J. A. (John Adolphus) Etzler.

The paradise within the reach of all men, without labour, by powers of nature and machinery : an address to all intelligent men online

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Online LibraryJ. A. (John Adolphus) EtzlerThe paradise within the reach of all men, without labour, by powers of nature and machinery : an address to all intelligent men → online text (page 1 of 14)
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^Iie Iteforiiiersii* liibrary.

This work, to meet the spirit of pure and liberal in*
<|uiry which distinguishes the present age, is published ia
a series of elegantly printed small volumes, price Five
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'1 he object of the Reformers' Library is tg collect into
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VOL. I. Contains: s. d.

" The Rights of Man," on fine paper, and bound in
cloth, with highly-Hnished likenesses of Paiue
-, and Lafayette, engraved on steel ...... 50

'* Bolingbroke's Patriot King," and his celebrated
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" The Rights of Nations ; a Treatise on Represen-
tative Government, Despotism, and Reform ;"
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*' Popery, as opposed to Knowledge, the Morals,

the Wealth, and the Liberties of Mankind" • • 5

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PubUshed by J. Brooks.

" Quopn !\Iiib.'' Bv Percy Bysshe Shelley. A very s. d,
handsomp edition, 8ro. with notes, and an en-

ji^raved title-page ..,.••...•..• 9

" ilevoU of Islam." By the snme Authcvr . # . 10 6

*' Cenci." Same Author 4 6

" Six Weeks' Tour." Same Author 5

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" Paine's Common Sense,'' " The Crisis," and

" At^rarian Justice'* ...» 1 6

" Iiolincrbroki''s Patriot King,'' and his cele-

brateil " Kssav on Patriotism," with his Life • 1 6
" Reformers' ('atechism ;" in which the Princi-
ples of "The Bights of Nations" are reduced

to Question and Answer •«... 1 6

" The People's Charter," a condensed View of
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ment and Reform •••• 3

'' Kcce Homo" (very scarce) .•...••. 80
" Confessions of Faith." By a Philosopher . • 3
" A \'oice of One Crying in the Desert.'' Black-
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" Light on the Employment of the Poor in Ireland" 6

" Voice of Truth" 3

«' JNIoral Physiology," 10th edition. By H. D.

Owen 10

" Owen's Lectures,'' each 3

" Lecture on Community." By J. E.Smith • • 3

" Code of Nature, being a Guide to Happiness" 1

*' Religion of Jesus Heconcileil with Philosophy" 3
'* Urania's Key to Revelation." By A. Mackey,

of Norwich 6

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" Ditto Liturgy," bound in cloth 16

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" Paradise within the Reach of All Men'' • . • 2 6
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Toil and poverty will he no inorc among: men ;
>>atarc aHoriis iii(inite powers and wealth ;
Let us but observe an«l reason.

The wi-e examines before he judges;
The fool judges before he examines.




Look here, ye pliilosopliers, ye speculators, ye epi-
cureans, ye philanthropists, ye who seek the philoso-
pher's stone, ye who undergo all hardships and dan-
gers, and traverse the ocean from one extremity to the
other in search of money ; — a new, easy, straight and
short road to the summit of your wishes is shown. —
Ye who are tired of life's toil and vexations, drop your
tool, pause a little, and look here at the means for a
new life, free of labour, full of enjoyments and pleasures ;
collect your thoughts, and reflect with the greatest
solicitude that you are capable of, upon the means and
■ways presented to you here, for the greatest human
happiness imaginable, for yourselves, for the objects of
your endearments, and for your posterity for evej.

Here is no idle fancy, no vain system presented to
amuse you merely ; no scheme for deceiving you, or
for cheating you out of your money ; — but only sub-
stantial means for your greatest happiness are here
displayed before your eyes, in a fair, open, and honest
way ; no sacrifice, no trust, no risk is asked of you ;
nothing but the trouble to examine. If the author be
in error — why, you will then soon discover it; but if
he is right, then no endeavours, even of the greatest
prater, will be able to disprove the exhibited truths.

" Why gives the author so great invaluable discove •


riesto the public — discoveries, wliicli, if true, he mijjht
sell for millions ? — Or is he so simple us not to know
how to avail himself of his discoveries for his best
profit?" '

These are questions you probably will ask. I vili
answer them directly. It is because I want to sell
these my productions at the hiu;hest price 1 can get for
them, just as you do with youisin the market. Now,
mere millions are too low a price for my discoveries.
I want to sell them at a much higher rate; at the
rate of seeing aU my fcllow-mcn, and myself with
thent, together, in the enjoyment of the greatest hap-
piness that Iiuman life be capable of; because 1 sec
there is no danger in it, the world being large enough,
and having means enough, for afi'ording the greatest
(uippiness that can be thought of, not only for myself
and a few friends, but for all men on earth.

Well, if r cannot get this high price for these pro-
ductions of mine, 1 shall then do, as you do with yours,
when you cannot get your demand, sell them at a lower
rate, that is, for mere money, perhaps to some other
people or government, to whomsoever that will buy
them ; or even, if I cannot help it, if the puldic should
turn (leaf ears to me, perhaps to some cunning wealthy
speculators, and let them do with them what they

To understand this, without troubling yourselves
with reading first the whole book, I will give you a
brief explanation on the subject.

1 show hero, that there are powers in nature suffi-
cient to effect in one year more than hitherto all men
on earth could do in many thousands of years; that

these powers may be applied to do all human labour;
I show you the system of establishments fur it ; and
finally, that the most profitable, shortest, and easiest
way to put them into operation for sueli great purposes,
is,- to form associations in the manner pointed out, so
as to enable the rich and the poor to participate fully
in all the possible greatest benefits of these discoveries,
by paying a share not greater than the price of a lottery-
ticket; not before, however, he isperfectly convincedof
the truth of my assertions, and only into the hands of
his own choice, not in mine ; for I want to have no
concern in the money a flairs for the execution of the
proposals ; I engage myself only for communicating
the contrivances as far as required.




The work, now for tlic first time presented to the
British public, was originally published at Pittsburgh,
in the United States, about three years ago, which will
account for the calculations that occur in it being
made in dollars, the common currency of that exten-
sive country. What has been the effect of its publi-
cation in the United States, the publisher of the pre-
sent edition has no means of accurately ascertaining;
but a copy of the work having fallen into his hands,
he judged it by far too important to remain unknown
to the people of this country.

It has been calculated, that the present mechanical
and chemical power of Great Britain and Ireland are
equal to the productive power of six hundred millions
of human beings; but hitherto this power has been
directed so as to enrich the few, at the expense of the
many. Great as this power is, however, the author of
the following work shows most clearly, that it is no-
thing in comparison witli those stupendouspowers which
yet exist in nature, and which man has nothing to do
but immediately to render tributary to his wants and
wishes, to secure to the whole human race the richest
abundance of everything that is desirable ; and that
this result may be speedily attained, is the ardent
wish of the




First Part. page

Introduction 1

The power of wind ()

The power of the tide 19

The power of the waves 26

Burning mirrors 33

The power of steam 36

General remarks on all these powers 45

Perpetual motions 48

Prospect and retrospect of the human condition in

general 53

System of machineries and establishments for the

application of these powers CO

Agriculture 61

Architecture 62

Flexible stuff 64

Objects attainable in general 6^

Plan for the buildings of a community GO

New state of human life 78

Occupations in the new state of things 82

The earth can nourish 1000 times more men than

now exist 96

Pecuniary profit of the new means 97

Constitution of an association proposed 103

General views on the subject 109

Address to the Americans in particular 115


Second Part. Page

Pioposalt:, liow to render the new means the most

beneficial for the United States 121

Formation of a new state 141

First period 141

.Second period 142

Third period 146

Fourtli period 15()

Appeal to the Americans H>1

Comparative vicv\ on the condition of man at pre-
sent, and that attainable by [he new means ... 1(35

In physical respects 166

In moral respects 184

In intellectual respects 192

Conclusion of the Second Part 206

Petition to Congress on the subject 20/

Letter to the President of the United States 215

Proposal of a pamphlet, the New \^'orld 215


I promise to show the means for creating a paradise
within ten years, where every thing desirahle for hnman
life may be had for every man in superabundance, with-
out hibour, without pay ; where the whole face of na-
ture is changed into the most beautiful form of which
it be capable ; where man may live in the most mag-
nificent palaces, in all imaginable refinements of
luxury, in the most delightful gardens; where he may
accomplish, without his labour, in one year more than
hitherto could be done in thousands of years ; he may
level mountains, sink valleys, create lakes, drain lakes
and swamps, intersect every where the land with beau-
tiful canals, with roads for transporting heavy loads of
many thousand tons, and for travelling 1000 miles in
twenty-four hours; he may covier the ocean with floating
islands moveable in any desired direction with immense
power and celerity, in perfect security and in all comforts
and luxury, bearing gardens, palaces, with thousands
of families, provided with rivulets of sweet water; he
may explore the interior of the globe, travel from
pole to pole in a fortnight; he may provide himself
with means unheard of yet, for increasing his know-
ledge of the world, and so his intelligence; he may
lead a life of continual happiness, of enjoyments un-
known yet ; he may free himself from almost all the


evils that afflict mankind, except death, and even put
death far beyond the common period of human life,
and. finally, render it less afflicting : mankind may
thus live in, and enjoy a new world far superior to our
present, and raise themselves to a far higher scale of

It may appear very wonderful that none of these
things, though they comprehend all the objects man
may possibly desire in this woild, ever existed yet,
since thousands of years, and that they all should have
originated from one single individual. But this won-
der will greatly diminish, if not entirely cease, when it
will be seen that these great promises are founded on
facts well known, that any man of common sense, if
he ever had bestowed full attention upon them, would
have come, ultimately, to the same or similar results
as I am about to show ; and when it is considered that
many contrivances of modern times have led to great
comforts and advantages unknown to the ancients,
though they had the same mental faculties of making
them : they passed thousands of years in ignorance
and errors, thinking alwajs themselves to have reached
the summit of human perfection. History teaches
but too plainly, that the progress of human knowledges
and intelligence was every where most tediously slow.
Individuals who attempted sometimes to disperse new
valuable truths, were not listened to, and considered
insane in proportion their truths deviated from the
common track of the unthinking or unreasoning mul-
titude. Our present age is yet liable to the same great
evil ; — instances in proof of this are to be found in
plenty ; yet as it is superior to the preceding ages, it

is liable to this spiritual sloth in a less degree. After
an attentive perusal of this work, after some calm re-
flection upon the subject, it will be found that the
promised great ends are attainable to the full extent
and meaning of the words, without any wonder, with-
out any hidden power or secret of nature, but by a few
most simple contrivances.

The basis of my proposals is, that there arc powers
in nature at the disposal of man, million times greater
than all men on earth could effect, with their united
exertions, by their nerves and sinews, if I can show
that such a superabundance of power is at our dis-
posal, what should be the objections against applying
them to our benefit in the best manner we can tliink
of i* — If we have the requisite power for mechanical
purposes, it is then but a matter of human contrivance
to invent adapted tools or machines for application.
Powers must pre-exist; they cannot be invented;
they may be discovered ; no mechanism can produce
power ; it would be as absurd to invent tools that work
without any applied power to put them in operation ;
machineries, of whatever contrivance they be, are no-
thing but tools more or less combined. I think this
remark not to be superfluous, because many men, even
of talents in mechanics, have erroneously cherished
the idea of inventing mechanisms >\orking of them-
selves without given power, and have uselessly be-
stowed time and expenses on the invention of a per-
petual motion. — I wish my proposals not to be preci-
pitautly confounded with such vain schemes.

The chief objects of my statements are, therefore,
the powers to be applied : the application of them is

but of secondarv importance: this may be of an infi-
nite variety : that of the greatest advantage is the
most preferable. Wlien you are once convinced that
there is power enough at our disposal for the great
purposes in view, then you have the proof tliat the
attainment of the purposed ends is possible : the ques-
tion is then not more : whether the promised things arc
attainable, but how ? —

The powers are chiefly to be derived, 1, from wind ;

2, from the tide, or the rise and fall of the ocean caused
by the gravity between the moon and the ocean ; and

3, from the sunshine, or the heat of the sun, by
which water may be transformed into steam, whose
expansive power is to operate upon machineries,
though by a contrivance different from that actually
in use.

The waves of the ocean are also powers to be applied,
but as they are caused by wind, they are included in
the power of wind. Each of these powers requires no
consumption of materials, but nothing but the mate-
rials for the construction of the machineries.

I shall at first endeavour to show the magnitude of
each of these powers in its full extent over the whole
world, beginning with well-known facts; this will
show the average power for any required extent of
the surface of the globe. But as these powers are
very irregular and subject to interruptions, the next
object is to show how ihey may be converted into
powers that operate continually and uniformly forever
imtil the machinery be worn out at length, or, in other
words, into jjerpctuiil motions. After this it will be
the probleni, how to ;ipply these perpetual motions of

nature to the attainment of tlie purposes in view ?
I shall give a general outline of the system of ma-
chineries for effecting all promised purposes. Next
to this I shall state the ohjects attainable by these
means, and the condition of men that must result
from the accomplishment of such purposes. It will
then appear from the nature of the subject, that the
execution of the proposals is not qualified for single
individuals ; for as one machine is sufficient, under
the superintendence of a few men, to supply many-
thousand families with all their wants, both natural
and artificial ones, the consequence would be but
hurtful to the labouring class, as the price of their
labours would sink almost to nothing, dangers and
violences would ensue, and the effects would be more
destructive than beneficial, even to the undertakers
themselves, until after a series of convulsions a dif-
ferent order of things should be established. It would
be certainly a proper object for the Government to
make the arrangement for the execution of these
proposals; but as the Government of our nation is
the organ of the people's will, the subject must first be
popular ; but it cannot become popular before it is
generally known and understood. Therefore the exe-
cution of the proposals is only qualified for a large
body of intelligent men, who associate themselves
without limiting the number, time, and place, or coun-
try. I shall, therefore, finally propose a constitution
for association. The larger this society, and the
larger the means, the greater the advantages will be
for every participating individual.
I shall now state :


1. THE POWn; OF wrND.

That there is power in wind, requires no proof of
me. The uses of it in navigation and windmills are
too well known. My object is to state Jiow much
power there is in wind : I shall state it in the full
extent, as far as it can he brought within the disposal
of men over the whole surface of the globe.

To find a measure for a power, it is usual and pro-
per to compare its effect with that a number of men or
beasts are able to produce; viz. in observing how many
men, horses, oxen, &c. are requisite for producing,
within the same time, the same effect which a certain
power produces. Thus it is said, e. g. : a steam-engine
has twenty or fifty horses' power, when twenty or fifty
horses would be requisite to produce tlie same effect.

When we compare a steam-boat running by the
power of its engine, of which the (juantity in horses'
power is determinated, and a vessel sailing by the
])ower of wind operating upon its sails, we may find
a measure of the latter power. Suppose a steam-boat
and a sailing vessel, both exactly of the same size,
form, and burden, or draught of water, and running
under equal circumstances with equal velocity. It is
then evident that the power of wind operating upon
the sails is equal to that of the steam-engine in the
steam-boat. A vessel sailing before the wind will, by
a good breeze, run at the rate of six to ten knots or sea
miles per hour,i. e. seven to twelve land miles. A steam-
boat running at the same rate in still water, with a load
of 4 to fiOO tons, will require an engine of about fifty
horses' power. The supposed sailing vessel will, conse-
quently, receive a power of wind of fifty horses. The

surface of its sails, tojietlier villi its Lull ahovc waiov
exposed to the wind, intevsectiug its course in a right
angle hy an imaginary profile through the greatest
dimensions of vessel and sails, be about 5000 square
feet ; every 100 square feet will then receive one horse's

Long and many experiences with windmills prove
this pow er to be, in an average through the whole year,
a great deal stronger.

The Dutch have paid, since centuries, the greatest
attention to the application of wind on windmills for
various purposes. Holland being a flat, level country,
affords no falls of water; and this nation was, there-
fore, compelled to have recourse to the application of
wind on mills. Induced by a most extensive com-
merce in all parts of the globe, the Dutch nation
applied this power for many economical and commer-
cial purposes ; and they have now in their little coun-
try many thousand windmills. Hence it is that Dutch
windmills are taken for superior patterns by other

The experiences with Dutch windmills show, that a
mill with four wings, each thirty feet long and eight feet
wide, operates, in an average, with a power of eight
horses. The surface of each wing being, consequently,
240 square feet, all four wings expose to the wind a
surAice of 960 square feet, but in an oblique angle with
the direction of the wind, which will hardly equal to
the half of the same surface, or 480 square feet, when
intersecting the wind's direction in a right angle : 480
square feet, receiving an average pow er of eight horses,
and sixty being one-eighth of 480, the power of wind


on sixty square feet will, therefore, equal to one horse's
power in an average. I shall, therefore, think myself
free from exaggeration in taking, instead of sixty,
one hundred square feet of surface, operated upon hy
wind in a right angle, as the average measure of this
power for one horse. Moreover, it is to he home in
mind that heavy winds can either not fully or not at
all be used both in sailing and on windmills ; because
they have to diminish the surfaces exposed to wind, or
to take them away altogether for fear of breaking all
to pieces ; while I purpose to make use of the whole
l^ower of any wind. Wind is, .however, not every
where of the same average power. I do not mean
with respect to altitude, for differences arising there-
from may be remedied as will be seen hereafter, but I
mean in geographical respects. There are parts of
the globe where calms and hardly perceptible breezes
for the greatest part of the time are prevailing, while
in others gales and strong winds are almost continually
blowing. Within the tropical zone, and nearly thirty
degrees of north and south latitude, as far as conti-
nents do not interfere, blows perpetually the trade
wind. Thirty degrees north and south form a belt of
sixty degrees around the globe, which is exactly the
half of the vvhole surface of the globe, of which not
one-fourth are continents. On the continents within
the same zone are generally gales in one season and
daily regular breezes in the other, succeeding each
other. In mountainous regions and their vicinity is,
from variation of temperature, almost continually a
strong wind. In the other parts of the globe out of
this belt there is generally a greater irregularity of

winds, but in the whole no less wind. We may ob-
serve it every day by the moving of the clouds, though
we should not feel it on the ground on account of the
obstructions there. The motions of the clouds are, as
easily will be conceived, a great deal swifter, as the
appearance shows : their distance or height is gene-
rally from a half to two miles. Imagine now you
would see some object moving on the ground at such
a known distance, with the same apparent celerity as
the clouds, and you will have a conception of the
swiftness of these motions. The obstructions on the
ground that may hinder the usual applications of wind
in many places, are no objects in my intended mode
of applying this power.

As my object is to give an estimation of the power

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Online LibraryJ. A. (John Adolphus) EtzlerThe paradise within the reach of all men, without labour, by powers of nature and machinery : an address to all intelligent men → online text (page 1 of 14)