (page 1 of 49)