J. A. (John Adolphus) Etzler.

The paradise within the reach of all men, without labour, by powers of nature and machinery : an address to all intelligent men online

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cable at the beginning as well as at any later time ;
but the expression is made in regard to the prejudices
of men. I am aware, as well as any person in the
uorld can be, that prejudices are the great stumbling-
block, which by far the majority of men cannot get
over, except, perhaps, gradually by length of time.
The most evident truths cannot find easily access into
the mind where prejudices of customs are lodged;
for to substitute old errors by new truths requires re-
flection, and believing in old notions is more commo-
dious to weak or lazy minds. Therefore, I am willing
to be accommodating, as much as it be in any way
compatible with the ultimate attainment of the great
purposes in view, that is, to aff'ord as much happiness
to men as possible. I hope I shall have accommo-
dated the proposals to the most common notions, in
beginning with the simplest contrivance.

The new settlements are to be laid out so as to
admit of forming communities at any time desired
These communities ought not to be smaller, nor larger,
than, for the greatest conveniences and the best pur-
poses, is stated in the first part ; that is, than a building


of one-sixteeutli of one square mile can contahi in
the utmost convenience, with the greatest saving of
trouble, and the greatest sum of enjoyments and plea-
sures. The number of individuals ought, therefore,
to be not less than 1000, and never more than 3000
for one community. This number might, by the
most superior culture of soil, require not nlore than
from one to three square miles of surface. But as
land is now cheap, a square of five miles, or tsventy-
five square miles, may be allowed for- every such
community, without causing too /great and inconve-
nient a distance between the first establishments. In
this way 100 communities might form a state, whose
area would then be 2500 square miles, or equal to a
square of fifty miles. Such a state might afford su-
perabundance of every thing for human happiness for
a population of 2,500,000 individuals, calculating
1000 for every square mile. And how many states
could not be formed in this way within the territory
of the United States !

The tracts along the coasts of the ocean will be
always the most advantageous, for reasons that have
been stated in the part : these reasons are; viz. —
-. 1. Because there the four different powers of wind,
tide, waves, and sun-shine, are at the disposal of the
inhabitants, and therefore so much the greater things
to be effected.

2. Because the productions of sea and land may be
enjoyed there at once.

3. Because the transport on floating islands, and
their cultivation of soil, afford peculiarly immediate
great advantages.


4. Because the atmosphere is there generally milder
and more saluhrious.

Hence the shores of the Pacific Ocean might be
eligible in the west at first.

These general principles are to regulate all general
cases concerning the settling of emigrants in the new
country. .

The next object is the government. Its nature is
to be far superior to what it can now be. It will no
more be a mere compulsive tax-gathering and tax-
expending power : "the well-being of the society in
general, aid of every' individual in particular, will be
no more a mere pious wish, praised in poetical songs
and declamation, but it will then be the sole business
of governing ; and the government will be no more
confined in physical means, but their intellectual
capacities will only come into question. There will be
leisure for reflection, and divesting themselves by
degrees of the remaining old narrow conceptions and
prejudices, and for maturing good regulations. The
business of governing, though of great extent, will be
very simple, every thing being regulated and provided
for in a general way. Every community takes care of
its members ; and the state's government is composed
of deputies or representatives of the communities.
There are then but two governments, — the special go-
vernment of each community, and the general govern-
ment of the state.

The government of the community may be consti-
tuted in the following manner : —

1. A committee of provisions.

2. A committee of health.



3. A committee of instruction.

4. A committee of pleasures.
6. A committee of police.

The function of each committee is equally impor-
tant, and each requires peculiar talents and disposi-

The committee of provisions is to have the manage-
ment of all husbandry, the cultivation of soil, the
gathering and the preparations of its produces for
food and use ; the kitchen department, the exchange
of surplus against things from foreign parts, and the
inspection of the stores.

The committee of health has under its cave the
medical department, the provision of all medicaments,
physicians, the removal of all things injurious to
health, excessive use of spirits, intemperance of any
hind, iilth, stagnant waters, decaying substances, bad
food, unwholesome practices, the care of meliorating
and purifying the air and water, washing, cleaning,
selecting the diet for tliose whose state of health wants
a particular care, &c.; in short, providing for every
thing that may promote health, and preventing and
discarding whatever may be injurious to health.

The committee of instruction provides for every
thing relative to education and instruction for children
and adults. They furnish all materials and teachers
for instruction, and have the superintendence of all the
business concerning the same. Libraries, laboratories,
museums, botanical gardens, schools, proper attendance
to infants and children, are objects of their function.

The committee of pleasures takes care of all matters
of amusements and enjoyments. The arrangements


for public pleasures, theatre, music, balls, bodily exer-
cises of diversion, all arrangements for social conver-
sation and amusements are of their resort; also the in-
spection over all the festivities and public amusements,
preventing and removing all indecencies and inter-
ruptions of public pleasures, and furnishing all requi-
site materials and persons for such purposes.

The committee of police has to watch on good order
and public security, also to guard against infractions
of regulations made for the prevention of any wrong.
It is lo be the first juridical instance in all complaints
brought before them ; it has to provide for travellers
passing through the community, and visitants ; and has
under its care every thing that concerns personal safety
against accident or malice.

Every committee is to have a president, who has to
make a report, at every certain period and extraordi-
nary occasion, to the community, in their meetings, of
all the intermediate transactions, also of all proposals
of the committees, and to receive instruction from the

The community is to hold public meetings at certain
periods, for instance, every week; every adult member
is to have a vote in it at a certain age, for instance,
at eighteen years. The communal meetings are the
second instances in all controversial matters, where
the committee in its respective department is the first
instance. Majority decides in all cases, after every
member of the meeting has fully expressed his opinion.
There is no other authority in the community be-
sides these five committees, who are the special oificers
in all the individual and communal concerns.


Every community sends one or more deputies to
every assembly of the state, with proper instructions of
their wishes, decided by the majority of the same, to
be discussed in the general assembly. The state's as-
sembly is the last instance of appeal, which the re^
spective deputy has to bring before them.

The communication between the state's assembly
and the community is to be made through the com-
munal president to the state's president or governor.

The general assembly appoints five state's commit-
tees, in the way as every community does for the five
respective communal departments, to execute the or-
ders of the state's assembly, to be received through the
state's president, for their respective department of the
state. These five state's committees bear the same re-
lation to the state as the communal committees do to
the community.

All adult female persons may organize themselves
in the same manner, as separate councils, but depend-
ing in matters concerning both sexes on the final de-
cision of the male assemblies. Why should the female
part of men be excluded from all public councils ? —
Have they less sense, less feeling, or less interests in
the human concerns than the male sex ? — In a state of
society where only physical strength is to govern, and
mental culture is esteemed to be of inferior merit, and
where generally the female sex receives an inferior
education, and where equality of right is not under-
stood, there may be some apology for this despotism ;
but in a better enlightened and happier state, such bar-
barities will, of course, subside.


All authorities of the state are to be included in the
general assembly and the five state's committees.

The general assembly and the state's committees are
to have no riglit to interfere with communal concerns,
but they have to aid such arrangements by their gene-
ral functions.

The state's committee of provisions has the special
care of all the stores of provisions of the state, to sup-
ply them by general establishments, be it from the in-
land or from foreign countries ; to manage all concerns
of exchange of the communal surpluses delivered into
the general stores against the foreign articles wanted ;
to balance the mutual exchanges between different
communities of the state; to provide for means of trans-
port on land and sea, large vehicles on artificial roads,
and large floats on sea ; to establish factorships iu
foreign countries for effecting exchanges of whatever
be wanted in the state. Every community has to apply
to the state's president for any desired exchange, and
he has to correspond with the state's committee.

The state's committee of health has to provide for
every thing wanted by the communal committees of
health ; to investigate every thing that may improve
•the state of health in general ; to receive the reports
and proposals from physicians, in order to effect what
is of its function; to meliorate the climate of the country
or any part of it, wherever it can be done, as by drain-
ing swamps, confining rivers, clearing the ground from
noxious evaporations of decaying vegetables, (Sec.

The state's committee of instruction has to provide
for every thing relative to education, arts and sciences,
schools, universities, libraries, collections of instructive

• 154

things ; to teachers, their studies, examen, productions,
and effects, for the correspondence with foreign men
of learning, printing establishments, &c.

The state's committee of pleasures has to provide for
every thing wanted of the communities for such pur-
poses, for general festivities, general establishments for
forming artists of all kinds, for social amusements and
instruction, such as musicians, actors, dancers, &c.,
and all materials for innocent amusements, and to take
care that none of bad consequences be introduced.

The state's committee of police has under its care
all roads, canals, rivers, lakes, &c., the vehicles to be
used on them, the post, the telegraphical institutions,
and every thing relative to the general public order
and security, the provision for emigrants and immi-
grants, travellers in the state, all state's buildings and
establishments for the use of the staters government,
all publications and correspondence of state's transac-
tions, for newspapers, and public information of any
kind, also the special examinations of all juridical mat-
ters for report lo the general assembly.

Every state's committee is subject to the general as-
sembly, and has to give account of all their transac-
tions to the same at fixed periods, and receive their in-
structions from the same, to report of all the results of
inquiries made by them, and make their proposals on
all subjects concerning its respective department.

Every communal committee has, through its com-
munal president, to make its application to the state's
president on any subject of its respective department.

Every adult member has to give a list of the articles
wanted for his special use, at fixed periods, to the com^


murial president; for which articles the respective eom-
munal committees have to provide through the state's
president, provided the desired articles do not exceed
the individual's share in the gommunal stores, in which
case the list is to he returned, with instruction how
much its value is to be lowered.

Thus every individual's want of any kind may be
supplied throughout the state, without any traffic,
without money, without labour or trouble ; and all the
most excellent arrangements and establishments that
the new means afford, may be speedily made in a most
regular way, which prevents all collisions and injus-

The business of the communal and state's commit-
tees is simple, and will require but a few hours' time
every week ; for the wants are not individually, but in
a general way, supplied. The communal stores are to
be filled in consequence of the various desires of every
individual, which are to be notified at fixed periods ; for
instance, every three months, previous to the commu-
nal purchase or exchange of surplus : in consequence
of these individual lists, the communal committees
have to make their periodical reports to the respective
state's committees, through the communal and state's
president, and vice versa.

The whole business consists then only in making a
list of the articles dcvsired by every member; then in
making a list for the community out of individual
ones, and according to communal resolutions by the
communal committees ; then in making a list for the
whole state by the state's committees out of the com~
munal lists, and in conformity with the resolutions of


the general assembly. These individual, comnumal,
and state's lists are not oflener to be made than every
three months, but once. All this will consequently be
but a pleasant occupation, because there is no compli-
cated tedious money and book-keeping affairs. The
wants of individuals, communities, and state, are ex-
hibited at one glance, and provided for in the most
general ways. Large vehicles for carrying thousands
of tons by land and water, under the direction of two
or four men, transport the things of exchange in the
most rapid and regular way for the whole state, and
distribute the same, according to the directions of the
respective authorities of the state, among the commu-
nities, from whence they receive in return the surplus
productions for gathering and exporting them. What
now would require the attendance and industry of
many thousands and myriads of men, will thus be the
slight task of a few men.

Thus the individual, communal, and state's concerns
are regulated without opposite interests ; the strictest
justice is done to every one, not by punishments for
offences, but by preventing all disputes and supplying
all wants ; humanity and love is fostered, not by
empty words, but in deed ; the sense and taste for in-
struction and refined pleasure will be awakened and
satisfied in turns ; the intemperance of all kinds be
prevented, and finer innocent enjoyments and plea-
sures fill up the time. A paradise will be accom-
plished then in a

Fourth period.

After the state is constituted and organized, and
there is cultivated land sufficient to the wants of the


inhabitants, they may then avail themselves of the full
benefits to he derived from the new means.

The means of transport are then to he the first ob-
jects. Artificial roads of vitrified substance and iron
rails, with establishments and vehicles for moving
large buildings, with weights of many thousand tons
for the inland communication ; and floating islands of
trees and light stuff, that is prepared of any kind of
wood, and cast and baked in large masses, for transport
over sea, are to be made.

Next to the means of transport, one establishment,
suflicient for the whole state, for forming and vitrifying,
out of the most ]>roper materials to be found, parts of
the edifices, such as columns, pillars, entire walls,
tables, vaultings, and all other requisites for the
buildings, colonnades, walks, canals, aqueducts, ar-
chitectural ornaments, vessels, utensils, pipes, pieces
for machineries, for burning mirrors, &c., as de-
scribed in the first part, by means of burning mirrors
and moulds. These articles are to be transported to
their respective places, for to erect there the edifices as

The ohjects of fancy and pleasures, of the same or
similar substance, are to be made: in short, all things
of hard, vitrified substance, as mentioned in the first
part, are then to be made in succession of the de-
mauds, so that the less necessary articles follow after
the more necessary ones.

With this establishment a foundry of iron and other
metals, by means of the same burning mirrors, may be
united ; one for the whole state is more than sufiScient,



considering the manner of its use, described in the
first part.

In onei)r two years all possible wants of that kind
of the whole state may he supplied, and the most mag-
nificent paradise be accomplished, such as is.pointed out
in the first part.

Next to this grand object, or simultaneously, an-
other establishment is to be made for making all
articles of pliable or soft stuff", for dress and soft furni-
nitures of all kinds, as mentioned in the first part. ■■

Thus there will be but one establishment in every
community for cultivating all the circumjacent land ;
and for the whole state are but two establish-
ments required for supplying all other wants for
architecture, machineries, garments, dress, ornaments,
furnitures, and every thing wanted. Besides these
establishments there is nothing more required than
the roads and vehicles for transport, which both are but
produces of the single establishment of the whole state.

All the vehicles in the whole state may consist in
but a single one ; and yet this will be sufficient for
moving any number of persons, or any freight within
the state to any or every community of the stale every
day. To understand this, an example may be here
specified for illustration.

Suppose the state to be a s- viare of fifty miles, con-
taining 100 communities, five miles distant from each
other, so as to form ten rows, each of ten communities,
the road passing through every community will then
be ten times forty-five (as the length of each row from
one centre of each communal square to the other),


that is, 450 miles long ; one vehicle will then have
time enough for passing through all communities, and
loading and unloading, when it may run at the rate
of forty miles per hour. It would make no difference
as to the distance, if the state were of any other figure
with the same number and distances of the communi -
ties. One vehicle being large and commodious enough
for many thousands of persons and tons at once, it is
consequently sufficient for doing all locomotive busi-
ness for the whole state.

This fourth and last period is the state of a com-
plete paradise, having all the mighty powers and
means proposed in practice.

This ultimate happy state can and will be attained
within five to ten years from that time hence when the
first union is formed for the proposed purposes.

Great are the power'^, simple the means for their
application, simple tl; proceedings, and simple the
system of society, the whole state a paradise, filled
with vast, most convenient, and most magnificent pa-
laces, and gardens, full of enjoyments, delights, plea-
sures, enrapturing sceneries, rapid communicative
and locomotive means throughout the state, without
slavery of work, without opposite interests, without
traffic, and consequently without rational cause for
enmities between man and man. None is molested,
every one may live as he please, enjoy the pleasures
for which his life is made, and exercise freely all his
mental and corporeal faculties, with a sphere of action,
more powerful, more extensive, more multifarious
than the mightiest monarch on earth was ever known
to have


The produce of ihc country \\\\\ rapidly increase;
the exchange of surplus may buy every thing that can
be bought in the world ; and the wealth, influence,
and power, be spread over all the globe.

New ideas, new desires, new objects of action, new
sciences and arts, infinitely superior to what is now in
existence, will arise. A new life with superior enjoy-
ments, incomparable to the present, will ensue. The
now hidden mysteries of nature will be more and more
searched after, and unveiled and applied to the im-
provement of human life. With horror and disgust
we shall then look back on our past life, on our past
ignorance, errors, superstition, poverty, helplessness,
and miseries ; and what we call now civilisation will
be stigmatized with the names of folly, barbarity, and
only be looked upon as a necessary transitory or inter-
mediate state between the helpless state of savages
and the state of perfection, of which thehuman life be
capable in this world.

When one such a state is formed, a total revolution
of mankind is then the inevitable consequence. Next
to the realization of such a state, the rest of the United
States will, of course, follow the example ; then suc-
cessively the other parts of this continent; and finally,
by degrees, the other parts of the world: for no
people on earth can, nor will, resist to the overwhelm-
ing afiiuence of all necessaries and commodities of

But while this revolution is going on, the first slate,
or states, of the new system of means and society, will
have the advantage of buying and gathering all de-
sirable and saleable things of the world for them-


selves; for they can create as much surplus of their
productions as they please, and huy with all things
they want from other parts of the world.

Ameiicans I have you read what is stated here, with
allentiou and reflection ; and will you hesitate to in-
vestigate the suhject a little further?

The chance of associating is placed in every one's
power. The way of proceeding is shown from the he-
ginning to the end, step by step, for attaining all the
infinite blessings promised. And if this way should
not he found plain enough, every further explanation
required is offered.

You are now before two roads — the only two you
can possibly take — one is to examine what is offered
to you; the other, to neglect it, and leave it to other
peoples. One way is leading you to conviction, to a
paradise, to imperishable glory and power, and national
independence — the other one may lead to your na-
tional annihilation, to your eternal disgrace, to your
suljection. Tiie one is the road of intelligence ; the
other of imbecility. The one will be eagerly pursued
by men of active minds ; the other will be loitered on
by iriflers. The one is the road dictated by the spirit
of our :ige; the other by blind adherence to customs
inherited from ancient barbarity and ignorance.

If you want to choose the good and glorious road
you have to do it now, or your chance may be soon
lost for ever.

In the contrary case ther nations or governments
will use the offered nn. ..is for the dominion over you.



It will then depend from your masters, uhal blessings,
or what curse the new means arc to hring on you.

What is stated before you, is a combination of all
what is the most valuable of the human knowledges of
our present ridvaiiced time,, and cannot be disproved.
It is a most serious appeal to the intelligent, self-re-
flecting part of all the civilized nations of the world ;
not for amusing Iriflers. The truths exposed will soon
be diffused throughout Europe, and generally acknow-
ledged, like so many other mathematical and physical
truths of late are now acknowledged, in spite of what
ignorance and old prejudices would say against them.
The truths now before you are infinitely more important
and useful than any hitherto discovered. Their conse-
quences will end in a total revolution of mankind as
soon as they are understood. Whether your nation is
to act a superior, or an inferior part, is depending on

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