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Auxiliary to the Brotherhood of Locomotive
Engineers, both with headquarters at Las
Cascadas. These societies are composed of
women from various points in the Canal
Zone. They are organized under charters
granted by the superior lodges in the United
States, and all the work pertaining to such
societies is carried on. The auxiliaries, as
Canal Zone organizations, will probably cease
to exist with the return of the majority of
their members to their homes in the States.

Of more recent date are organizations which
have developed in connection with church
work. There is a branch of the Women's
Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, with headquarters at
Panama, and members from Culebra, Para-
iso, Pedro Miguel, Corozal, Balboa, and
Ancon. The semimonthly meetings are
devoted to the study of missionary text books.
For the purpose of maintaining the treasury,
"teas," and other entertainments are held
from time to time. The society maintains
two scholarships in the Methodist college in
Panama. The greater portion of the mission-
ary funds are applied to work on the Isthmus.
A ladies' aid society is also active in con-
nection with this church.

There are women's guilds and altar socie-
ties in connection with the Protestant
Episcopal church in Ancon, Culebra, Empire,
and Colon, and with the Roman Catholic
churches in Culebra, Empire, Gorgona. Las
Cascadas, Gatun, and Colon. As their name
implies, these are strictly church organiza-
tions, the members having charge of the
things pertaining to the altar, and the vest-
ments of clergy and choir. Occasional church
receptions are given under the guilds, and
matters pertaining to the Sunday schools are
referred to the members who, in general, are
teachers in the schools.

In connection with the growth of un-
denominational work in the Canal Zone, an
organization was formed at Culebra in 1908
under the title of "The Union Christian League
of Culebra." Its object was to provide for
religious services that would be agreeable
to all people, irrespective of sect. Under this
organization, a minister was called to the
local pastorate, being at the same time,
appointed Commission chaplain to the
Culebra hospital. In addition to his pay as
Commission chaplain, the minister received
a stipend from the Christian League for
maintaining regular services at the chapel.
The league has an executive council composed
of fifteen members, men and women. Women
are on the committees, and share the work
of the organization equally with the men.
Similar leagues have been formed at Empire,



Gatun, and Cristobal. These organizations
are conducted on the lines of the Union
League, but are independent, each working
within the limit of its own village. They are
prominent in social, as well as the church life
of the villages, provide the undenominational
services conducted at the chapels, and women,
as well as men, are active in the executive
council of each. In -Empire, Gatun, and
Cristobal, there are ladies' auxiliaries in
connection with the Christian leagues. These
societies study missionary work, hold enter-
tainments for the purpose of raising money
for chapel furnishings and improvements,
are active in all social life connected with the
churches, and have oversight of such charity
work as comes within the scope of the organ-
izations.

Besides these organizations, there are,
among the women, a number of private card
clubs, and one "Current events" club at Cris-
tobal, with six members, who meet weekly.

It is estimated that in the larger villages,
Ancon, Pedro Miguel, Paraiso, Empire, Las
Cascadas, Gorgona, Gatun, and Cristobal,
there is an average of two meetings of women's
organizations weekly. Nearly one-half of the
entire number of women in the Canal Zone
are affiliated with some organization, the
majority being engaged in church or religious
work.



Sunshine Society Meeting.

At its meeting on Wednesday July 26, the
Gatun Sunshine Society held a "bag com-
petition," a large number of bags, made by
the members, being placed on exhibit.
Prizes were awarded to the makers of the
most original, the most attractive, and the-
most useful bags. A sale of the "Sunshine
bags" will be held shortly. At the meeting
on the last Wednesday in August, there will
be an exhibit of aprons.



Sunday School Picnic.

The annual picnic of St. Luke's Sunday-
school will be held on Friday, August 11, at
Taboguilla Island. The school will assemble
at the chapel in the hospital grounds at 8
a. m., whence brakes will take them to the
wharf at Balboa. The steamer Sanidad will
be at their disposal for the day. Those attend-
ing are asked to bring basket lunches. All
members of the congregation, who desire to
do so, are cordially invited to attend.



The July number of The American Red
Cross Bulletin contains a report by the chair-
man of the Canal Zone chapter, Lieutenant-
Colonel C. A. Devol, on the Colon fire relief
work. It is accompanied by three half-tone
engravings of pictures taken soon after the
fire.



Band Concert.

A concert will be given by the Isthmian Canal Com-
mission Band at Cristobal. C. Z.. on Sunday. August 6,
at_4.30 p. m. The program follows:

1. March — Lore of Liberty Scouton

1. Selection — The Girl of My Dreams Hoschna

J. Cornet Solo — Columbia Rollinson

Mr. Bernell.

4. Waltz — Gaile Waldteufel

5. Medley Overture — Headlights Schulz

6. Sextet from Lucia Donizett

7. Request Number — Madame Sherry Hoschna

8. Characteristic — Muttering Frits Losey

9. Nautical Fantasia Tobani

in. Popular Number — On, Wisconsin Purdy

Oliver Kimball. Acting Musical Director.
The next concert will be given at the Hotel Tivoli,
on Sunday. August 13.



388



THE CANAL RECORD



Vol. IV., No. 49.



ISLANDS IN PANAMA BAY.



Pacific Mail S. S Co. Transfers its Interest in
Naos, Perico, Flamenco, and Culebra.

The Pacific Mail Steamship Company has
formally accepted the awards made by the
joint commission in 1907, for all of its rights
in, and improvements on, the islands of
Naos, Flamenco, Perico, and Culebra, in
Panama Bay, and they were taken over by
the Isthmian Canal Commission, as of July 1,
1911.

Two awards were made by the joint com-
mission, one on May 9, 1907, which allowed
the steamship company the sum of $20,000
for all of the improvements on Naos Island,
as of that date, and another on May 11,
1907, which granted the companj' the sum
of $24,000 for its half-interest in the four
islands, the remaining half being in pos-
session of the Panama Railroad Company.

The awards have been pending until
recently, when they were accepted by the
steamship company. In addition to the
sums mentioned, interest on them at the
rate of six per cent per annum was granted
the company to cover the periods from the
dates of the awards to July 1, 1911. The
steamship company has been given 90 days
from July 1, in which to remove all its per-
sonal effects from the islands.

The only other improvements on Naos
Island consist of a house belonging to the
Panama Railroad Company, leased by it on
June 1, 1908 to the Canal Commission for a
period of 15 years, for use of the quarantine
station; and a maregraph station erected by
the Pacific Division. There is no personal
property on Perico or Flamenco Islands, except
the shacks of two or three squatters. Culebra
Island, the fourth of the group, has been
occupied for quarantine purposes since 1908.
The records of the Panama Railroad Company
show that it has no interest in the improve-
ments on the islands, outside of that above
mentioned.

On November 18, 1852, after various



correspondence between William C. Young,
then president of the Panama Railroad Com-
pany, and William H. Aspinwall, then presi-
dent of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company,
Mr. Aspinwall was authorized to purchase one
or more islands in the Bay of Panama for the
joint account of the railroad company and the
steamship company. It was during the fall
and up to the spring of 1853, that these four
island were purchased by Mr. Flint, and
Mr. Forbes, his successor, agents for the
steamship company. The total cost of the
islands was $30,000, of which one-half was
paid by the Panama Railroad Company
in August, 1854. The records show that the
various improvements made on the islands
up to the year 1861 were paid for by the
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and on
August 9, 1861, the steamship company
executed a deed in favor of the railroad
company for one equal undivided half part
of the four islands, as per document registered
under, folio No. Ill of the record book of
the General Administration of the Treasury,
Panama, dated October 24, 1861.

According to Article 4 of contract dated
July 5, 1867, made between the United States
of Colombia, and the Panama Railroad
Company, the railroad company bound itself
to extend the railroad on the Pacific side of
the Isthmus to one of the four islands, or
some other place where a permanent depth
of water might exist. In 1880, a new contract
was formed by which the railroad company
agreed to pay the United States of Colombia
the sum of $10,000 a year for a period of
30 years as a penalty for not extending the
road to the islands. In other words, the
railroad company agreed to pay $300,000
for the abrogation of this contract during
30 years, at the expiration of which period,
the original contract was to be again in force.
The penalty of $10,000 a year was paid for
20 years, or until 1900. In that year. Sefior
Jose- Agustin Arango. acting as special
representative of the railroad company,



effected a new settlement with the Colombian
Government, in accordance with which, the
original contract was abrogated for all time
in consideration of the payment by the rail-
road company of an additional sum of $200,-
000, making the total amount which the
company has paid for the noncompletion of
the railroad to the islands $400,000. A copy
of this exemption granted by the Govern-
ment to the railroad company, and also
acknowledging the payment of the $200,000
gold, is registered in Panama under docu-
ment No. 246, dated November 6, 1892.



Funeral Service.
A short funeral service was held at the
mortuary, Ancon, on Sunday morning, by
the members of garrison No. 106 of the Army
and Navy Union, over the remains of the late
H. H. Penny. The services were conducted
by the Rev. A. A. Nellis, pastor of the
Empire chapel, at which church Mr. Penny
was a regular attendant. He was a member
of the G. A. R. and the A. and N. U.
The body was shipped on the Panama, on
July 31, for interment in Brooklyn, N. Y.

Preliminary Injunction Denied.

The application for a preliminary injunc-
tion, restraining the Panama Railroad Com-
pany from excavating earth and rock from
a hill near Mount Hope, made by Horatio
L. Stevenson, was denied by Justice Brown,
Jr ,«in the Circuit Court of the Third Judicial
Circuit at Cristobal. Two weeks were given
plaintiff's attorney in which to file a
reply to defendant's answer.



Error in Time Table.

The Panama railroad time table published
in the issue of The Canal Record of July 26
was in error in that it showed train No. 74,
which leaves Panama on Saturday night, and
makes all but three miles of its journey on
Sunday morning, as running on "Sunday
only." The corrected time table is published
below.



PANAMA RAILROAD COMPANY.











PASSENGER TRAIN TIME TABLE No. 10


-IN


EFFECT JULY 24


1911.












SOUTHWARD.


a

o

u

."3 o


STATIONS.


NORTHWARD.


SON.
ONLY.*


SAT.
ONLY


SUNDAY ONLY.


DAILY- EXCEPT SUN
DAY.


DAILY EXCEPT SUNDAY


SUNDAY ONLY.


SUN-
DAY


, ™


71


29


a 7


25


23 1 21


*


5


3


2


4


6


8


20


8


24


26


28


30


74


A.M.

12.30
12.35
12.45

s 12.58
1.23
1.32'

s 1.42

1.49

1.55

s 2.08

s 2.15

s 2.21

s 2.35
s 2.45
s 2.53
s 3.03
S 3.12

s 3.25

3.30
A. M.


P. M.

6.00

s 6.05

6.10

6.15

s 6 18
f 6.41
f 6 47
s 6.53

s 6.57
f 7.03
s 7.11
s 7.16
s 7.20

s 7.26
s 7.32
s 7.38
s 7.48
s 7.50
s 7,56

s 8.04

f 8.06

8.10

P. M.


P. M.

7.00
s7.05
f 7.10
f 7.16

S7.20
s 7.44
S7.51
S7.58

S8.03
f 8.09
S8.15
sS.20
SS.25

S8.31
s 8.37
S8.43
f 8.52
s S.54
S8.59

S9.07

f 9.09

9.15

P. M.


P. M.

4.00
S4.05

4.10
f 4.16

S4.20
f 4.44
s 4,51
■; 4.5s

S5.03
f 5.09
5 5.15

5 5.20
5 5.25

S5.31

S5.37
S5.43
f 5.52
S5.54
s 5.59

S6.07

f 6 09

6.15

P. M.


P. M.

1.00
sl.05

1.10
f 1.16

s 1.20
f 1.44
^ 1.51
s 1.58

S2.03
f 2.09
s 2.15
s 2.20
s J. 25

s 2.31

4 2.37
■i 2.43
f 2.52
s 2.54
S2.59

5 3.07
f 3.09

3.15

P. M.


A. M.

10.00
s 10.05
f 10.10
f 10.16

s 10.20
f 10.44
s 10.51
s 10.58

s 11.03
f 11.09
s 11.15
s 11.20
s 11.25

s 11.31
s 11.37
s 11.43
f 11.52
s 11.54
s 11.59

P. M.

s 12.07

f 12.09

12.15

P. M.


A. M.

6.45
S6.50

6.55
f 7.01

S7.05
f 7.29
f 7.36
S7.43

5 7.4S
f 7.54
s 8.00
5 8.05
S8.10

5 8.16
5 8.22
5 8.2S
f 8.37
S8.39
S8.44

s 8.52

f S 54

9.00

A. M.


P. M.

4.35
f 4.40

4.45
f 4.50

s 4.53
f 5.16
15.22
s 5 28

s5.32
f 5.3S
S5.46
S5.51
S5.55

S6.01
S6.07
S6.13
6.23
S6.25
s 6.31

S6.39

f 6.41

6.45

P. M.


A. M.

10.30
f 10.33

10.38
f 10.43

s 10.47
f 11.11
f 11.18
s 11.25

s 11.29
f 11.35
s 11.44
s 11.49
s 11.55

P. M.
s 12.02
s 12.09
s 12.15

12.25
s 12 27
s 12.32

s 12.39

f 12.41

12.45

P. M.


A. M.
5.20
f 5.25
S5.31
f 5.36

S5.41
f 6.05
f 6.12
S6.19

5 6.23
f 6.30
5 6 38
S6 43
S6.4S

S6.55
s 7.02
5 7.08
7.18
5 7.20
5 7.26

5 7.33

f 7.35

7.40

A. M.


0.00
1.77
4:37
5.94

6.79
15.26
18 51
21.37

23.30

25.74
28.27
29.68
31.01

32.62
34.91
35.90
39.77
40.15
41,66

44.16
44.84
47.07


Leave, Arr.

tColon

t.Mt, Hope ...

tMindi

New Gatun...

tGatun

tBohio

fTabernilla

tSan Pablo....

tMatachin
tBas Obispo.. .

Las Cascadas.

tCulebra

tParaiso Jet. . .
tPedro Miguel
Miraflores.. . .

Camp Diablo.
.4 rr. Leave.


A. M.
8.50
sS.47
S8.41
s 8.35

s 8.31
S8 06
S7.59
S7.52

s 7.46
f 7.40
s7.32
S7.26
S7.22

S7.16
s7.ll
S7.05
6.52
S6.50
S6.44

S6.37

s 6.35

6.30

A. M.


P. M.

1.00
f 12.57
f 12.51
f 12.45

s 12.41
f 12.16
s 12.09
s 12.02
P. M.
s 11.56
f 11.50
s 11.42
S 11.36
s 11.32

s 11.26
s 11.21
s 11.15
11.02
s 11.00
s 10.54

s 10.47

f 10 45

10.40

A. M.


P. M.

3.45
f 3.43
f 3.38
f 3.32

S3.29
f 3.04
f 2.57
S2.50

S2.44
f 2.38
S2.31
s 2.25
S2.21

S2.15
s 2.10
s 2.04
1.51
s 1.50
s 1.44

sl.37

f 1.35

1.30

P. M.


P. M.
7.45
f 7.42
f 7.36
f 7.30

S7.26
S7.01
S6.54
S6.4S

S6.41
f 6.35
S6.27

5 6.21
5 6.17

•i6.ll
5 6.06
<6.00
5.47
5 5.45
5 5.39

S5.32

f 5.30

5.25

P. M.


A. M.
9.00

s s.57
f 8.51
S8.46

S8.41
S8.16

s 8.19

s .-: 113

S7.58
f 7.52
S7.46
S7.40
s 7.35

S7.29
S7.23
S7.17
f 7.06
S7.04
s 6.59

S6.52

f 6.50

6.45

A. M.


P. M.

12.15

s 12.12

12.06

f 12.01

P. M.
s 11.56
s 11.31
s 11.24
s 11.18

s 11.13
f 11.07
s 1 1 .01
s 10.55
s 10.50

s 10.44
s 10.38
s 10.32
f 10.21
s 10.19
s 10.14

s 10.07

f 10.05

10.00

A. M.


P. M.

3.15
S3.12

3.06
f 3.01

S2.56
S2.31
s 2.24
s 2.1S

S2.13
f 2.07
S2.01
s 1.55
sl.50

s 1.44
s 1.3S
s 1.32
f 1.21
s 1.19
s 1.14

s 1.07

f 1.05

1.00

P. M.


P. M.

6.15

S6.12

6.06

f 6.01

s 5.56
S5.31
5 5.24
S5.18

S5.13
f 5.07
S5.01
S4.55
S4.S0

S4.44
S4.38
S4.32
f 4.21
S4.19
5 4.14

S4.07

f 4.05

4.00

P. M.


P. M.

9.15
S9.12

9.06
f 9.01

S8.56
s S.31
sS.24
S8.18

SS.13
f 8.07
s 8.01
S7.55
S7.50

S7.44
S7.38
S7.32
f 7.21
s7.19
s 7.14

s 7.07

f 7.05

7.00

P. M.


P. M.
11.55
s 11.52
f 11.46
f 11.41

s 11.37
f 11.16
s 11.10
s 11.04

s 10.59
f 10.53
s 10.47
s 10.41
f 10.36

s 10.30
s 10.24
s 10.16
f 10.04
s 10.01
s 9.55

s 9.48

f 9.45

9.40

P. M.


A. M.

2.05

s 2.03

1.57

1.52

s 1.50
f 1.25
f 1.18
s 1.11

s 1.05
f 12.59
s 12.53
s 12.47
s 12.42

s 12.37
s 12.31
s 12.25
f 12.12
s 12.10
s 12.04

A. M.

s +11.57

s +11.55

+11.50

p. at.


73


71


29


87


25


23


21


7


5


3


Tel. station,
f Flag station,
sston.


2


4


6


8


20


22


24


26


28


30


74



*No. 73 is a mixed train, carrying one or two first class coaches.
t Saturday night.



August 2, 1911.



THE CANAL RECORD



389



CANAL ZONE LANDS.



Status of Public and Panama Railroad Lands.

The policy of the Government with regard
to the leasing of public lands in the Canal
Zone, has not yet been determined, except so
far as it is indicated by the law of February
29, 1909, quoted below. The determination
depends on collateral questions, such as a
permanent form of government for the Canal
Zone, and whether the whole of the lands in
the Zone shall be purchased and held as a
Government reservation. A bill to this effect
is now pending in the Congress. Meanwhile,
a cadastral survey of Government and Pan-
ama railroad lands is nearing completion,
a land office for both classes of lands has been
established in the Law Department, with
headquarters at Ancon, and it will soon be
possible to carry out the provisions of the
land law above mentioned, which reads,
as follows:

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa-
tives of the United States of America in Congress as-
sembled. That the President is hereby authorized to
grant leases of the public lands in the Canal Zone,
Isthmus of Panama, for such period, not exceeding
twenty-five years, and upon such terms and conditions
as he may deem advisable. No lease, however, shall
be granted for a tract of land in excess of fifty hectares,
nor to any person who shall not have first established
by affidavit, and by such other proof as may be required
that such person is the head of a family or over the age
of twenty-one years, and that the application for a lease
is made in a good faith for the purposes of actual
settlement and cultivation, and not for the benefit
of any other person whatsoever, and that such person
will faithfully comply with all the requirements of law
as to settlement, residence, and cultivation. In granting
such leases, preference shall be accorded to actual
occupants of lands in good faith.

Sec. 2. That no portion of the lands of the United
States within the Canal Zone shall be leased hereunder
unless it shall first be made to appear, by a statement
or plat filed by the Isthmian Canal Commission with
the Collector of Revenues for the Canal Zone, that it
is not contemplated to use such lands in the work
of Canal construction, or to set the same aside as a
town site; and all leases shall be made subject to the
provision, that if, at any time, it shall become neces-
sary, notwithstanding, for the United States to occupy
' or use any portion of the leased lands, it shall have the
right to do so without further compensation to the
lessee, than for the reasonable value of the necessary
improvements made upon said tracts by the lessee,
the same to be determined by the courts of the Canal
Zone.

Sec. 5. That all leases of lands hereunder shall
reserve to the United States all mineral, oil, and gas
rights in the lands leased.

Sec. 4. That the President may, in his discretion,
require a land survey to be made of the Canal Zone.

Sec. 5. That the powers conferred upon the Presi-
dent under this Act may be exercised by him through
the Isthmian Canal Commission, or in such other
manner as he may designate.

Title to over 80 per cent of the lands in the
Canal Zone is in the United States Govern-
ment, either directly, or by the Panama
railroad, the division being, as follows:





Hectares*


Sq.
Miles.


U. S. Government —
Isthmian Canal Commission —
From French Canal Company
By purchase since 1904


13,518 /
12.865 i
46.218
21,440


102


Panama Railroad Company.. . .


83




94,041
18.838














112,879


436



From this statement it will be seen that
three classes of lands are recognized — (1)
public, (2) Panama railroad, (3) private.

THE PUBLIC LANDS.

The socalled public lands were acquired
by the United States by purchase. The lease
of the Canal Zone from Panama brought
with it a title to the common lands, within



the Zone, granted to the city of Panama by
Charles V in 1521, amounting to about
46,218 hectares. Originally, they included all
the lands within the confines of the Canal
Zone, but various titles by Government
grant and prescription, have been recognized.
The purchase of the property and rights of
the New Panama Canal Company of France
brought with it 13,518 hectares. By the con-
cession of March 20, 1878, the French com-
pany acquired the title to a 200-meter wide
belt of land on either side of the Canal, land
for the Canal, ports, and accessory works,
ceded in the case of public lands, and acquired
by condemnation in the case of privately
owned lands. Since the American occupation
in 1904, there have been pu chased, by
agreement or expropriation, from private
holders, 12,865 hectares.

At present, the status of the public lands
is, that about 103 square miles will be covered
by the water of the Canal, and Gatun and
Miraflores lakes, while other portions are
reserved for Canal construction and military
purposes, and as townsites. Land is actually
being leased for farming, on revocable licenses
only, because it is not known at present
exactly what tracts will be needed for the
Canal and associated work, and for new
townsites. Maps have recently been made,
however, by the various divisions and
departments, showing what lands will be
required, and when the data on these are
compiled, and the land survey mentioned
above completed, the Commission will be
in position to put into effect the provisions
of the law of February 27, 1909.

It has been the custom in Panama for any
one who wished to cultivate land, to clear it
and begin farming, without regard to the
ownership of the land so occupied. This
cultivation is of a very primitive kind, con-
sisting chiefly of scratching the ground with
a machete, or stick, and planting corn, yams,
cassava, plantains, bananas, or other fruits and
vegetables. Recently, it has increased to an
appreciable extent, and not a few of the Canal
laborers, largely negroes, have left the works
for this easy life in the bush. Both from the
standpoint of the labor force, and the future
leasing of the lands in legal and orderly
manner, this squatting is undesirable. In
order, therefore, that the squatters may be
given due notice that this custom will not
be tolerated in the future, the following
notice has been posted in parts of the Canal
Zone where they are most likely to see it:

NOTICE.

Every person who wilfully commits any trespass by
cutting down, destroying, or injuring any kind of
wood or timber standing or growing upon the lands
of another, or upon public lands, is guilty of a mis-
demeanor, and will be prosecuted accordingly.

Permission to occupy public lands, or lands of the
Panama Railroad Company, must be obtained from
the Land Agent, Ancon, Canal Zone.

The prohibition against cutting down wood
or timber is to prevent the clearing necessary
before the lands can be cultivated.

An article was published in The Canal
Record of February 5, 1908, giving the
status of the public lands up to that time.
When the United States Government took
possession of the Canal Zone in May, 1904,
there were leases in effect from the former
regime. The Secretary of War, to whom the
President had confided the direction of Canal
affairs, directed that leases be made, both
of the old common lands, and of lands
acquired by the French, under the provisions
of the law of July 28, 1892, authorizing the



Secretary of War to make revocable leases
of such property under his control as may
not, for the time, be required for public use,
for a term of not more than five years, pro-
viding no other provision exists for their lease.
On January 1, 1905, the issue of such leases
was turned over to the Collector of Revenues,
in whom that power remained until the
establishment of a land office by the Execu-
tive Order of January 19, 1911.

On January 1, 1906, the rent for agricul-
tural lands was fixed at $3 a year per hectare;
the rate charged for building lots in towns
varies from 5 to 30 cents per square meter,
according to the situation. On June 30, 1906,