the dry fill of the toes is allowed to encroach
on the hydraulic fill, and, at present, the toes
are within 40 feet of the limit prescribed for
them. The dry- and wet fills of the west
half are being carried on. The dry fill of the
toes has reached an average height of 52 feet
above sea level, and the hydraulic fill is at 40
In the spillway, work on the side of the
concrete dam is being carried on behind coffer
dams, and this part of the work will be finished
during the present dry season. The eleven
concrete piers, which have been built across
the channel to a height of 45 feet above sea
level, will be used in holding back the water
from any section of the dam site in which it is
desired to lay concrete. Grooves have been
left in them to hold boards which will act as
a dam. The piers are on the upper line of the
spillway dam and will form a part of the com-
pleted dam after they have served their pur-
pose in the construction work.
Concrete was placed in the spillway of
Gatun Dam during the week ending March 4,
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
Previously reported . .
Test of Gate Valves.
In the approach to the upper locks at Gatun,
preparations are being made for the test of a
Stoney gate valve under the full height of
85 feet ■ of w-ater, against which it will be
obliged to operate when the Canal is completed.
The test will be made by sealing up the cul-
vert in which the gate is installed and filling
the valve chamber. This will test the efficien-
cy of the sealing devices and show the effect
on the spring side seals when the gate is oper-
ated, and the initial force which will be re-
quired to break the water seal and open the
valves about one foot. In the spillway at
Gatun Dam, three of the piers which have
been built for coffer dam purposes have been
so constructed that the Stoney gate valves
may be tested under working conditions.
Pedro Miguel Locks.
With the greater part of the walls in place,
the work of laying concrete in the locks at
Pedro Miguel is proceeding more slowly than
formerly, although the amount placed in
February shows an increase over the prece-
ding month. The concrete work is now largely
confined to the ends of the lock, where the
extensions of the center and side walls are
advancing toward completion. The con-
struction of the outlet at the lower end of the
center wall culvert is under way, and the
work of building the overhead arches that
form the extensions over the south end outlets
of the side wall culverts is about to be begun.
Three of the Stoney gate valves, and four of
the guard gate valves, have been placed in
position to date. The work of laying con-
crete in this lock was begun on September 1
1909, and up to March 5th, 565,547 cubic
yards, out of a total of 837,400, had been
laid, indicating that over 67 per cent of the
concrete necessary to complete the lock is in
place. The earlier part of the concrete work,
including all of the south guide wall as it now
stands, was accomplished with stationary and
portable mixing machinery. With the in-
stallation of the permanent handling and
mixing plant, consisting of two berm cranes
and four chamber cranes, an impetus was
given the work, which, a few weeks ago, had
advanced so far as to permit of the dismant-
ling of one of the berm cranes for transfer to
Miraflores I neks.
As at Pedro Miguel, the early concrete
work in the upper of the two locks at Mira-
flores, which was begun in June, 1910, has
proceeded with the use of an miliary and porta-
ble mixers, and up to March 4, over 146,000
cubic yards had been laid by this method.
The stationary mixing plant in this lock con-
sists of two 2-cubic yard mixers, situated in
the east storage trestle, and its output has
been carried into the lock on cars. The
plant will be abandoned, and the mixers
transferred to the east beim crane, which, it
is expected, will be ready for operation with-
in the next ten days. The west berm crane
is also practically completed. These cranes
will deposit concrete directly into the walls.
A considerable section of the east wall of the
lock has been completed, and it is being ex-
tended into the forebay ; the batter, or founda-
tion section of the center wall is two-thirds
finished, and work on the west side wall has
been started. The floor and lateral culvert
system is completed, with the exception of
joining the culverts to the west wall tube.
Several of the cylindrical valves have been
erected, and the settling basin above the up-
per guard gate is nearly finished.
The preliminary work for excavating the
material in the lower lock, not removed by
the sluicing and pumping process, is well ad-
vanced. The incline construction track in-
to the lock is completed, and a shovel cut
has been made at the upper end for the pur-
pose of beginning the excavation for the
Nombre de Dios Sand Output.
The projected loading bin at Nombre de
Dios has not been constructed, but good re-
sults are now obtained from the 18-inch
suction dredge pumping sand directly into
the barges. The output of sand varies be-
tween 35,000 and 40,000 cubic yards a month,
and the quantity that can be supplied is
limited only by the barge capacity. The
weekly consumption at Gatun varies in
accordance with the amount of concrete
placed, the amount of sand used being about
two-fifths of a cubic yard for every yard of
Hydraulic Excavation in Pacific Division.
Part of the lower lock excavation at Mira-
flores was accomplished by the hydraulic pro-
cess, and the work has now been extended to
the section of the Canal prism lying between
the lower lock and the dredged channel to
Balboa. The process involves the disinte-
grating and sluicing of the original material
by means of powerful pumps forcing the
water at a high pressure through four moni-
tors, or giants, and the lifting of the material
thus disintegrated out of the pit by dredge
pumps. Most of the material disposed of so
far has been utilized in making the core fill
of the west dam at Miraflores, but as this
work draws to a conclusion, it will be used
for reclaiming the tidal swamps between
Corozal and the Canal.
THE CANAL RECORD
Vol. IV., No. 28.
THE EMERGENCY DAMS.
Contracts Soon to be Let for This Feature of
Bids will be opened in the Washington
office of the Isthmian Canal Commission on
March 30 for six emergency dams, two each
for the locks at Gatun, Pedro Miguel, and
Miraflores, and for the machinery to operate
them. The bids have been advertised for in
the usual way, and, in addition, responsible
European manufacturers have been invited
to submit bids. The law governing the let-
ting of contracts provides that materials for
the Canal may be purchased from foreign
manufacturers in case thePresident deems the
bids of American manufacturers exorbitant.
The dams are to be completed and erected
at Gatun and Pedro Miguel by January 1,
1913, and at Miraflores by September 1. 1913.
The masonry at Gatun will be ready on June
1, 19 11, at Pedro Miguel on September 1, 1911,
and at Miraflores on January 1, 1912. Tests
are provided for at the shops of the manu-
facturer and a final test when the dams are
completed and erected, and twenty per cent
of the total cost will be withheld until the
final test has been mec. The total amount
of material for the six dams is 12,000 tons.
The purpose of these dams is to check the
flow of water through the locks, in case of dam-
age, or in case it should be necessary to make
repairs, or to do any work in the locks,
which would necessitate the shutting off of all
water from the lake levels. The dams will be
placed in pairs in the approaches to the upper
locks about 200 feet above the upper guard
gates, and each will close the approach to one
of the twin locks.
Each dam is constructed on a steel truss
bridge of the cantilever type, pivoted on the
side wall of the approach to the locks, and
when not in use, resting on the side wall
parallel to the channel. When the dam is in
use the bridge will be swung across the chan-
nel with the long arm resting on the center
wall. A series of six girders, hinged to this
bridge in such a way that they may be raised
and lowered through an angle of 90 degrees,
will be lowered into the approach channel,
with their ends resting in iron pockets em-
bedded in the masonry. After the girders
are lowered in place, six panels, movinginthem
on roller bearings, will be allowed to roll down
until they form a horizontal tier spanning the
width of the Canal and damming the water
to a height of ten feet. When this operation
is completed, another series of six panels will
be lowered, and the operation will be con-
tinued until a dam is constructed from the
bottom upward, completely closing the chan-
nel. When this dam has checked the main
flow of water, the remainder, which is due to
the clearance between the vertical sides of the
gates, may be checked by driving steel pipes
between the sides of the adjacent panels.
The bridge which will hold the girders will
be larger than any swing bridge yet con-
structed. Its total length will be 263 feet,
the long arm which extends over the lock
and holds the dam, approximately 163 feet,
and the short arm about 98 feet. The ex-
treme width will be 93 feet. At the end of
the short arm will be built the operating
house, in which machinery will be installed
for turning and wedging the bridge. This
bridge, when operated by electricity, must
be safely and easily opened in two minutes,
and when operated by hand, in 30 minutes.
The dams for Pedro Miguel and Gatun will
be five panels high and all of the same size,
but those at Miraflores will be only four panels
high due to the less depth of water at Mira-
The wicket girders, on which the gate
panels will operate, will be plate girders of
the box type, braced by the top lateral sys-
tem of sway frames. The material will be
open hearth nickel steel, excepting the rods,
which will be structural open hearth steel.
The panels for the gates will consist of frames
with buckle plates riveted to them, the mate-
rial to be vanadium steel cast : ngs and struc-
tural open hearth rolled steel. On the
down stream side of each frame, flange wheels,
acting on roller bearings with ball bearing
end thrust, will be fastened to the castings,
and on these wheels, the plates will be lowered
or lifted on the wicket girders.
Each dam will be operated in three move-
ments, and the machinery for operating is,
therefore, in three classes — (1) The gatemov-
ing machinery, (2) machines for raising and
lowering the wicket girders, and (3) machines
for hoisting the gates on the girders. It will
be driven by electric motors, but hand cap-
stans will be provided for use in emergency.
The bridge operating machinery will be
erected in the operator's house, at the end
of the short arm, and will consist of two
motors for turning the bridge, a limit switch
to prevent operation beyond an arc of 90
degrees, and a motor for driving the wedges
which will hold the bridge firmly in place
when it is at rest across the channel, or
on the lock wall. The machine for raising
and lowering each of the six wicket girders
of each dam will consist of a hoisting drum
driven by a motor, and equipped with a
limit switch. The gates on the wicket girders
will roll into place by gravity, and, when the
dam is to be opened, they will be hoisted out
of the water by a machine. There will,
therefore, be six gate hoisting machines for
each dam, and as many motors to drive them.
The chief items of materials for the six
emergency dams are, as follows: Thirty-six
wicket girder hoisting machines, with 36
motors and limit switches, thirty-six gate
hoisting machines with 36 motors. Twelve
motors to operate the bridge turning ma-
chinery, with six limit switches and six
motors for driving the wedges. Nickel steel
for vertical and horizontal trusses, and
longitudinal and transverse girders, 9,290,000
pounds. Riveted structural steel for sway
frames, portals, lateral systems, floor, ma-
chinerysupports, and gates, 5,852,000 pounds.
Carbon steel castings for center pivot, wedges
and wedge seats, gear wheels, bearings, etc.,
2,340,000 pounds. Carbon steel forgings,
shafts and pins, 300,000 pounds. Cold rolled
steel, 132,000 pounds. Turned bolts, 60,000
pounds. Checkered steel plates for floors,
180,000 pounds. Gas pipe for hand railing,
72,000 pounds. Brass pipe for hand railing
in opeiators' houses, 46,000 pounds. Man-
ganese bronze for worm wheels and center
discs, 39,000 pounds. Chrome vanadium
forging steel for upper and lower center discs,
24,000 pounds. Vanadium case hardening
steel for flanged gate wheels, 290,000 pounds.
Vanadium steel castings, wheel castings for
gates, carriage yokes, main pinions, main
pinion bearings, and rack segments, 1,022,000
Virginia, and all employes of the Isthmian
Canal Commission, who at any time have held
positions on the faculty of an American col-
lege, are requested to send their names to
YV. M. James, Ancon.
Small Slide at Paralso.
The digging necessary to maintain the
track on the 95-foot level on the east bank
of Culebra Cut at Paraiso has caused a small
slide, which includes the site of the commis-
sary building, and it is likely that this build-
ing will be moved.
Colonel H. F. Hardie, U. S. A., arrived on
the Isthmus on the Panama on March 1.
Mr. Stanley W. Wood, for six years on the
engineering forces of the Canal and Panama
railroad recently passed the examination for
a commission in the Army, standing second
out of a class of 39, and he has been com-
missioned a second lieutenant in the infantry.
All persons on the Isthmus, who at any time
have been students at the University of
Action in the Case of M. H. Lough.
As a consequence of the affirmation of the
Supreme Court of the Canal Zone of the ver-
dict rendered by the Court of the Third Judi-
cial Circuit, finding Mr. Matthew H. Lough
guilty of criminal negligence in having caused
the death of Conductor E. C. Tinsley in a
railroad collision, at Bohio, on August 15,
1910, a mass meeting was held at Las Casca-
das on Sunday, February 25, at which the
following resolutions were adopted:
We, the citizens of the United States of America and
employes of the Isthmian Canal Commission on the
Canal Zone in mass meeting assembled do on this 26th
day of February, 1911. hereby severely protest against
the persecution and unjust prosecution of one M. H.
Lough, who is now unjustly confined in the Culebra
penitentiary after nearly seven months of dilatory
prosecution on the part of the civil authorities of the
Canal Zone, which lias left said M. H. Lough a wreck
mentally and physically. And we believe the contin-
uance of such persecution will be the death of M. H.
Lough. Therefore, be it resolved.
, First. We demand the liberty of said M. H. Lough.
Second. That the Chief Engineer of the Isthmian
Canal Commission, or his representative, and the Gov-
ernor of the Canal Zone use his or their prerogative and
annul the proceedings and unjust decision in this case,
as establishing a precedent unjust, unfair and a relic
of barbarism, under which we do not care to remain as
Third. That unless said M. H. Lough is liberated as
above requested and the iniquitous decision and unjust
precedent annulled, you may consider our services with
the Isthmian Canal Commission terminated at six
o'clock, p. m.. Monday, February 27, 1911 (changed
to Friday, March 3, 1911, by a later resolution), and
arrange to transport us to the United States where we
can enjoy the protection of the Constitution, a jury
trial, tranquillity, and the pursuit of happiness.
The resolutions were presented te the Act-
ing Chairman by a number of the men the
same afternoon, and he informed them that
no action could be taken until the case had
been carefully gone over, which he would
have done, so that the matter could be laid
before the Chairman, upon the latter's return
from the States. The Chairman declined to
take any action whatsoever in reference to
these resolutions. A petition for Mr. Lough's
pardon was subsequently circulated, which
will be forwarded to the President, together
with the records in the case for consideration
and action. Mr. Lough's case was taken up
with the President by a committee of the lo-
comotive engineers during his visit to the
Canal Zone, and he directed that this course
be pursued in case the Supreme Court sus-
tained the action of the lower court, and to
advised the committee.
March 8, 1911.
THE CANAL RECORD
EMERGENCY DAM— M1RAFLORES LOCKS.
[DAMS AT CATUN AND PEDRO MIGUEL LOCKS ARE FIVE PANELS HIGH, INSTEAD OF FOUR, AS SHOWN HERE.]
Emergency Dam is shown chsed with Wicket Girders and seme Gates
lowered in place.
Emergency Dam is shown open with Wtcket Girders and Gates
r n i
I f I I. I
-tO /GO i&Q
Elevation looking Downstream.
A — Operators' House.
B— Concrete counterweight.
C — Center bearing.
D— Wicket girders.
PLAN— EMERGENCY DAM.
Leulnd— (Scale 1 to 1000.)
F — Gi'dtr hoi'-tin^ ma^hiiery.
G— Gate hji?ting machinery.
H — Quadrant.
J— Vertical trust.
K— Horizontal tru<=s.
L — Electric locomotive track.
N— Bjoms for wicket girder.
Vol. IV., No. 28.
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