J. Brownlee (Jay Brownlee) Davidson.

Agricultural engineering; a text book for students of secondary schools of agriculture, colleges offering a general course in the subject and the general reader, online

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Agricultural Engineering



FARM SCIENCE SERIES



Agricultural Engineering

By J. B. DAVIDSON, Iowa State College of
Agriculture and Mechanics Arts

Field Crops

By A. D. WILSON, University of Minnesota
and C. W. WARBURTON, U. S. Department of
Agriculture

Beginnings in Animal Husbandry

By C. S. PLUMB, Ohio State University

Soils and Soil Fertility

By A. R. WHITSON, University of Wisconsin
and H. L. WALSTER, University of Wisconsin

Popular Fruit Growing

By S. B. GREEN, University of Minnesota

Vegetable Gardening

By S. B. GREEN, University of Minnesota
(OTHER BOOKS IN PREPARATION)



Agricultural Engineering

A TEXT BOOK

FOR

STUDENTS OF

SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF AGRICULTURE

COLLEGES OFFERING A GENERAL

COURSE IN THE SUBJECT

AND THE
GENERAL READER



BY



J. BROWNLEE DAVIDSON, B. S., M. E.

Member American Society of Agricultural Engineers

Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Member Iowa Engineering Society

Professor of Agricultural Engineering, University of California

Joint Author "Farm Machinery and Farm Motors"



REVISED





COPYRIGHT, 1913

BY
WEBB PUBLISHING COMPANY

ST. PAUL, MINN.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

W-5



PREFACE

Believing that the study of Agricultural Engineering
should fill an important place in the training of the young
man who would make farming the object of his life's work,
the author has attempted to furnish in this volume an aid in
supplying this part of his training. The application of
agricultural engineering methods to agriculture should not
only raise the efficiency of the farm worker but should also
provide for him a more comfortable and healthful home.

This volume has been written primarily as a text for
secondary schools of agriculture, and for colleges where only
a general course can be offered. Claim is not made for
much new material concerning the subjects discussed; but
rather an attempt has been made to place under one cover
a general discussion of agricultural engineering subjects
which hitherto could not be secured except in several vol-
umes and hence impractical for text-book purposes.

No attempt has been made to outline the exact method
for the teaching of the subjects, as this must vary with con-
ditions. It is desirable that classwork upon the text should
be supplemented by laboratory work. The nature of the
laboratory work will depend upon the equipment available.
It is suggested that the equipments on the nearby farms
may be used to good advantage. Sample machines to be
used for study may be secured by co-operation with dealers
in farm machinery.

The author will be very glad to receive criticisms and
suggestions from those using this text, in regard to how it
may be improved and made more useful. The correction
of any errors will likewise be appreciated.

51831



8 PREFACE

Although written primarily for use as a text book, it is
hoped that this volume will be of interest to those engaged
in practical agriculture.

Many of the illustrations were made from photographs
secured from the files of the Iowa State College. In addi-
tion, the trade literature of the following manufacturers
was drawn upon :

International Harvester Company of America; John
Deere Plow Co. of Moline, 111.; Moline Plow Co.; W. & L.
E. Gurley; Eugene Dietzen Co.; Keuffel and Esser Co.;
Parlin and Orendorff Co. ; Fairbanks, Morse and Co. ; Hayes
Pump and Planter Co. ; Hunt, Helm, Ferris & Co. ; J. D. Tower
and Sons Co.; Western Wheeled Scraper Co.; Pattee Plow
Co.; Avery Company; Emerson-Brantingham Co.; M.
Rumely Co. ; American Seeding Machine Co. ; Oliver Chilled
Plow Works; Hart-Parr Co.; Red Jacket Mfg. Co.; A. Y.
McDonald Mfg. Co.; Louden Machinery Co.; Gale Mfg. Co.;
Sandwich Mfg. Co.; Aspenwall Mfg. Co.; Wilder-Strong
Implement Co. ; Port Huron Engine and Thresher Co. ; J. L.
Owens Co.; Charles A. Stickney Co.; Twin City Separator
Co.; Cushman Motor Works; F. E. Meyers & Bro.; D. M.
Sechler Carriage and Implement Co.; Roderick Lean Mfg.
Co.; Janesville Machine Co.; LaCrosse Plow Co.; The John
Lanson Mfg. Co.; J. I. Case Plow Works; J. I. Case Thresh-
ing Machine Co. ; Johnson & Field Mfg. Co. ; Racine Sattley
Co. ; Kewanee Water Supply Co. ; and others.

Valuable assistance was secured from Mr. M. F. P.
Costelloe, Associate Professor of Agricultural Engineering,
Iowa State College, who read the manuscript for Parts I to
IV, inclusive. Mr. J. H. Weir, the Editor, did very efficient
work on the manuscript, which is appreciated.

Ames, Iowa. J. B. DAVIDSON.

February, 1913.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER



INTRODUCTION



PAGE
13



PART I AGRICULTURAL SURVEYING



I.


DEFINITIONS AND USES OF SURVEYING


16


II.


MEASURING THE USE, CARE, AND ADJUSTMENT OF






THE INSTRUMENTS


18


III.


FIELD METHODS


24


IV.


MAP MAKING


28


V.


COMPUTING AREAS


34


VI.


THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC LAND SURVEY


38


VII.


INSTRUMENTS FOR LEVELING; DEFINITIONS .


42


VIII.


LEVELING PRACTICE


49




PART II DRAINAGE




IX.


PRINCIPLES OF FARM DRAINAGE ....


56


x;


THE PRELIMINARY SURVEY


64


XL


LAYING OUT THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM


67


XII.


LEVELING AND GRADING TILE DRAINS


73


XIII.


CAPACITY OF TILE DRAINS


78


XIV.


LAND DRAINAGE


86


XV.


CONSTRUCTION OF TILE DRAINS ....


96


XVI.


OPEN DITCHES


103


XVII.


DRAINAGE DISTRICTS


108




PART HI IRRIGATION




XVIII.


HISTORY, EXTENT, AND PURPOSE OF IRRIGATION .


111


XIX.


IRRIGATION CULTURE '


115


XX.


SUPPLYING WATER FOR IRRIGATION ....


122


XXI.


APPLYING WATER FOR IRRIGATION


129


XXII.


IRRIGATION IN HUMID REGIONS AND SEWAGE DIS-






POSAL


136



10



CONTENTS



PART IV ROADS



CHAPTER


1


^AGB


XXIII.


IMPORTANCE OF ROADS


141


XXIV.


EARTH ROADS


147


XXV.


SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS ....


153


XXVI.


STONE ROADS . . . . . .


160


XXVII.


ROAD MACHINERY


167


XXVIII.


CULVERTS AND BRIDGES


175




PART V FARM MACHINERY




XXIX.


THE RELATION OF FARM MACHINERY TO AGRICUL-






TURE


180


XXX.


DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES ....


186


XXXI.


MATERIALS


195


XXXII.


THE PLOW


199


XXXIII.


HARROWS, PULVERIZERS, AND ROLLERS


211


XXXIV.


SEEDERS AND DRILLS . . .


223


XXXV.


CORN PLANTERS ...


231


XXXVI.


CULTIVATORS


237


XXXVII.


THE GRAIN BINDER OR HARVESTER


244


XXXVIII.


CORN HARVESTING MACHINES


251


XXXIX.


HAY-MAKING MACHINERY


258


XL.


MACHINERY FOR CUTTING ENSILAGE ....


273


XLI.


THRESHING MACHINES


278


XLII.


FANNING MILLS AND GRAIN GRADERS


282


XLIII.


PORTABLE FARM ELEVATORS


287


XLIV.


MANURE SPREADERS


292


XLV.


FEED MILLS AND CORN SHELLERS .


298


XLVI.


SPRAYING MACHINERY


303


XLVII.


THE CARE AND REPAIR OF FARM MACHINERY .


309




PART VI FARM MOTORS




XLVIII.


ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS


313


XLIX.


MEASUREMENT OF POWER


316


L.


TRANSMISSION OF POWER


320


LI.




327


III.




334


LIII.


WINDMILLS


339


LIV.


THE PRINCIPLES. OF THE GASOLINE ENGINE .


344



CONTENTS



11



CHAPTER

LV. ENGINE OPERATION

LVI. GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINE OPERATION

LVII. SELECTING A GASOLINE OR OIL ENGINE

LVIII. THE GAS TRACTOR ....

LIX. THE STEAM BOILER

LX. THE STEAM ENGINE ....

LXI. THE STEAM TRACTOR



PAGE

350
. 354

361
. 370

376
. 385

389



PART VII FARM STRUCTURES

LXII. INTRODUCTION AND LOCATION OF FARM BUILDINGS . 395

LXIII. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 402

LXIV. MECHANICS OF MATERIALS AND MATERIALS OF

CONSTRUCTION 406

LXV. HOG HOUSES 414

LXVI. POULTRY HOUSES 425

LXVTI. DAIRY BARNS 436

LXVIII. HORSE BARNS 442

LXIX. BARN FRAMING 445

LXX. THE FARMHOUSE 451

LXXI. CONSTRUCTING THE FARMHOUSE .... 455

LXXII. THE SILO 461

LXXIII. THE IMPLEMENT HOUSE AND SHOP . . . 473

PART VHI FARM SANITATION

LXXIV. THE FARM WATER SUPPLY 480

LXXV. THE PUMPING PLANT 486

LXXVI. DISTRIBUTING AND STORING WATER . . . .491

LXXVII. PLUMBING FOR THE COUNTRY HOUSE . . . 497

LXXVIII. THE SEPTIC TANK FOR DISPOSAL OF FARM SEWAGE . 501

LXXIX. THE NATURAL LIGHTING OF FARM BUILDINGS . 506

LXXX. LIGHTING THE COUNTRY HOME 510

LXXXI. THE ACETYLENE LIGHTING PLANT . . . . 515

LXXXII. THE ELECTRIC LIGHTING PLANT 520

LXXXIII. HEATING THE COUNTRY HOME .... 525

LXXXI V. VENTILATION OF FARM BUILDINGS . . . .531

PART IX ROPE WORK
LXXXV. ROPES, KNOTS, AND SPLICES 537



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING



INTRODUCTION

Engineering. Defined briefly, engineering is the art of
directing the forces of nature to do economically the work
of man. The pursuit of agriculture requires many mechani-
cal operations which involve the use of engineering methods.

Consider the production of wheat. The plowing, the
pulverizing and smoothing of the soil, the cleaning and grad-
ing of the seed, the drilling of the seed, the harvesting, the
thrashing, and the hauling of the crop to market, are all
mechanical operations to which the skill of the mechanic or
engineer should be applied in order to obtain the best results.

In like manner, if the production of other crops be con-
sidered, it will be found that there are many operations to be
performed in connection therewith, which will require the
directing of the forces of nature or the application of engineer-
ing principles.

Agricultural Engineering. In the broadest sense, agri-
cultural engineering is intended to include all phases and
branches of engineering directly connected with the great
industry of agriculture. In America it is only recently that
the term agricultural engineering has come into general use.
The term rural engineering is used by some to designate the
same subject.

It is only within the last few years that the importance of
agricultural engineering as a branch of agricultural education
has been recognized. A knowledge of soils and of the plants

13



14 AGR10U.I.TUR&L ENGINEERING

and animals of the farm is essential to those who would make
good farming the aim of their life's work, and these subjects
should be carefully studied by the agricultural student.
But the study of agricultural engineering is quite as impor-
tant in assuring that efficiency in farm management which
results in the greatest and most permanent benefits.

The truth of the foregoing statement is better understood
when one learns that the producing capacity or earning ability
of the farm worker is in direct proportion to the amount of
power one is able to control. There was a time when man
tilled the soil by his own individual efforts, depending upon
no other source of power than the strength of his own body.
Later, one beast per worker was pressed into service to draw
suitable implements. Still later, two animals were used, and
development has continued, until at the present time we have
reached the "age of four-horse farming." In other words,
the four-horse team is now recognized as the most efficient
one for field work.

Man as a motor or producer of power is able to develop
about one-eighth of one horsepower. When use was made
of one good horse per worker, man's labor capacity was
increased eightfold. When four horses became the unit,
his efficiency was multiplied about 32 times. Just now there
is a desire to increase still further the amount of power for
each farm worker, by the use of powerful tractors or engines
arranged for drawing and operating farm implements.

The application of power to farm operations, which must
come mainly through the use of machinery, is only one branch
of agricultural engineering. Some element of agricultural
engineering is concerned in nearly every department of
agricultural endeavor. It serves man in one or both of
two ways : (1) By making it possible to increase the capacity
of the worker, as just explained; and (2) by making condi-



INTRODUCTION 15

tions more desirable and satisfactory, either by relieving the
worker of hard labor, or by providing more healthful and
pleasing surroundings.

Farm Mechanics. The term Farm Mechanics is not as
comprehensive in meaning as Agricultural Engineering, yet
it is often used to designate the same branch of education.
Mechanics is the science of forces and their actions; whereas
engineering proper is based upon a knowledge of these forces
and treats more particularly of the directing of them to
secure their most advantageous use.

In this text the subject of agricultural engineering is
presented under the following heads :

Agricultural Surveying.

Drainage.

Irrigation.

Roads.

Farm Machinery.

Farm Motors.

Farm Structures.

Farm Sanitation.

The importance and relation of these various branches
to agriculture are discussed in the separate parts of the text
devoted to each.

QUESTIONS

1. Define the term engineering.

2. Show how engineering methods are involved in crop production.

3. Define the term agricultural engineering.

4. Is there any relation between the producing capacity of a farm
worker and the amount and kind of power used?

5. Distinguish between "farm mechanics" and "agricultural
engineering."

6. Name the principal branches of agricultural engineering.



PART ONE SURVEYING



CHAPTER I
AGRICULTURAL SURVEYING

Surveying. The object of agricultural, or land, survey-
ing, in its generally accepted meaning, is to determine and
place on record the position, area, and shape of a tract of
land. The various steps taken to accomplish this end con-
stitute a survey. In addition to the field work with instru-
ments for measuring distances, angles, and directions, a
field record, containing figures, notes, and sketches concern-
ing the work must be kept; the areas must be computed; and
usually a map, plat, or profile made showing the tract of land
surveyed. The art of land surveying includes all of these
various lines of work.

Uses of Surveying. Agricultural students can well
afford to spend some time in the study of land or agricultural
surveying. The object of the work here presented on sur-
veying is to enable the student to measure and calculate
accurately the areas of the various fields of the farm and
to locate the buildings; to prepare a good map setting
forth the relative size and position of the fields, buildings,
and fences, and indicating the drains; and to prepare the
student for the study of drainage and irrigation.

It is necessary for the farmer to know the areas of his
fields in order that he may determine accurately the yields
of the various crops grown. A survey will enable the farmer
to so divide his farm into fields as to facilitate a system of
crop rotation.

16



SURVEYING 17

A good map is a means of recording the location of drains
and water pipes laid beneath the surface of the ground. It
will also enable the farmer to direct the work of the farm
more easily, and to make a study of the most convenient
arrangement of fields and buildings. This method is used
by architects and engineers in planning buildings and
engineering work such as factories and railroads.

Divisions of Agricultural Surveying. The work of mak-
ing a survey resolves itself into three stages or operations,
as follows :

1. Measuring and recording distances and angles, involv-
ing the use, care, and adjustment of the instruments used in
the survey.

2. Drawing the tract surveyed to a suitable scale, or
proportion.

3. Calculating the areas of the tracts surveyed.

QUESTIONS

1. What is the object of agricultural surveying?

2. Define a survey.

3. To what use can a knowledge of surveying be put by those con-
nected with agriculture?

4. In what way will a map be of use to the land-owner?

5. Describe the three divisions of agricultural surveying.



CHAPTER II



MEASURING; USE AND CARE OF INSTRUMENTS

Instruments for Measuring Distances. Often students
are led to think that it is impossible to make a survey without
a very elaborate equipment of expensive instruments, but
this is not true. An agricultural survey, such as is usually
required by the farm owner or manager, can be accomplished
with simple and quite inexpensive instruments. Where the
boundary of the tract of land is known, a practical survey
may be made with a surveyor's chain or tape.

Gunter's Chain. Much of the land in the United States
was surveyed originally with the Gunter's chain, which is
now but little used. This chain is 66 feet
long, divided into 100 links, each of which,
including the connecting rings at the ends,
is 7.92 inches long. The links are made of
steel or iron wire, and the better chains
have the open joints soldered or brazed to-
gether. The reason for making the Gunter's
chain of the length of 66 feet or 100 links is
owing to its convenient relation to the stand-
ard units of length and area in use. The
chain is 1-80 of a mile, or four rods. A
square chain is 1-10 of an acre. Thus ten square chains
make an acre, and this, together with the fact that links
may be written as a decimal of a chain, greatly facilitates
computations. To illustrate, 1625 square chains equal 162.5
acres, and 15 chains and 24 links equal 15.24 chains.

18




folded.



SURVEYING 19

The Gunter's chain has been used on all United States
land surveys; and in deeds of conveyance and other legal
documents, when the word chain is used, the Gunter's
chain of 66 feet is meanio

Table of Linear Measure.

12 inches (in. or ") make 1 foot (ft. or )

3 feet " 1 yard (yd.)

5^ yards or 163^ feet " 1 rod (rd.)

320 rods " 1 mile (mi.)

Equivalent Table

Mi. Rd. Yd. Ft. In.

1 320 1760 5280 63360

1 5 1 A 16>6 198

1 3 36

1 12
Table of Gunter's Chain Measure.

7.92 inches (in. or ") make 1 link (li.)

100 links " 1 chain (ch.)

80 chains " 1 mile (mi.)

Equivalent Table

Mi. Ch. Li. In.

1 80 8000 63360

1 100 792

1 7.92

Table of Surface Measure.

144 square inches (sq. in.) make 1 square foot (sq. ft.)

9 " feet " 1 " yard (sq. yd.)

30K " yards " 1 " rod (sq. rd.)

160 " rods " 1 acre

Equivalent Table

A. Sq. rd. Sq. yd. Sq. ft. Sq. in.

1 160 4840 43560 6272640

27234 39204

9 1296

1 144



20



AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING



Surveyor's Measure.

625 square links (sq. li.) make 1 square rod (sq. rd.)
16 " rods " 1 " chain (sq. ch.)

10 " chains " 1 acre

640 acres " 1 square mile, or one section

Equivalent Table

A. Sq. ch. Sq. rd. Sq. li.

1 10 160 100,000

1 16 10,000

1 625

Cloth and Metallic Tapes. Tapes made of linen cloth
are not practical to use in land surveying, even when well
made and water-proofed. They will stretch when pulled up
tight, and are difficult to handle in the wind. A cloth
tape is much improved when small brass wires are woven
lengthwise into it to check the tendency to stretch. Such
a tape is said to be a metallic tape. These tapes are made to
wind into a case of sheet metal or leather, and for this reason
are very convenient to carry about.
Steel Tapes. The steel tape is
now the standard measuring in-
strument, as it has many advan-
tages. It does not kink, stretch, or
wear so as to change its length.
The steel tape may be obtained in
lengths varying from 3 feet to 1000
feet. These tapes may be marked
or graduated in any form desired.
The two common methods of
marking the tape are by either
etching the surface with acid, or stamping the marks on
solder placed on the tape at the desired places. A tape




Fig:. 2. A metallic tape.
This tape has brass or cop-
per wires woven into it
lengthwise.



SURVEYING



21




Fig. 3. A steel tape wound on a reel.



100 feet long is usually termed the engineer's tape, and
either this length or the 50 foot tape is the most convenient.

The average width of
the steel tape is 5-16 of
an inch, and the thick-
ness about .02 of an inch.
Short tapes are arranged
to be carried in metal or
leather cases, but longer
tapes are carried either
on reels or are " thrown"
into a coil from which they can be unwound without danger
of kinking.

Arrows, or Marking Pins. For mark-
ing points temporarily while measuring with
a tape or chain, arrows, or marking pins,
are used. These are made of stout wire,
pointed at one end, with a large eye or ring
at the other. In order that the pins may
be easily found in the grass or leaves, a
piece of colored cloth should be tied to the
rings. Eleven pins are required for a com-
plete set, and are best carried on a ring
with a. spring catch.

Range Poles or Flagstaffs are used to
locate points in establishing a line. They are rods or poles
usually 6 to 10 feet long, made of wood or iron, pointed
so as to be easily planted in the ground, and painted red
and white alternately in foot sections.

Flagstaffs should be placed directly over the points they
are to mark, and great care should be used to plant them truly
vertical. Much skill may be attained by practice in estab-
lishing lines with flagstaffs, and this skill will be found very
useful in laying out fields, fences, etc.




Fig. 4. Arrows
or pins.



22 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

The Care and Use of Chains and Tapes. The chain is
folded by starting at the middle and folding in the two halves
at the same time. It is opened by holding the two handles
in one hand and throwing out the chain with the other.
The steel tape is wound on a reel or thrown into a coil, the lat-
ter method requiring some practice and skill to prevent kinks.
Chains and tapes are used in measuring
horizontal distances; and for this purpose they
should be held horizontal, or level, when meas-
uring, not parallel to the surface of the ground.
The chain or tape should be pulled taut enough
to overcome the shortening due to the sag.
Where distances are to be obtained with great
accuracy, the chain or tape should be tested
often over a known fixed distance to determine
the amount of pull necessary to bring it to
the true length. Chains in constant use re-
quire frequent adjustment for wear.

Each pin should be so placed that its thick-
ness will not be added to the length of the chain.
Care should be taken to set the pins vertical.
When chaining up or down slopes, one end of the
chain must be held high to make it level, when it
becomes necessary to transfer a point from the
elevated end vertically to the ground. This can
F; 5 best be done with a plumb-bob and string, and
A n ^ooden when this is not at hand a pin may be dropped
from the elevated end of the chain or tape and
the point where it strikes the ground noted.

In chaining practice, the man leading is called the head
chainman, and the other the rear chainman. In beginning
a measurement, the rear chainman marks the starting point
with one of the eleven pins in the set, and gives the remain-



SURVEYING 23

ing ten to the head chainman, who counts them. The head
chainman then leads away with the chain or tape toward the
point to which the distance is to be measured. When the
rear end of the extended tape is near the starting point, the
rear chainman calls "chain" or "tape," as signal for the head
chainman not to go too far. The chain is then stretched full
length, and the rear chainman lines the front chainman with
the objective point by motioning with his head or other-
wise indicating the direction he should move. When the
head chainman has the chain in line, the rear chainman calls
"'stick," indicating that he has the chain to the pin. The
head chainman then pulls the chain tight, and sets a pin,
calling "stuck." The rear chainman pulls the rear pin,
and both men move ahead and repeat the operation from
the second pin; and so on. When the head chainman has
placed his ten pins, he calls "tally," and waits for the rear
chainman to walk forward to him and give him the ten pins
he has collected.

Pacing. The ability to estimate distances accurately by
pacing is often useful. Skill may be developed by pacing
known distances until the length of the individual pace is
determined and can be regulated.

QUESTIONS

1. What instruments are needed in making a practical survey of a
tract of land where the boundaries are known?

2. Describe the Gunter's chain.

3. Recite the four tables used in measuring surfaces.

4. Describe the differences in tapes.

5. Describe the use of range poles. Of marking pins.

6. How is the chain cared for? The steel tape?

7. Describe the process of chaining.

8. In what way will the ability to estimate distances by pacing
be useful?



CHAPTER III



FIELD METHODS

Making Chain Surveys. For many practical purposes a
survey made with the tape or chain alone will be quite
satisfactory. To make such a survey for area, the land
is divided into rectangles or triangles, or both. The areas



Online LibraryJ. Brownlee (Jay Brownlee) DavidsonAgricultural engineering; a text book for students of secondary schools of agriculture, colleges offering a general course in the subject and the general reader, → online text (page 1 of 33)