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LIBRARY of UNIVERSAL HISTORY

AND

POPULAR SCIENCE

CONTAINING

A RECORD OF THE HUMAN RACE FROM THE

EARLIEST HISTORICAL PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME;

EMBRACING A GENERAL SURVEY OF THE PROGRESS OF MANKIND

IN NATIONAL AND SOCIAL LIFE, CIVIL GOVERNMENT,

RELIGION, LITERATURE, SCIENCE AND ART

Complete in Twenty -five Volumes

THE TEXT SUPPLEMENTED AND EMBELLISHED BY MORE THAN SEVEN HUNDRED
PORTRAITS AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. MAPS AND CHARTS



INTRODUCTION BY
HUBERT HOWE BANCROFT

HISTORIAN

GEORGE EDWIN RINES

MANAGING EDITOR

Reviewed and Endorsed by Fifteen Professors in History and Educators in
American Universities , among whom are the following :



GEORGE EMORY FELLOWS, Ph.D.,
LL.D.

President, University of Maine

KEMP PLUMMER BATTLE, A.M.,
LL.D.

Professor of History, University of North Carolina

AMBROSE P. WINSTON, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor of Economics, Washington Uni-
versity

WILLIAM R. PERKINS

Professor of History, University of Iowa

REV. GEO. M. GRANT, D.D.

Late Principal of Queen's University, Kingston,
Ontario, Canada



MOSES COIT TYLER, A.M., Ph.D.

Late Professor of American History, Cornell Uni-
versity

ELISHA BENJAMIN ANDREWS, LL.D.,
D.D.

Chancellor. University of Nebraska

WILLIAM TORREY HARRIS, Ph.D.,
LL.D.

Formerly United States Commissioner of Education

JOHN HANSON THOMAS McPHER-
SON, Ph.D.

Professor of History, University of Georgia

RICHARD HEATH DABNEY. A.M.,

Ph.D.
Professor of History, University 01 Virginia



NEW YORK AND CHICAGO

THE BANCROFT SOCIETY

1910



COPYRIGHT, 1908. BY
GEORGE EDWIN RINES-



CONTENTS OF VOLUME IX.



MODERN HISTORY.-coNTrnuED.



CHAPTER XXXIV. REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.

Section I. The First Two Stuarts and Parliament 2811

Section II. Civil War and Fall of Monarchy 2840

Section III. The Commonwealth and the Protectorate 2852

Section IV. Stuart Restoration and Revolution of 1688 2869

Section V. England's First Years of Government by the People. . . . 2907

Section VI. England's North American Colonies 2931



CHAPTER XXXV. FRANCE AND THE AGE OF LOUIS XIV.

Section I. First Two Bourbons and Cardinal Richelieu 2953

Section II. Anne of Austria and Cardinal Mazarin 2970

Section HI. Louis XIV. and His War with Spain 2979

Section IV. War of Louis XIV. with Holland and Her Allies 2983

Section V. Louis XIV. and Persecution of the Huguenots 2990

Section VI. War of Louis XIV. with the Grand Alliance 2994

Section VII. War of the Spanish Succession 3001

Section VIII. French Colonies in North America 3017

Section IX. Spain and Portugal in the Seventeenth Century 8019

Section X. Seventeenth Century Civilization 3024



CHAPTER XXXVI. STATES-SYSTEM IN NORTH AND EAST.

Section I. Wars of Denmark, Sweden and Brandenburg 3031

Section II. Poland's Dissensions and Decline 3038

Section III. First Czars and Earlier Romanoffs in Russia 3045

Section IV. Turkey's Wars with Germany and Her Allies 3056

Section V. The Great Northern War 3065

3809



CHAPTER XXXIV.
REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.



SECTION I. THE FIRST TWO STUARTS AND
PARLIAMENT (A. D. 1603-1642).

As we have seen, the Tudor dynasty, which had worn the crown of
England for one hundred and eighteen years (A. D. 14851603),
ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth, in 1603, when the Stuart
family ascended the English throne in the person of King James VI.
of Scotland, who now became JAMES I. of England. Thenceforth the
crowns of England and Scotland were united, but each kingdom had its
own Parliament until 1707, when a constitutional, or legislative union
took place.

The union of England and Scotland under one sovereign put an
end to the hostility that had existed between them for centuries.
James I. warmly advocated the adoption of measures to strengthen this
union. The two kingdoms were, however, still separate, each manag-
ing its internal affairs in its own way. The English Parliament re-
fused to adopt the king's policy, ascribing it to his partiality for his
Scottish subjects and his desire to benefit them, regardless of English
interests.

James I. was a vain, bigoted and pedantic prince. He was in the
possession of much theological learning, and delighted to engage in
controversies on religious subjects. He loved to make a display of
his wisdom and knowledge in lengthy harangues. James was also
ambitious of the reputation of being a great author, and he wrote
many books. He was plain in person, awkward in manner and ad-
dicted to drunkenness. He was one of the most puerile and the most
presumptuous of English sovereigns.

His pedantic display of his learning caused Henry IV. of France
to call him " the wisest fool in Christendom." His unpopularity was
fully demonstrated by the fact that his peculiarities of person and
character were publicly caricatured in the London theaters, to the
indescribable enjoyment of the people. The public contempt for his

2811
519



Stuart
Dynasty.



James I.,
A. D.
1603-
1625.



Union of
English

and

Scotch

Ctowns.



Character

of
James I.



His

Unpopu-
larity.



S812



REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.



His

Defect*.



"Divine
Right of
Kings."



James I.

and the

Episcopal

Church.



Lady

Arabella

Stuart.

Raleigh's
Impris-
onment.



James I.
and the
Catholics

and
Puritans.



Catholic
Capita-
tion Tax.



Gun-
power
Plot.



meanness was surpassed only by the public resentment at his usurpa-
tions.

James I. lacked the shrewdness and decision essential in a sovereign.
He was so extreme a lover of peace as to sacrifice the honor and dignity
of his kingdom, for the sake of living on friendly terms with foreign
governments. One of the faults of James was his lavishness of favors
to unworthy persons.

James I. was a firm believer in " the divine right of kings." He
believed that his authority was derived directly from God and that
his power was unlimited. As " the Lord's Anointed," he frankly de-
clared in the Star Chamber: " As it is atheism and blasphemy to dis-
pute what God can do, so it is high contempt in a subject to dispute
what a king can do, or to say that the king can not do this or that."

For this reason he hated the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, which
made the king only a common member of the congregation; but he
was zealously attached to the Episcopal Church of England, in which
the monarch was considered the head and origin of all spiritual power ;
and the great object of James was the suppression of Puritanism in
England and Presbyterianism in Scotland, and the full establishment
of Episcopacy as the only form of religion throughout his dominions.

The quiet of King James' reign was soon disturbed by a conspiracy
to place Lady Arabella Stuart, his first cousin, on the throne of Eng-
land; but the design of the conspirators was easily frustrated. Sir
Walter Raleigh, who was accused of complicity in the plot in favor of
Lady Arabella, and tried and convicted on slight evidence, was held
in imprisonment for twelve years, during which he wrote his History
of the World.

Before James I. had reached London he had been approached by
Catholics and Puritans ; the Catholics basing their hopes on his promise
of toleration to obtain Catholic support, and the Puritans expecting
much from his Puritan education ; but both were doomed to disappoint-
ment. As an avowed Episcopalian, and as the Head of the State
Church of England, he soon began to execute the laws against the
Nonconformists more rigorously than Elizabeth had done.

No sooner was James I. seated on the English throne than he forgot
his promises of toleration to the English Roman Catholics, and fol-
lowed the example of Queen Elizabeth in making them pay an oppres-
sive capitation tax, that he might enrich his favorites and defray the
expenses of his court festivals. This aroused the indignation of the
Catholics, some of whom, at the instigation of Robert Catesby, re-
solved upon a conspiracy to blow up the Parliament House with gun-
powder, at a time when the king, the Lords and the Commons would
be assembled there, and thus destroy the government of England.



THE FIRST TWO STUARTS AND PARLIAMENT.

The conspirators hired the cellar under the House of Lords osten- It* Dis-
sibly for business purposes. Lord Mounteagle, a Catholic, received COTer y-
an anonymous letter November 4, 1605, warning him to stay away
from Parliament. He showed the letter to Robert Cecil, Earl of
Salisbury, and the Parliament House was at once examined. Thirty-
six barrels of gunpowder were found concealed under a pile of wood

and fagots ; and Guy Fawkes, the keeper of the cellar, was detected Seizure

f i of Guy

in preparing slow matches lor the explosion on the morrow. Guy Fawkes.

Fawkes was seized and executed, and his fellow-conspirators were fer-
reted out and put to death. This conspiracy is known as the Gun-
powder Plot.

In consequence of this dangerous conspiracy, the English Roman Oath
Catholics were heavily fined, and compelled to take an oath of allegi- Exacted
ance to the king, renouncing the Pope's right to excommunicate sover- Catholics,
eigns or to absolve subjects from their allegiance, as well as the doc-
trine that excommunicated sovereigns might be deposed or murdered by
their subjects or others. Some of the Catholics took the oath. Others
refused to do so, at the Pope's bidding. The 5th of November, or
Pope's Day, has ever since been observed in England as a holiday, one Pope's
of the performances being the burning of Guy Fawkes in effigy. VKJ.

James I. was especially arbitrary in matters of religion. The great James's
mass of the English nation had by this time become Puritan; and, ^J^ 6
while belonging to the Established Church, they disapproved of many the
ceremonies which had been retained in the Church service, and desired Puntani -
a return to the simple usages described in the New Testament, as
well as a more stringent observance of the Sabbath and a more serious
tone of manners. But the king rejected the petition of eight hundred
clergymen to these ends ; and insulted the Puritan divines whom he had
invited to Hampton Court, by a frivolous display of his learning,
and by brutal expressions of contempt for their grave remonstrances.

The hope that the convention of Episcopal and Puritan divines, His
which James I. had called in 1604 to discuss the religious question, Failure
would harmonize the conflicting religious sects was not realized. The yince
king, who had been the most prominent speaker in behalf of the State Them.
Church, was angry at the obstinacy of the Puritans, who failed to be
convinced by his arguments. He endeavored to convert them by a
threat when the convention closed, saying : " I will make them con-
form, or I will harry them out of the land." The persecutions which
followed obliged multitudes of English subjects to seek an asylum
in foreign lands. .

The only important result of the convention of Episcopal and Puri- James's
tan divines, summoned by the king in 1604, was the issue of a new ^f 1 ^
English translation of the Bible in 1611, known as King James's Ver- Bible,



REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.

sion, the one which is still used by most Protestants among English-
speaking nations, and which was revised by a body of British and
American divines in 1881. Fifty-four learned English divines were
occupied three year in the preparation of King James's Bible.
Puritan The Separatists, or Independents, differed from the more moderate
Plymouth Puritans in withdrawing entirely from the Established Church. One
in New congregation, under the Rev. John Robinson, expecting no indulgence
n ^ ' at home, emigrated to Holland that vigorous little republic which had
just won its freedom from the iron hand of despotic Spain, and which
now offered an asylum to the oppressed of all lands. But the Pilgrim
Fathers, being English at heart, desired to live under English laws
and to educate their children in the English language. They there-
fore returned to their native land and embarked in the Mayflower for
the wilds of America. They finally landed at Plymouth Rock, De-
cember 21, 1620, and laid the foundations of a free state in New
England. Puritan emigration flowed there for some years. The
moral strength of these Puritan colonists entered largely into the
character of New England.

English The Puritan colonists of New England differed entirely from the
Tames- ^ e an( ^ dissolute adventurers and gold seekers who founded James-
town in town in Virginia in 1607, and who, having come to the New World to
irgima. re p a j r their ruined fortunes, were saved from starvation only by the
energy and good sense of Captain John Smith, who insisted that
" nothing was to be expected but by labor." This settlement began
to flourish only when " men fell to building houses and planting
corn." These settlements were made in the respective territories of the
Plymouth and London Companies, chartered by King James I. in
1606. A full account of these English colonies in North America
will be given in a separate section.
Plots and The reign of James I. was an era of colonization, not only in

^H 2 ^ America, but also in the North of Ireland, which had been desolated

01 Irish

Chiefs, by Tyrone's Rebellion. In the first few years of the reign of James

I. the Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel, the most powerful chieftains

in the North of Ireland, were accused of plotting to overthrow English

authority in that kingdom. They saved themselves by flight, and were

Confisca- attainted of treason and outlawed. In 1608 O'Dogherty, an Irish

Ulster chief of great influence, rebelled, and his estates were declared forfeited.

Estates. As a result of these unsuccessful plots and rebellions, most of the

province of Ulster was confiscated to the English crown.

Scotch Thereupon King James I. disposed of the lands of that part of

terians y in Ireland to English and Scotch settlers, who so improved it that it

Ulster, soon became the most flourishing portion of the Emerald Isle. The

Scotch settlers of Ulster were Presbyterians ; and their descendants,



THE FIRST TWO STUARTS AND PARLIAMENT.



2815



sometimes called Scotch-Irish, are the most prosperous and contented
of the population of Erin. Leinster was also colonized by English and
Scotch settlers with the same success.

But, notwithstanding the material improvement of Ireland, a deep
injury was inflicted upon the country. The native Irish proprietors
were driven from their homes and lands in numerous instances to make
room for the English and Scotch settlers, thus implanting in the hearts
of the Irish people a sense of injustice which Great Britain has not yet
eradicated.

The English East-India Company, which was chartered by Queen
Elizabeth, December 31, 1600 the last day of the sixteenth century
had its charter renewed, and erected its first factory at Surat, on the
western coast of Hindoostan, in 1612.

King James's idea of the " divine right of kings " was the keynote
to the royal policy in Church and State. When Parliament assembled
in 1604 the House of Commons was largely Puritan, and its temper
concerning the principles of absolutism which the king endeavored to
enforce is clearly seen in its action. The Commons petitioned for a
redress of grievances in matters of religion. The king's decided re-
jection of this petition encountered as decided a protest on the part
of the Commons in these words: "Let Your Majesty be pleased to
receive public information from your Commons in Parliament, as well
of the abuses in the Church as in the civil State. Your Majesty would
be misinformed if any man should deliver that the Kings of England
have any absolute power in themselves, either to alter religion or to
make any laws concerning the same, otherwise than as in temporal
causes, by consent of Parliament."

King James I. claimed absolute control over the liberties of the
English people. In 1604 a controversy arose between him and the
House of Commons concerning the claim by that body of the sole
right to judge of the elections of its members. The king insisted
upon the right to command the Commons to accept his decision, but
the House maintained it privileges. A compromise suggested by the
king obviated a more serious misunderstanding.

King James I. levied a tax on all exports and imports, and pro-
cured a judicial decision sustaining its legality. The House of Com-
mons then petitioned for a redress of grievances in matters of state.
The king's refusal to grant this petition called forth another protest
from the Commons, and a prayer that a law be made to declare " that
all impositions set upon your people, their goods or merchandise, save
only by common consent in Parliament, are and shall be void." The
king promptly dissolved Parliament, but his necessities obliged him
to summon another.



English

and
Scotch
Settlers

in
Ireland.



English

East

India

Company.



James I.
and Par-
liament.



Petition

and
Protest

of the
Com-
mons.



Contro-
versy
between
King and
Com-
mons.



Another
Petition

and
Protest
of the
Com-
mons.



REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.



A New
House of
Commons
and Its
Dissolu-
tion.



James I.

and Lord

Chief

Justice

Coke.



The

King's
Absolute
Rule and

Extor-
tion.



The
Royal
Right
of Pur-
veyance.



Revenue
Wasted



Royal
Favor-
ites.



The questions which divided the king and Parliament became the
issue before the English people in the election of a new House of
Commons. The new Parliament was decidedly more antagonistic to
the royal policy than its predecessor had been; as it refused to vote
a grant of supplies except on condition that the king grant a redress
of grievances, particularly that of illegal imposts. The angry king
displayed his obstinacy and folly by again dissolving Parliament.

The English people resisted the king's illegal levy of customs, and
public sentiment was sustained by the decisions of the courts. The
indignant king sent for the judges and abused them into promising
to submit to his will. But the Lord Chief Justice, Sir Edward Coke,
a man of numerous faults, but who would not aid the king in trampling
the laws of England under foot, declared that he would decide the cases
which came before him as a just judge should. James I. at once
dismissed Sir Edward Coke from the royal council; and, as the honest
judge adhered to his determination, the king also removed him from
the office of Lord Chief Justice in 1615. All classes of the English
people regarded this act of the king with horror and resentment, as
they considered it the announcement of his intention to tamper with
the course of justice.

The breach between the English people and their king was widened
by seven years of absolute rule, seven years of extortion. The king
continued the illegal imposts; revived the odious benevolences; prac-
ticed the equally odious system of purveyance, regardless of law ;
renewed the sale of monopolies, and the obsolete system of royal ward-
ship giving to the king during the minority of the heir the incomes of
the estates held under military tenure; and sold patents of nobility
so freely that at the time of his death one-half of the Peers of Eng-
land were those which he had created.

The royal right of purveyance was an old prerogative of the Eng-
lish crown by which the king had the preference over all others in
the purchase of supplies. He could take the supplies at an appraised
value, even without the owner's consent. The royal officers frequently
practiced great injustice, as the right of purveyance became a system
of royal robbery under some of the English kings. An effort to
regulate it was made in Magna Charta, and also by repeated Parlia-
mentary enactments during succeeding reigns. Charles II. finally re-
linquished the right for a compensation.

The money which King James I. wrung from his subjects by his
illegal measures was wasted on his corrupt courtiers, thus exciting the
indignation and disgust of the English people.

The king exhibited his weakness in the choice of his personal favor-
ites, who were generally unworthy persons, and who were entrusted



THE FIRST TWO STUARTS AND PARLIAMENT.



2817



with the highest and most responsible stations in the government.
Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, during his lifetime managed to retain
his influence over King James I. ; but after that nobleman's death the
king surrendered himself entirely to his favorites.

The first of these was Robert Carr, a handsome but ignorant Scottish
youth, whom the king created Earl of Somerset, and to whom he
gave lessons daily in Latin and in " kingcraft." The royal favorite
desired to marry the Countess of Essex ; but was advised by his friend,
Sir Thomas Overbury, not to do so. The countess was so irritated
at this that she persuaded the Earl of Somerset to have Sir Thomas
Overbury imprisoned in the Tower, where he was poisoned soon
afterward. The Earl of Somerset and the Countess of Essex, who had
contrived the murder, were then married ; but the crime threw the earl
into such a state of remorse and melancholy as to spoil his graceful
gayety and make him so dull a companion that the king became weary
of him. The guilt of the earl and his wife was discovered afterward.
They and all who had been accessory to the murder were tried and
convicted. Their accomplices were executed, but the earl and his wife
were only banished. They lived many years, dragging out a most
miserable life ; as their former love, which had led them to murder, was
changed to the most deadly hatred.

King James I. in the meantime had found a new favorite in George
Villiers, whom the king raised by successive promotions to the exalted
rank of Duke of Buckingham, also creating him Prime Minister.
This haughty favorite, who had an unbounded influence over the king,
displayed himself in Parliament, his velvet dress glittering with dia-
monds, openly parading the wealth which he had acquired by the ac-
ceptance of enormous bribes. The only way by which even men of
the highest rank could secure the king's favor, obtain and retain public
office, or even come into the king's presence, was to bribe this hand-
some but corrupt royal favorite and Prime Minister.

The foreign policy of James I. was no more satisfactory to the
English people than was his management of the domestic affairs of the
kingdom. The great Thirty Years' War which broke out in Ger-
many in 1618 eventually involved most of the great powers of Europe.
It was supposed that James I. would at least give his moral support
to the Protestant cause in Germany, especially as his daughter Eliza-
beth was the wife of the Elector-Palatine, Frederick V., whom the
Protestant Bohemians had chosen for their king, in opposition to the
Austrian Ferdinand II., who was also Emperor of Germany.

The English Parliament would have willingly voted funds to sup-
port the Protestant interest in Germany, but King James I. had more
regard for the " divine right " of the Austrian despot than for the



Robert
Cecil,
Earl of
Salis-
bury.

Robert
Carr,

Earl of
Somerset,

and the
Countess
of Essex.



Their
Crime
and Its
Result.



George

Villiers,
Duke of

Bucking-
ham.



James I.
and the
Elector-
Palatine
Freder-
ick V.



2818



REVOLUTIONS IN ENGLAND.



James I.

and the
Bohemian

Protest-
ants.



James's
Friend-
ship for
Spain.



Raleigh's
Expedi-
tion to
Spanish
America.



His
Defeat

and
Loss.



His Exe-
cution.



His For-
titude.



Popular
Indigna-
tion.



James I.
and His
Con-
tinued
Partiality
for Spain.



rights and liberties of the Bohemian Protestants. He consented to aid
his son-in-law to maintain his hereditary dominions, the Palatinate, but
not to secure possession of Bohemia. The sympathies of England's
Protestant king were wholly with Catholic Austria and Catholic Spain
against the German Protestants.

The English people had a most implacable hatred for Spain; and
after the death of Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, the king deliberately
antagonized this sentiment of his subjects. He began to cultivate
friendly relations with Spain, and commenced negotiations for the
marriage of his son, Prince Charles, with a Spanish princess. The
war party in England loudly demanded that war be declared against
Spain, in the interest of the German Protestants ; but James I. treated
this demand with contempt, and became more intimate with Spain,
England's most inveterate enemy.

For the purpose of inducing Spain to declare war against England,



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