Isthmian Canal Commission (U.S.).

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was 96 per cent completed, and the channel
excavation in the lower chamber 65 per cent
completed.

Back Fill — Back filling behind the walls of
the upper lock was continued, and was com-
menced behind the west wall of the middle
lock. A total of 66,589 cubic yards was
placed during January, increasing the total
to 260,717 cubic yards. On January 31, the
back fill was 21.64 per cent completed.

Receiving and Issuing Material — The re-
ceipts of material during the month exceeded
the consumption, with the exception of sand,
for which the consumption exceeded the
receipts by 5,488j cubic yards.

Mixing and Placing Plants — These plants
were kept in satisfactory operation during the
month. A second portable mixer was put
into operation on the east side of the upper
lock, and preparations were made for putting
in a third mixer for working on the operating
tunnels on the west wall. A fourth portable
mixer was placed temporarily in the lower
lock for building a strip of floor sufficiently
wide for carrying a narrow gage trestle into
the lower lock.

Power Plant and Pumps — The operation



total amount of concrete placed during the
month was 72.918J cubic yards, including
4,972 j- cubic yards of large stone. The
bucket measurement exceeded the place
measurement by 359j cubic yards. Of the
total concrete, 23,552| cubic yards were
placed in the upper lock, 42,238 cubic yards
in the middle lock, and 7,128 cubic yards in the
lower lock. The concrete work for the entire
lock system was 51.6 per cent completed at the
end of January.

OPERATION OF THE PERMANENT AND AUXILIARY CON-
CRETE CONSTRUCTION PLANTS, GATUN LOCKS.



Permanent Auxiliary
Plant. ! Plant.



8.00
6.00



2.00



Length of working day (hours) . . 12.19 \ 8.50

Average number of hours per

day worked per strand of

cableway laying concrete and

large stone (actual working

time)

Average number of mixers per

day

Average hourly output per mixer,

(actual working time) cu. yds.
Average amount of concrete and

large stone laid per hour, per

strand of cableway, (actual i

working time) cu. yds

Large rock laid, cu. yds

Concrete laid, cableways, cu. yds.
Concrete laid, derrick, cu. yds.. .
Concrete laid, derrick, crane

and lift. cu. yds \ i 13,040

Concrete laid, portable mixers 1 1,425.5



58.44 60.53



35.93
4,087}
53,350
490



885



Total amount concrete and
large rock laid, cu yds



57.9274J 15,350.5



Concrete from the auxiliary plant is placed by der-
ricks, crane, and a lift. It is. therefore, impracticable
to estimate the average amount placed per hour by
each of these units.

GATUN DAM.

Construction during the month increased
the total fill, as determined by cross sections
of the material in place, by 430,682 cubic
yards, making the total amount in place
11,763,337 cubic yards.

Hydraulic Fill — The dredges increased the
hydraulic fill by 211,992 cubic yards, borrow



pit measurement. The total hydraulic fill
in place on January 31 was 5,989,227 cubic
yards.

Dry Fill — The material received from the
Central Division, the locks, the spillway, and
the plant excavation, amounting to 218,690
cubic yards, was placed on the north and
south toes of the dam, east and west of the
spillway,' making the total dry fill in place
5,774,110 cubic yards.

GATUN SPILLWAY.

Excavation — The material excavated during
the month amounted to 5,636 cubic yards,
increasing the total spillway excavation to
1,571,125 cubic yards.

Concrete — -Work was continued on the con-
struction piers of the spillway dam across the
channel, 2,510 cubic yards of concrete being
placed, which increased the total to 115,778
cubic yards.

HARBOR AND CHANNEL SECTION.

Excavation Below Sea Level at Mindi — No
material was excavated during the month.
The opening made by dredge No. 86 was
closed, and pumping was started on January
15. By January- 31, the water surface had
been lowered to about elevation minus 34, and
two steam shovels were made ready to start
work.

Dredging from the Ocean to Mindi — Five
dredges removed 346,433 cubic yards of
earth and 43,865 cubic yards of rock from the
Canal prism. In addition, the dredge
Caribbean removed 35,054 cubic yards of
earth from the channel leading to dock No.
14. The dredge Mindi removed 3,197 cubic
yards of earth from in front of dock No. 3 at
Gatun. On January 31st, 40 feet of water
could be carried from zero to zero plus 3,500
feet; 30 feet to mile 5 plus 1,700 feet; 20
feet to mile 5 plus 2,440 feet, at the junction
with the French canal.

PORTO BELLO.
PERFORMANCE OF ROCK CRUSHER PLANT.

Length of working days — hours

From 1st to 15th 12:00

From 16th to 31st 10:00

Average number of hours worked per day

From 1st to 15th 8:62

From 16th to 31st 7:66

Average number of cubic yards per hour of
working day

From 1st to 15th 284.9

From 16th to 31st 331.9

Average hourly output for possible working

time of 263 hours 5 minutes . 320

Average number of cubic yards per working
hour

From 1st to 15th 396.4

From 16th to 31st 433.4

Total for month, cubic yards 84,072

Maximum day's output, cubic yards 4,255

SAND, STONE AND CEMENT SERVICE.

In connection with this service, plant
steamed 10,535 miles, handled 740 barges,
and carried about 2,690 passengers.

TORO POINT.

" Colon Breakwater — At Toro Point, 44,941
cubic yards of material were excavated, of
which amount 1,788 cubic yards were placed
in track fill, and 43,153 cubic yards in break-
water fill. The double track trestle was ex-
tended 283.5 linear feet.

NOMBRE DE DIOS.

During the month, 55 barges, containing
28,486 cubic yards of sand, were shipped to
Gatun.

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING.

The reservoirs, water mains, sewers, roads,
and oil pipe lines were maintained and ex-
tended as required to facilitate construction



February 22, 1911.



THE CANAL RECORD



205



work. Work was continued on the Colon
municipal improvements.

Central Division.

During the month of January', the total
amount of material excavated in the Central
Division was 1,614,362 cubic yards, of which
456,002 cubic yards were classified as earth,
and 1,158,360 cubic yards as rock. Of this
quantity, 1,585.406 cubic yards were removed
by steam shovels, 2,680 cubic yards by scraper,
and 9,452 cubic yards by bucket cranes.
Contractors removed 10,672 cubic yards by
slucing, and 6,152 cubic yards by hand. Of
the total, 1,590,297 cubic yards consisted of
primary excavation for the Canal prism,
8.4S0 cubic yards permanent diversion useful
after the Canal is completed, and 13,002 cubic
yards of silt deposited in completed sections
of prism. The total work excavation amount-
ed to 1,611,779 cubic yards. In addition,
2,583 cubic yards of gravel were excavated
outside of the Canal prism for ballast and
concrete use.

The daily average number of steam shovels
at work during the month was 47. 6S, and the
total number of shovel days was 1,192, as
compared with 45 58 shovels at work during
the month of December, with 1,185 shovel
days.

For comparison with the work done by
steam shovels during the corresponding month
of the previous year, the following table has
been prepared:



Period.


Excava-
ted by


Classification of
material.


O K


i.

>.

at


yn rds
shovel
lay.






Rock.


Earth.




1910:
Jan

1911:
Jan


Cu, Yds.
1.461.389

1.585.406


Cu. Yds.
1.128,835

1,158.360


Cu. Yds.
332,554

427.046


46.6S
47.6S


-'5
25


C. Y.
1.252.30

1.330 04



Rainfall at Empire: 1910. .70 ins.: 1911. .02 ins.

The above table shows the average output
per shovel to be six per cent greater in Jan-
uary, 1911, than in the corresponding month
of the previous year.

The total amount of material excavated
from the prism in the Culebra section of the
Central Division in January, 1911 — 1,347,914
cubic yards — was the highest record in that
section for the month of January, the previous
high record for the month having been in
January, 1910, when 1,323,693 cubic yards
were removed.

The total estimated amount of material
to be removed in the Central Division was
97,125,01S cubic yards, and up to February
1, 1911, 69,404,634 cubic yards had been re-
moved, leaving 28,720,378 cubic yards to be
removed in order to complete all excavation
in the Central Division. From these figures
it will be seen that 71.46 per cent of all exca-
vation in the Central Division had been com-
pleted up to the close of the month of January-,
and 28.54 per cent remained uncompleted.

Considering the two sections which com-
pose the Central Division, the excavation com-
pleted and that to be completed at the close
of January operations was, as follows:

CULEBRA SECTION.

Cubic Yards.

Completed 58,262,327

To be completed 25,924.397

CBAGRES SECTION.

Completed 11,142.307

To be completed 1 ,795,987

From the above figures it will be seen that

the Culebra section, locally known as Culebra

Cut, was 69.22 per cent completed, with 30.78

per cent to be completed ; the Chagres section



was S6.12 per cent completed, with 13.88
per cent to be completed.

During the month, 9,400 cubic yards of
material were hauled from the Canal prism
and dumped in the embankment for the road-
bed of the relocated Panama railroad in the
vicinity of Pedro Miguel. The total amount of
spoil from the Central Division used for this
purpose at the close of the month was 3,742,-
574 cubic yards. The Central Division also
delivered at Gatun 207,498 cubic yards of
rock and earth for use in the construction of
the dam, making the total for this purpose
at the end of January 2,713,055 cubic yards.

The daily average number of laborers at
work on the whole division during the month
was 8,137, and the daily average number of
gold employes 904.

Pacific Division.
DISTRICT NO.l — LOCKS AND DAMS.

Excavation — The total excavation during
the month amounted to 64,434 cubic yards.

Filling and Embankment — During January,
no additional dry filling was added to the
prism of the west dam at Pedro Miguel, the
total amount of material in place at the close
of the month remaining at 260,852 cubic
yards, as previously reported. The back fill
at Pedro Miguel was increased by 31,072
cubic yards, the total in place at the end of
the month amounting to 61,159 cubic yards.

At Miraflores, 24,685 cubic yards were
added to the dry fill in the toes, and 89,243
cubic yards to the hydraulic fill in the core of
the west dam, making the totals at the end
of the month 634,548 cubic yards, and 383,955
cubic yards, respectively. The back fill was
increased by 1,060 cubic yards, making the
total amount in place at the end of the month
134,605 cubic yards.

PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS.
OPERATION OF THE PERMANENT AND AUXILIARY CON-
CRETE CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AT PEDRO MIGUEL.



Permanent Auxiliary
Plant. Plant.



Length of working dav (hours). . .




8.00


8.00


Average number of hours per day ,








per unit, worked laying con-








crete and large stone (actual












5.26


4.11


Average number of mixers per












2.72


1.60


Average hourly output per mixer


Cu


Yds.


Cu. Yds.


(actual working time)




74.44


37.84


Average amount of concrete and








large stone laid per hour, per








chamber crane (actual working








time)




58.62








32.00


81.00




30.810.00


7,590 00








30.842.00


7;671.00





*Auxiliary plant consists of three 2-cubic yar, 1
mixers, averaging 1.6 daily, and two locomotive
cranes and three derricks averaging 2.6 units daily.

The excavation for the center wall in the
forebay was completed, and the concrete work
commenced. The laying of the tracks for
the purpose of back filling the west wall was
finished, and the work begun.

Concrete Work — The concrete work at Pe-



dro Miguel for January showed a decrease
of 3,871 cubic yards over the figures for Decem-
ber. The total amount placed was 38,513
cubic yards, including 113 cubic yards of
large stone. The concrete was placed, as
follows- 18,536 cubic yards in the center wall:
8,507 cubic yards in the west wall; 1,298
cubic yards in the west head wall; 9,706 cubic
yards in the east wall; and 466 cubic yards in
the floor. The dismantling of berm crane
"G" for the purpose of moving it to Mira-
flores was commenced, it not being practicable
to use the plant to its full capacity in the
future, on account of the placing of the anchor-
age bolts and other iron work for the gates,
together with the castings for the Stoney
valves.

MIRAFLORES LOCKS.

Work on the west storage trestle at Mira-
flores was continued during the month, and
the filling of the dike at the Agua Dulce
pumping station was commenced.

Excavation — The hydraulic excavation plant
was removed from the lower lock site, with
the exception of two monitors and a relay
pump, which are engaged in cutting out the
barrier between the upper and lower lock
sites. A steam shovel was employed in exca-
vating an incline into the lower lock site, in
order that the rock excavation by steam
shovels can be commenced.

Concrete Work — The total amount of con-
crete and large stone laid was 24.018 cubic
yards, as compared with 21,533 cubic yards
during December. The concrete was placed,
as follows: 7,482 cubic yards in the center
wall; 14,611 cubic yards in the east wall;
and 1,925 cubic yards in the floor.

OPERATION OF THE PERMANENT AND AUXILIARY CON-
CRETE CONSTRUCTION PLANTS AT MIRAFLORES.





Permanent
Plant.


Auxiliary
Plant.


Length of working day (hours) . .

Average number of hours per day
per unit, worked laying con-
crete and large stone (actual


8.00
7.48


S.OO
6.1S


Average number of mixers per


6.84


Average hourly output per mixer


Cu. Yds.


Cu. Yds.
21.89


Average amount of concrete and
large stone laid per hour per
chamber crane (actual work-














203.00
11,310.00


379.00




12,126.00








11,513.00


12,505.00







Auxiliary plant consists of two 2-yard mixers, five
1-yard mixers, and one J-yard mixer.

Placing plant consists of one berm crane opera-
ting one boom, and mixers dumping directly into forms
also locomotive and cars canying concrete from mixers
to berm crane.

DISTRICT NO. 2 — DREDGING.

The following is a statement of the output
of the five dredges which were in operation
during the month, and of the amount of
material excavated hydraulically:





Type.


WORK.


Plant.


Total.






Earth.


Rock.


Earth.


Rock.






Dipper


Cu. Yds.

51,777


Cu. Yds.
5.187


Cu. Yds.
1,400

186.136


Cu. Yds.


Cu. Yds.

58.364

186,136

12,251

57.751
252. S44












Ladder.. . .

Ladder

Suction... .


10.123
33.623
252,844


2.12S
24,128
































Total


34S.367
*S9.243


31.443


187.536




567,346
89.243




















Grand Total


437.6:0








656.589












*Exc ivated from lower lock site at Miraflores.



206



THE CAN'A'L RE'CORD



Vol. IV., No. 26.



CHAME SAND EXCAVATION.

Approximately 45,800 cubic yards of sand
were excavated at Punta Chame and deliv-
ered at Balboa.

DISTRICT NO. 3 — MUNICIPAL AND SANITARY
IMPROVEMENTS.

The reservoirs, water mains, sewers, and
oil pipe lines were maintained, and work was
continued on the municipal improvements
in the city of Panama.

DISTRICT NO. 4 — ANCON QUARRY.
PERFORMANCE OF ROCK CRUSHER PLANT.

Hours.

Length of working day 12:00

Average number of hours per day (actual

working time) 9:01

Cu. Yds.
Average amount crushed per hour of working

day 231.08

Average amount crushed per working hour... 307.79
Total output for the month 69.325.00

An additional force was put to work strip-
ping, which will be continued throughout the
dry season, as it is anticipated that during the
dry season a sufficient amount of stone may
be uncovered to last during the following rainy
season. The 12-hour shift was continued
during the month, but will probably be dis-
continued at the end of February, as it is ex-
pected that the storage trestles at Miraflores
will be sufficiently filled by that time.
Relocation of Panama Railroad.

During the month, 251,793 cubic yards of
material were excavated, making the total
excavation at the close of the month 5,509,-
560 cubic yards, and 260,523 Cubic yards of
material were placed in embankment, making
a total of 10,874,131 cubic yards used for
this purpose.

For comparison with the work done by
steam shovels during the preceding month,
and during the corresponding month of the
previous year, the following table has been
prepared:



Period.


Excava-
ted by
Shovels.


Classific

mate

Rock.


i tion of
rial.

Earth.


o"|.M

Zoo

> w *^
<**


>.
CO

■a

26
25

25


to >

T3 O

=:•£
F to

-t. >.

> f K


1910:

Dec

Jan .... .

1911:


Cu. Yds.
233.720
206,334

251,175


Cu. Yds.

132.380
102.104

162,390


Cu. Yds.
101,3t0
104,230

SS.785


6.00
8.24

6.00


1,498
1,002

1.676



During the month, 965 feet of temporary
trestle were driven, and work on bridges and
culverts was continued. The amount of
permanent 70-pound track was increased
during the month by 697 linear feet. At the
end of the month, the total 70-pound and 90-
pound permanent track amounted to 157,744
linear feet, and 18,997 linear feet, respectively.
The total force averaged 1,875 men.
Quartermaster's Department.

Labor — On January 25, the total force em-
ployed by the Commission and the Panama
Railroad Company was 37,271, an increase of
2,139 over the report for the last week in the
previous month. The quarantine reports
indicate that immigration has fallen off. Near-
ly 500 Spanish laborers secured releases from
the district quartermaster at Cristobal during
the past two months.

Material and Supplies — Effective January
1, 1911, the purchasing, handling and distri-
bution of material for the Panama Railroad
Company was transferrred to the Commission,
a charge of $6,000 per minth being made by
the Commission for this service. United
States requisitions for the Panama railroad
will be handled in the same manner as for a



construction division of the Commission, and
for the Departments of Sanitation and Civil
Administration; stock material being issued
from the Quartermaster's storehouses, and
equipment and special material ordered on
requisition through the main office of the
Quartermaster's Department. The larger
part of the stock now carried by the Panama
railroad storehouse at Colon will be transferred
to the Mount Hope depot, and the Panama
railroad supplied therefrom, or by the local
line storehouses of the Quartermaster's
Department. Sufficient stock will be re-
tained at the Panama railroad storehouse to
meet the requirements of the Cristobal shops
only.

During the past six months an investigation
was made of the stock of repair parts at the
various storehouses, the investigation cover-
ing air brake equipment, injectors and lubri-
cators, steam shovel, locomotive, dredge, car
and drill parts. Surpluses at the smaller
storehouses have been turned in and stocks
concentrated at Empire, Gorgona, and Mount
Hope. This concentration will result in fewer
orders in the future, and, on some classes of
equipment, such as air brake parts, lubricators,
injectors and their parts, the practical elimi-
nation of future orders, the present stock of
this material on hand being probably suffi-
cient until the completion of the work.

The total value of material received by the
Commission during the month of January was
less than during any previous month of the
present fiscal year. The total weight of cargo,
exclusive of lumber, cross-ties and piling,
aggregated 44,549 tons. Yellow pine lumber
was delivered in the amount of 1,977,175 feet,
B. M., and Douglas fir timber in the amount
of 2,051,780 feet, B. M. The value of all
material received was $781,211.19.

Subsistence Department.

The operation of the European laborers'
messes, the colored laborers' kitchens, and the
line hotels showed a net profit of $2,525.93.
The operation of the Hotel Tivoli showed a
net profit of $2,964.78, and there was a net
profit on restaurants and penitentiary of
$309.88. The net profit on subsistence oper-
ations was $5,800.59. During January, the
sum of $1,728.14 was charged against the
Hotel Tivoli for renewal and repairs to equip-
ment.

Department of Civil Administration.
COURTS.

One civil case was disposed of in the Su-
preme Court of the Canal Zone; 11 civil and
42 criminal cases in the Circuit Courts, and
58 civil and 387 criminal cases in the District
Courts.

DIVISION OF POSTS, CUSTOMS AND REVENUES.

Money order sales for January amounted
to $413,964.14, and the fees to $1,82S.06.
Receipts from stamp and card sales, and
newspaper postage aggregated $6,695.78.
The total collection of revenues made by the
division was $19,598.70, and the collection on
account of court fines, costs, and fees, $2,067.-
83.

Twenty-five vessels entered at, and 22 ves-
sels cleared from the port of Ancon; and 27
vessels entered at, and 25 vessels cleared from
the port of Cristobal.

DIVISION OF POLICE AND PRISONS.

• The total number of persons arrested was
384, of whom 355 were men and 29 women.
Thirty-eight nationalities were represented.



The total number of arrests for the month is
adecrease of 161, as compared with December.
Eight convicts were committed to the peniten-
tiary, and 13 were discharged, leaving 144 in
confinement at the close of the month. The
cost of guarding and subsisting the convicts
was $2,274.88, and the value of their work on
the Canal Zone roads $2,083.90.

DIVISION OF FIRE PROTECTION.

Forty-four fires were reported in the Canal
Zone during the^month. This increase was
partly due to the advent of the dry season,
and the consequent number of small fires
occurring along the railroad, traceable to
sparks from locomotives. The estimated
value of the property involved was: Commis-
sion, $194,869.11; Panama railroad, $17,272.-
35; private property, $1,000; total, $213,-
141.46. The damage to Commission property
was $868.42; Panama railroad, $20; private
property, $42; total, $930.42.

DIVISION OF PUBLIC WORKS.

In the city of Panama, the average daily
consumption of water was 1,186,922 gallons,
and in Colon, 1,008,466 gallons.

The usual inspection and maintenance
work of this division was performed during
the month.

DIVISION OF SCHOOLS.

The total enrollment in the white schools
during the month was 1,048, and the average
daily attendance 863.8, or 93 per cent of the
enrollment; and in the colored schools the
total enrollment was 1,209, and the average
daily attendance, 626.6, or 80 per cent. Forty
white and 24 colored teachers were employed
in the division on January 31.

Department of Sanitation.

The total number of deaths from all causes
among employes was 40. These were divided,
as follows: From disease, 20, and from vio-
lence, 20, giving the general average per
thousand of 5.07 and 5.07, respectively.

The annual average death rate per thousand

among employes for the month of January in

previous years since American occupation was,

as follows:

1905 15.40

1906 40.93

1907 25.62

1908 12.72

1909 10.98

The annual average death rate per thousand
in the cities of Panama, Colon, and the Canal
Zone, including both employes and civil popu-
lation, was 21.05.

The annual average death rate per thousand
for the month of January among the same
class of population for previous years was, as
follows:

1905 46.50

1906 47.75

1907 35.12

1908 26.66

1909 22.86

Segregating the whites from the blacks, the
annual average death rate per thousand from
disease among the employes was: For whites,
1.89; blacks, 6.23, giving a general average of
5.07. For the same month during 1909, the
annual average death fate per thousand from
disease was: Whites, 9.93; blacks, 7.08, giving
a general average of 7.89, and for the same
month during 1910: Whites, 1.95; blacks, 8.91,
giving a general average of 7.21.

Among employes during January, 1911,
deaths from the principal diseases were, as
follows: Typhoid fever, 1; tuberculosis, S;
chronic nephritis, 3; haemoglobinuric fever, 2;
and lobar pneumonia, 1, leaving a balance



February 22, 1911.



THE CANAL RECORD



207



of five deaths from all other disesases, and 20
deaths from external violence.

No cases of yellow fever, smallpox, or
plague were brought to, or originated on the