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the auxiliary plant 6 hours.





Construction Plant.
2-cubic yard mixers.


Auxiliary Plant.
2-cubic yard mixers.


Large

stone.


Total.




Concrete
placed.


Hours
worked.


No. of Concrete
mixers placed.


Hours ' No. of
worked, mixers




June 30

July 1


Cm. Yds.
1.224
1,750
1,628
2.334
1,634
1,588


28:30

27:22
26:46
47:53
30:37
23:55


7
7
7
7
7
7


Cm. Yds.
500
552
576
536
736
610
376


8:30
7:40
8:40
7:10
7:40
8:40


2
2
2
2
2
2


Cm. Yds.
2021
245}
305}
226}
204
98}


Cu. Yds.
1,926}
2.547}
2,509}
3,096}
2,574
2,296?
376




















10,158


185:03


7


3,886


48:20


2


1,282}


15,326}
1,414,382?
























1,429,709



*The 376 yards shown for the portable mixers are reeinforced concrete, and were placed on the following days:
June 26th, 50}; June 27th, 68; June 28th, 69}; June 29th, 38; June 30th. 89; July 1st. 61.

PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS.

Concrete work in the locks at Pedro Miguel is about 81 per cent completed, 675,266 cubic
yards, out of a total of 837,400, having been placed at the close of work on July 1. The
record for each of the six eight-hour working days of last week, follows:





Auxiliary Plant.


Large
stone.






2-cubic yard mixers.


}-cubic yard mixer.


Total.




Concrete
placed.


Hours No. of
worked. ■ mixers


Concrete
placed.


Hours
worked .


No. of
mixers






Cm. Yds.
788
648
358
624
788
849


17:00
14:00
10:00
17:00
18:00
18:50


Cu. Yds.
3 132


6:50


,Cm. Yds.
1 2


Cu. Yds.
922




3 185

2 167

3 230


10:10
12:33
12:33
13:00
12:25


2
2
2
2
2




833




525




854




3
3


223
220


1,011


July 1


1,069








4.055


94:50


2.83


1,157


66:51


1.83


2
4,400


5,214




670.052




















4,402


675,266



















MIRAFLORES LOCKS.

About 21 per cent of the concrete for the system of two twin locks at Miraflores was in place
on July 1, the total amount on that date being 285,217 cubic yards, out of a total of approxi-
mately 1,362,000. The record for each of the six 8-hour working days of last week, follows:





Construction Plant.
2-cubic yard mixers.


Auxiliary Plant.




Date.


2-cubic yard mixers.


}-cubic yard mixer.


Total.




Concrete
placed.


Hours No. ol
worked. ! mixers


Concrete
placed.


Hours
worked .


No. of
mixers


Concrete
placed.


Hours No. of
worked. 1 mixers


Large
stone.




June 26. .
June 27. .
June 28. .
June 29. .
June 30. .
July 1....


Cu. Yds.
•1,194

994
1.004
1.126
1,104

950


27:83
24:00
24:50
27:67
24:77
17:07


4
4
4
4
4
4


Cu. Yds.
222
421
213
307
277
186


14:50
25:00
17:00
17:00
24:00
15:00


2

4
3

4
4
3


Cm. Yds.






Cm. Yds.


Cm. Yds.
1,416










1,415










1,217










1.433










1,381






15




1,151










6.372


145:84


4


1,626


112:50


3.33






15


3,693


8,013


Previously
reported .








277,204






















Grand


3.693


285.217

























July 5, 1911.



THE CANAL RECORD



355



TEST OF CEMENT GUN.



Machine for Coating Surfaces to be Tried on
Sides of Culebra Cut.

A test of the cement gun as a means of
coating the surface of rock in Culebra Cut
to prevent disintegration is in progress. The
so-called "gun" is a compressed air apparatus
for forcing cement and sand from a tank
through a nozzle, at *the mouth of which,
water, is mixed with these materials, forming
a concrete which is cast upon the surface to
be coated with such force as to become part
of the rock itself.

For the work in Culebra Cut, the apparatus
is mounted on a flat car, at one end of which,
is a bin for mixing the sand and cement.
One day's supply is carried, or enough to
coat 200 square yards with a layer one inch
thick, in nine hours of work. The car was
rigged up at Empire shops, and the machine
was tested by allowing it to coat a boiler
with asbestos. Five men are required in
operating the plant, their work including
mixing and delivering the materials, and
operating the gun.

The first work to be undertaken is coating
the surface of the soft rock which the exca-
vation has uncovered in Contractor's Hill.
This soft rock is a fine grained clay trans-
ported and deposited by water, moderately
hard when first exposed, but crumbling
rapidly when in contact with the air. Of it,
the chief geologist of the United States
Geological Survey said, in his report of
November IS, 1910:

"Under certain conditions, this surface dis-
integration becomes a more serious matter.
For example, the contact between the in-
trusive andesite of Contractor's Hill, and the
sedimentary clays, dips away from the Canal
at an angle of 55 degrees. The crumbling of
the clays below the contact leaves the ande-
site mass overhanging, and the overhang will
increase as the Canal is carried to its full
depth and more clay is exposed. With a rock
so much fractured as the andesite, this con-
dition is unsafe, and the exposed surface of
the underlying clay should, therefore, be
protected from further disintegration."



Knights of Pythias Subscription.

In case the letter signed by A. M. Warner,
which appeared in the current issue of The
Canal Record, should create a wrong im-
pression upon the readers, I wish to make the
following explanation:

Knowing that individual members of the
K. of Ps., like most other organizations,
regarded charity as one of the cardinal
virtues, more especially to the widow and
the fatherless of its late members, I, in ignor-
ance of their by-laws, thought it would be a
matter of courtesy to them to combine their
name with the Army and Navy Union in
soliciting subscriptions to assist the family of
a former member of both organizations, and,
therefore, on the spur of the moment, issued
appeals with the following heading:

"Your sympathy and assistance is solicited

on behalf of This list is issued

jointly by the Knights of Pythias, and the
Army and Navy Union, and these subscrip-
tions are being made in order that they may
be cared for while on the Isthmus, and to see
them through to their home in Washington,
D. C."

On hearing that this was against their
rules, I at once had the names of both organ-
izations crossed off of the three lists that had



been issued, and published others without the
so-called illegal heading. I accept full re-
sponsibility for what has been done, and feel
confident that Mr. Warner's concluding para-
graph, that "all concerned will govern them-
selves accordingly," will result in their further
assistance to those who have had their
"bread winner" taken from them at a time
when they were incapable of taking care of
themselves. Alfred Smith,

Adjutant, Army and Navy Union.
Empire, C. Z., June 30, 1911.

Knights of Columbus.

A party of eighteen members of the Order
of the Knights of Columbus arrived in Colon
from New Orleans, on Thursday, June 29, for
a six days' visit to Panama and the Canal
Zone. On Saturday, there was a meeting with
exemplification of the third degree at the
old administration building in Panama. On
Sunday, the party attended service at the
cathedral in Panama at 9 o'clock, and at
10.15 left for a sightseeing trip over the Canal
work, returning over the relocation of the
Panama railroad. On Monday evening, an
open meeting was held in Ancon Hall, the
Bishop of Panama attending. On Tuesday,
the visitors participated in the celebration of
the national holiday. On Wednesday, they
spent the day in sightseeing in the city of
Panama, and on Thursday, they will sail for
New Orleans by the steamer Atenas.



Improved Order of Red Men.

A meeting will be held in the Kangaroo
hall, at Empire, Sunday, July 9, to raise the
chiefs for the ensuing term to their respective
stations. All the chiefs-elect of the eight
tribes are requested to be present, and as
many others as can make it convenient to
be there. After the raising of chiefs, matters
of interest to the tribes in common may be
brought up by duly authorized representa-
tives of the tribes, for discussion and decision.

Refreshments will be provided by Codes
tribe.

W. H. Kromer, D. G. I.

Cristobal, C. Z., July 5, 1911.



Rifle Match for Silver Cup.

A members' match for the silver cup
donated by a Panama City hardware company
will be shot at the Gamboa range by the
Canal Zone Rifle Club on July 9. The cup
will become the property of the person
making the highest score in the four regular
matches.



Fourth of July Fire Department Contests.

The winners in the Fourth of July fire
department contests at Cristobal were, as
follows:

Hose races between volunteer fire com-
panies, consisting of a run of 125 yards to
hydrant with reel, laying 150 feet of hose,
breaking coupling on last section, putting on
nozzle, and turning on water. Winners — Gatun
Volunteer Company No. 3. first prize, $75;
Gatun Volunteer Company No. 2, second
prize, $50; Gorgona Volunteer Company,
third prize, $25. Time, 36 seconds.

Coupling contest between individual mem-
bers of volunteer fire companies, consisting
of running 50 feet, breaking coupling, and
puttingon nozzle. Winners — Gatun Volunteer
Company No. 3, first prize, $7.50; Gatun
Volunteer Company No. 2, second prize, $5.
Time, 9 2-5 seconds

Contest between volunteer fire companies



in taking out middle section of a charged line
of 150 feet of hose, with nozzle attached,
without shutting down hydrant, and con-
necting the first and third sections. Winners
— Gatun Volunteer Company No. '3, first prize,
$7.50; Gatun Volunteer Company No. 2,
second prize, $7.50. Time, 16 9-10 seconds.
An interesting Pompier ladder and life
saving exhibition was held at the Cristobal
fire station tower at 6 o'clock in the evening.



Licenses for Chauffeurs.

The Board of Local Inspectors will hold an
examination for chauffeurs' licenses in Cristo-
bal, at the office of the deputy collector of
revenues, on Saturday, July 15, at 8 a. m.
All applicants are required to have their
application blanks properly filled and en-
dorsed before entering the examination.
- An examination for the same purpose will
be held in Ancon on Wednesday afternoon,
July 19, at 2 o'clock.

For information, address Board of Local
Inspectors. Ancon, C. Z.



Gatun Dam Spillway.
The concrete work in the spillway of Gatun
Dam is about 64 percent completed, 142,889
cubic yards, out of a total of 225,000, having
been placed at the close of work on July 1.
A statement of the amount laid each working
day last week, and of the total in place,
follows:



Date.



June 26

June 27

June 28

June 29

June 30

July 1

Total

Previously reported

Grand total



Concrete
-Laid.



152
236
208
260
244
296



1,396
141.493



Hours
worked.



7:00
7:30
7:30
8:00
8:00
8:00



46:00



No.
Mixers.



1.50



Porto Bello Crusher.

A statement of the work done at the Porto
Bello crusher, by days, for the week ending
July 1, follows:



Date.



June 26
June 27
June 28
June 29
June 30
July 1

Total



Hours


Cubic


worked.


Yards.


3:53


1,748


3:56


2,056


4:28


1,973


3:27


1.731


3:32


1.743


4:19


2,010



23:35



11,261



Homicide Cases.

Herbert Berkley, a native of St. Kitts, shot
a negro woman named Priscilla Muir at
Mount Hope on the night of June 25, and she
died on June 27. Berkley is in jail awaiting
trial.

Alexander Mitchell, a Greek citizen of the
United States, was struck on the head with
an iron pipe by Jeremiah Wayland of St.
Kitts, while both men were on a Canal clapet
at dock No. 13, Cristobal, on the night of
June 29. Mitchell died that night, and Way-
land is in jail awaiting trial.



Ensigns David G. Copeland and Greer A.
Duncan, U. S. N., special students in en-
gineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
have been assigned to observation of the
Canal work during the summer school vaca-
tion, at the close of which, they will return
to their studies in the States.



356



THE CANAL RECORD



Vol. IV., No. 45.



PACIFIC COAST LIGHTS.



Recommendations for Aids to Navigation in the
Gulf of Panama.

Shortly after the wreck of the steamer
Taboga off Cape Guanico on the Pacific coast
of Panama, the Government of Panama
requested that the assistant engineer employed
by the Commission on the lighting of the
Canal, be detailed to investigate the question
of placing lights and other aids to navigation
at various points in Panama Bay, where they
will be of most assistance to vessels seeking
the port of Panama and the Pacific entrance
to the Canal. In company with an engineer
employed by the Government of Panama,
the Commission engineer made a four days'
trip along the coast, and to the Pearl Islands,
June 21-24, and his report, with estimates,
has been forwarded to the Government of
Panama.

It is recommended that lights be established
at Cape Mala, San Jose Island, Bona, and
Melones Islands, an abstract of the recom-
mendations being, as follows:

Cape Mala — This is a low, rocky point at
the easterly extremity of the peninsula, com-
prised in the provinces of Veraguas and Los
Santos, and is important and dangerous to
all shipping entering Panama. It should be
marked by a light of the first order. It is
recommended that a reinforced concrete
octagonal tower, 100 feet high from base
to focal plane, be erected on a site about 40
feet above mean high tide, giving a total
height of 140 feet, from which the light may
be seen a distance of 18 miles at sea. A light
showing a double flash every ten seconds, with
incandescent oil-vapor illuminant, is recom-
mended in preference to acetylene gas,
because, in the long run, it will be cheaper,
although the initial cost will be more. This
station will require the service of a light
keeper, and one assistant, and the station
must include quarters for them. Estimated
cost, $56,700.

San Jose Island — This is the southwesterly
island of the Pearl Island group, and a light
is recommended for this point, because of the
strong and irregular currents in the Gulf of
Panama, making it necessary that ships
leaving Panama Bay have a positive point
for departure. The site selected is about 100
feet above mean high tide on the southwest-
erly point of the island, and the tower should
be 50 feet from base to focal plane, thus
giving a total height of 150 feet, from which
the light will be visible 16 miles at sea. A
skeleton tower, constructed of reinforced
concrete, surmounted by a third order lantern,
showing a single flash every five seconds, is
recommended. The illuminant will be acety-
lene gas, and the lantern will be seen through
270 degrees of the horizon. Estimated cost,
SI. i, 500.

Bona Island — This island is situated about
25 miles south of Panama, and a light es-
tablished there will be an aid, both to coastwise
and general shipping. Since the range of
visibility of this light need not be greater than
11 or 12 miles, it is recommended that an
acetylene lamp, mounted upon a reinforced
concrete post, be established. The site for
the light is at the top of the highest part of
the island, about 670 feet above mean high
tide, and the post should be about 30 feet
high, with a small house at the base to protect
the gas accumulators, and the valves. It
would be preferable to have this lamp at a
lower elevation, but this is not feasible,



because the light must be visible over the
whole horizon. The light recommended is
one showing a group of four flashes every 10
seconds. Estimated cost, S3, 850.

Melones Island — This is a small islet, north-
westerly from Taboga Island, and a light on
it will serve as an aid to coastwise shipping,
and likewise guard against the dangerous
Melones Rock. It is recommended that a
small post of reinforced concrete be erected,
surmounted by an acetylene gas lamp, show-
ing a group of three flashes every nine seconds.
The site new occupied by a temporary light
installed by the Canal Commission is recom-
mended. Estimated cost, $1,750.

The high pressure system of acetylene illu-
minant recommended for the three small lights
provides for the generating, purifying, drying,
and storing of the gas in steel cylinders, or
accumulators, at a central charging plant,
where the cylinders are charged at a pressure
of 150 pounds per square inch. The cylinders
are packed with asbestos discs, and filled with
acetone, the pressure of the latter increasing
the storage capacity of the cylinders, and
it and the asbestos together, obviating any
danger of explosion. The cylinders are trans-
ported to the lights whenever recharging is
necessary, which, in the case of the lamps
recommended, will be about once in six
months.

With regard to other lights recommended
by local shipping interests, the report says:

A number of other aids to navigation have
been recommended by captains of vessels
plying up and down the coast, but as they are
of local interest, the proposed sites were not
visited. The recommendations are, as follows:
Puerto Obaldia, province of Cocle, beacon,
35 feet high, green light; Puerto Posada,
province of Cocle, beacon, 35 feet high, red
light; Aguadulce, Banco Negro, province of
Cocle, beacon 35 feet high, white light;
Montijo Bay, province of Veraguas, beacon,
15feethigh, white light; David Bay, Chiriqui,
beacon, color of light not specified; Boca San
Pedro, Chiriqui, buoy with green light; Boca
Brava, Chiriqui, buoy with red light; Pacheca
Island, northerly one of Pearl Island group,
beacon, 50 feet high, with white light, Gara-
chine Point, beacon, 50 feet high, white light.

The localities recommended for these local
aids are accessible for erecting post lights and
tripods at small cost, and lights should be
established by the Republic of Panama, if
the commerce of those places warrants their
establishment. In this connection, it is proper
to mention that the establishment of lights
andbuoysby steamboat companies, and other
private parties, for their own convenience,
should not be encouraged. Private lights are
usually established and extinguished without
notice, much to the annoyance of mariners,
who are confused and misled by irregular
lights.

Should the Republic of Panama decide to
establish lights at the aforementioned places,
I would respectfully recommend that red and
green lights be omitted, and that the dis-
tinctive characteristics be given the lights by
means of white flashes. The white light is
visible for a greater distance, and, by the use
of flashes, a less amount of gas is consumed.
I would recommend the following character-
istics:

Puerto Obaldia — One group of five flashes
every eleven seconds; acetylene; estimated
cost, $2,000.

Puerto Posada — One group of six flashes



every twelve seconds; acetylene; estimated
cost, $2,000.

Aguadulce — One group of seven flashes
every thirteen seconds; acetylene; estimated
cost, $2,000.

BocaBrava — Ten seconds, light; ten seconds,
dark; acetylene gas buoy; estimated cost,
$3,000.

Boca San Pedro — £).3 seconds, light; 2.7
seconds, dark; acetylene gas buoy; estimated
cost, $3,000.

The total estimated cost for all the lights
recommended, with cost of launch, $4,000,
and $4,200 for contingencies, is $100,000.



Sowing Grass Seed on Canal Banks.

The sowing of grass seeds of various kinds
on the slopes of Culebra Cut to arrest erosion,
has been begun on the dead slide on the west
side of the Canal, about one-fourth of a mile
south of Contractor's Hill. The material here
is clay. The grass will be sown only on slides
no longer in motion, and on sections of the
bank not yet affected by slides.



Station Boards in Culebra Cut.

Following the plan of mile posts as a means
of reference, used on railroads in the States,
station boards have been placed every thou-
sand feet through Culebra Cut for purposes
of reference. There are 47 of these stations.
Hereafter, daily reports of steam shovels and
drill gangs will be made with reference to
these station boards, and reports of accidents
will also give location by this means.



Sailing of the "Cristobal."

The sailing of the Panama railroad steam-
ship Cristobal has been set for Wednesday,
July 12 at 5 p. m. from Pier 11, Cristobal.



Married.

On July 1, in Cristobal, James Hervey Kenneth
Humphrey of Minneapolis. Minn., and Miss Natalie
Mathilde Hine of Bay City. Mich., Rev. Carl H.
Elliott officiating. Canal Zone residence, Corozal.

On July 1, in Cristobal, George Warren Butters and
Miss Lucy Amelia Abrams. both of Somerville, Mass.,
Rev. Carl H. Elliott officiating. Canal Zone residence,
Cristobal.



Tug Service to Porto Hello. Nombre de Dlos, and
Toro Point.

Effective June 26, the following schedule will be
maintained between Dock 13. Cristobal, Nombre de
Dios, Porto Bello, and Toro Point:

Tug Reliance will leave Dock 13 daily, except Sun-
days, at 7 a. m., with two barges for Nombre de Dios,
returning at once with two barges to Gatun.

Tug Mariner will leave Dock 13 daily, except Sun-
days, at 9 a. m.. with three barges for Porto Bello.
returning to Gatun as soon as barges are loaded.

Tug Porto Bello will leave Dock 13 Saturdays at 9
a. m., light, for Porto Bello. This tug will leave Porto
Bello, light, at 2 p. m.. arriving at Dock 4, Colon, in
time for passengers to catch train No. 7, leaving Colon
at 4.35

Tug Porto Bello will leave Dock 13 Sundays at 7
p. m., for Porto Bello. returning at once.

Tug Mariner will leave Dock 13 daily, except Sun-
days, at 6.30 a. m., for Toro Point, returning at once.

Tug Mariner will leave Dock 13 Sundays at 9.30
a. m., for Toro Point, returning at once.

A tug will leave Dock 13 on Wednesdays, Saturdays,
and Sundays, at 4.30 p. m., for Toro Point, returning
at 5.30 p. m.

A tug will leave Dock 13 on the 20th of each
monthat 6 a. m.. for Porto Belloand Nombre de Dios,
returning to arrive at Dock 4, Colon, about 4.30 p. m.



The following vessels arrived at or departed from the
port of Balboa during the week ending July 1:

Arrivals — June 25, Barracoula, from Central America;
June 26, Guatemala, from Valparaiso; Urubamba, from
Callao; June 30, Peru, from San Francisco; July 1,
Pleiades, from San Francisco.

Departures — June 26, Mantaro, to Callao; June 27,
Quito, to Guayaquil; June 29, Aztec, to San Francisco;
Palena, to Valparaiso; City of Panama, to San Fran-
cisco; June 30, Peru, to Guayaquil.



July 5, ] 1911.



THE CANAL RECORD



357



CULEBRA CUT.

Status of the Excavation at Close of Fiscal Year.

At the close of the fiscal year, June 30,
there had been excavated from the section
of the Canal known as Culebra Cut, 65,51-1,865
cubic yards, and there remained to be dug
18,671,859 yards. This section is, therefore,
78 per cent completed. The advance of the
work each year is shown-in the following table:

EXCAVATION.

Fiscal Year. Cubic Yards.

1904 (2 months) 60.107

1905 741.644

1906 1.506,562

1907 5.768,014

1908 12,065,138

1909 14.229.978

1910 14.921.750

1911 16,221,672

Total 65.514,865

The amount of excavation has increased
each year, and there has been an increase also



in the average excavation per steam shovel,
due to the increasing effectiveness of the work-
ing force, and a consequent decrease in the
cost per cubic yard excavated. In the quarter
ending March 31, the cost of excavation in
the Central Division, which includes Culebra
Cut, was 56.92 cents a cubic yard, while the
cost for the whole period up to March 31,
was 88.01 cents a cubic yard.

A section of the Cut that is practically
completed is the rock excavation at Bas
Obispo. At this point the French had been
digging the emplacement for one of the locks
on the three-level canal projected by the
Xew Panama Canal Company. The digging
was through a hi.l of trap rock. A cross sec-
tion of the Canal at this point shows the
excavation for the French locks, and the
work done here by the Americans since 1904.
All but a small bit of excavation at the toe of



the east slope is completed, and this is rep-
resented in the illustration by the white
triangle, at the lower left corner of the cross
section. The section that is completed is
about 600 feet in length, and for half a mile
above this point, the work is merely a "clean-
up job," on which three steam shovels are
making shallow cuts. The old incline into
the Canal at Bas Obispo on the east side is
being dug out.

There has been less inconvenience from the